Mindat Logo

Devil’s Den and Basin, Newbury, Massachusetts

Last Updated: 2nd May 2012

Devil’s Den and Basin, Newbury, Massachusetts


© 2012 Peter Cristofono, 16 Howard St., Salem MA 01970
Adapted from BMC News, vol 76, issue 5, May 2012


Modified 1872 Map of Newbury showing Devil’s Den (1) and Devil’s Basin (2)


Introduction

For more than two hundred years, the minerals from the metamorphosed impure magnesian limestone deposits at Devil’s Den and Devil’s Basin in Newbury have fascinated mineralogists and mineral collectors. Located just a few miles from the coastal town of Newburyport, the overgrown and abandoned quarries are so old that by the 19th century some had forgotten their origins, and they were sometimes mistaken for natural rock formations. Today these quarries are seldom visited by collectors. The Den is located in a densely wooded area with no clear trail to it, though it is apparent from graffiti on the quarry walls that local teenagers still frequent it, as they did centuries ago. The Devil’s Basin is in a forested wildlife management area and is little visited and hard to find; the many moss-covered rocks on the ledges and ancient dumps show it hasn’t been explored much in recent years.


Devil's Den, 1894 or earlier

Devil's Den, old postcard c.1906

Devil's Den, 1889
History

On crisp autumn days in the early 1800s, in the fields and orchards surrounding Newburyport, groups of adventurous boys would collect apples by knocking them down from trees with poles and filling their bags until they were chased away by angry farmers. They would sometimes escape to a favorite rocky hideout, a mysterious pit and cavern they called Devil’s Den. This secluded place, far from the village, appeared to be guarded by three ghostly poplar trees. To avoid antagonizing the forces of darkness they believed controlled this rocky outpost, a new boy would have to undergo an initiation rite before entering the Den. The rite would take place at a large solitary boulder called Devil’s Pulpit, located in a pasture several hundred feet south of the Den. In a solemn ceremony, the boy would climb to the top of the boulder and repeat certain words, said to be “not very reverent,” so as to be protected from the evil power which the Lord of the Den might unfurl. It was claimed that the Devil himself would preach from this rock at midnight, to his infernal crew gathered at its base. Even after properly initiated, a person wouldn't dare enter the Devil’s Den alone. This was because there was said to be "a name" carved in the ground near the entrance to the Den, past which no creature traveling alone would return alive. The boys’ imaginations were primed by having read German tales of sorcery, and so they shuddered as they recalled the “authentic traditions” of the Devil’s Den. (Felton, 1854; Lunt, 1873)

Inside the confines of the Devil’s Den, a treasure trove of intriguing stones could be found, notably gemmy green precious serpentine. Frequently interspersed with massive serpentine was silky, fibrous chrysotile. The Newburyport boys called this asbestos mineral “rag-stone” and they would chew it like gum. In an 1859 poem, John Greenleaf Whittier described it as “gray earth-flax.”

The origin of these quarries dates to 1697 when Ensign James Noyes (c.1657–1723) of Newburyport discovered “lime-stone” in Newbury (Sewall, 1697). This was a valuable discovery both for the economy of the town and for the colony. At the time, the only source of lime to make mortar for construction purposes was from oyster and clam shells. However, by the early 1700s, discoveries of better-quality deposits of limestone/meta-limestone in Rhode Island and Maine rendered the Newbury quarries obsolete, and they were eventually abandoned.

How these quarries were named is a mystery, but we can be sure that they were not named by the good townspeople of Newburyport in 1697. This was only five years after the infamous outbreak of witchcraft hysteria in nearby Salem. The pious people of the town could never have dreamed that their descendants would name the excavation after the “enemy on Earth” (Newhall, 1835). The town of Newbury, in fact, had been through its own occult scare in 1679–1680, when the home of the Morse family was said to have been repeatedly attacked by invisible stone-throwing demons (poltergeists), according to the Rev. Cotton Mather (1663–1728). The earliest published use of the name "Devil’s Den" seems to have been by “B.P.” (1819), but the name was no doubt coined before that. Currier (1896) says the “young and credulous” in the early part of the century had found traces of the Devil’s footprints in the rocks at the site, but long before these were found, “pleasure parties” had visited during the summers and entertained one another with eerie stories featuring the Prince of Darkness.

Parker Cleaveland

If some of the local kids were visiting Devil’s Den on a certain morning in the first week of June, 1811, they would have encountered the young scientist known today as the father of American mineralogy, Prof. Parker Cleaveland (1780–1858) of Bowdoin College. The professor had grown up in the Rowley–Newbury area and was visiting family at the time of his excursion. His half-brother, Rev. Dr. John P. Cleaveland (1799–1873), later recalled the day: “I well remember the forenoon of a warm day… when he made his first visit to the Devil’s Den in Newbury... It had been visited once before by a Professor from Harvard, and once by some Professor from foreign parts; but its riches were reserved for my brother’s eye. He returned to my father’s house with one or two candle-boxes filled; and my mother’s kitchen was at once turned into a laboratory, and the floor strewed with fragments of every variety which the den yielded... No miser ever worshipped his money as he did these specimens. Many of them which I helped him reduce and pack up that day have long had a place in French, German, and Russian Cabinets.” (Woods, 1859; Ewell, 1904)

Benjamin Franklin


Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) had in his possession a purse made of wood and a type of asbestos (which he claimed the locals called "salamander cotton") that Frondel (1988) believed most likely originated in Newbury. In 1724, at the age of 19, Franklin brought it with him to London and sold it Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1753), collector, scientist and founding father of the British Museum. This purse is still in the British Museum today. Frondel called the material “a silky type of tremolite asbestos” identical to that of Newbury asbestos. However, most reports have identified Devil’s Den asbestos as fibrous serpentine or chrysotile (Crosby 1880, 1888; McDaniel, 1884; Dana, 1892; Sears. 1905; Krumm & Teichman, 1958). If the purse is in fact made of tremolite then it probably does not contain Newbury asbestos.

Other asbestos deposits in Newbury have been mentioned in early reports. The editor of a Richmond, Virginia newspaper, identified only as “V.P.” by the National Register (1816) said that he remembers seeing several large pieces of asbestos in 1794 on Kent Island in the Parker River, with some filaments being nearly three inches in length. He was told at the time that there were large quantities of asbestos on the island. B.P. (1819) also says that asbestos occurs on Kent’s Island and on the banks of the Parker River as well.

According to Perkins (1864), incombustible bank notes were produced from paper made of asbestos by Jacob Perkins of Newburyport – a “novelty” that surprised his friends.

Later History of Devil’s Basin

In 1877, the Devil’s Basin quarry was owned by Richard S. Spofford (1833–1888), lawyer and husband of Harriet Prescott Spofford (1835–1921) of Newburyport, noted author and poet. The fireplace in their Deer Island home was made from green precious-serpentine-rich rock from the quarry, indicating that it was worked at least in this instance for architectural stone.


Devil's Den, 2009

Devil's Den, 2009

Devil's Basin, 2011


Minerals of Devil’s Den and Basin


The following is a list of species reported from these two localities, along with the authors and dates of the published reports. This list is largely historical; in many cases modern analyses are lacking.

Carbonates

Calcite CaCO3 was reported by McDaniel (1884), Essex Inst. (1885), Crosby (1888), Sears (1894, 1905), Boston Mineral Club (1949) and Krumm & Teichman (1958). The variety satin spar was reported by Hitchcock (1833, 1841) and Clapp & Ball (1909). Robinson (1825) referenced John W. Webster in noting that the “asbestos” of the locality had been mistaken for satin spar.
Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2 was reported by Coffin & Bartlett (1845), Perkins (1864), McDaniel (1884), Essex Inst. (1885), Crosby (1888), Sears (1905) and Krumm & Teichman (1958).
Siderite FeCO3 was reported by Nason (1876) as carbonate of iron; and by Crosby (1880), McDaniel (1884) and Dana (1892). Essex Inst. (1885) reported chalybite, a synonym for siderite.

Sulfides

Arsenopyrite FeAsS was listed by Dwight (1833) as arsenical iron pyrites occurring in Newbury along with marble, serpentine, etc. but it is unclear whether this is from Devil’s Den or Basin or from elsewhere in the town. Rocks & Minerals (1938) reported arsenopyrite from Devil’s Den.
Chalcopyrite CuFeS2 was reported by Clapp & Ball (1909) from Devil’s Basin.
Galena PbS was reported by Clapp & Ball (1909) from Devil’s Basin.
Pyrite FeS2 was reported by Cushing (1826), McDaniel (1884), Boston Mineral Club (1949) and Krumm & Teichman (1958). Small crystals were also found at Devil’s Den in the present study.
Pyrrhotite Fe1-xS (x = 0 to 0.17) was found as magnetic grains on specimens from Devil’s Den at the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, in the Florian Woitowicz (1921-2010) collection (Carl Francis, pers. comm., 2011).
Sphalerite (Zn,Fe)S was listed by Krumm & Teichman (1958).

Sulfates

Gypsum CaSO4 · 2H2O was listed by Boston Mineral Club (1949).

Oxides

Brucite var. "Nemalite" Mg(OH)2 was listed by Dana & Brush (1868) from “Newburyport,” and by the Essex Institute (1885). Brucite typically occurs as an alteration product of periclase (MgO) in marbles. These reports need modern verification.
Chromite Fe2+Cr3+2O4 was reported from Devil’s Basin by Sears (1894, 1905) as chromic iron. Sears believed the deposits were an altered peridotite rather than an altered magnesian limestone. However Clapp (1921) says the sedimentary origin of the deposits is “indubitable.”

Silicates

Diopside CaMgSi2O6 was reported by Clapp & Ball (1909), and diopside is present in specimens from the collection of Florian Woitowicz (1921-2010) acquired by the Harvard Mineralogical Museum.
Epidote {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH) was reported by Cleaveland (1816); by Robinson (1825) as “large crystals in fissures in ‘amorphous garnet’ ”; and by Hitchcock (1833), Dana (1844, 1854), Dana & Brush (1868), Dana (1892) and Boston Mineral Club (1949). No data were seen indicating whether the mineral species reported in these references is epidote or another member of the epidote group such as clinozoisite.
Garnet Group: (Grossular: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3 and Andradite Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3). Massive garnet is common at Devil’s Den but crystals are rare. Reports of massive garnet were made by Cleaveland (1816), Robinson (1825), Cushing (1826), Hitchcock (1833), Dana (1844, 1854), Essex Inst. (1858), Dana & Brush (1868), Balch (1869), Nason (1876), McDaniel (1884), Essex Inst. (1885), Sears (1894), and Clapp & Ball (1905, 1909). Clapp and Ball (1909) identified the massive brown garnet as andradite. Boston Mineral Club (1949) listed andradite, and Krumm & Teichman (1958) reported grossular under its old name, grossularite. Crystals collected by John Chipman in 2009 (see photo, this article) were analyzed (SEM-EDS, this study) and determined to be grossular.
Olivine (probably forsterite,Mg2SiO4) was seen in thin section by Sears (1905), as grains partially to completely altered to serpentine.
Opal var. “Hyalite” SiO2 · nH2O was found in 2011 as fluorescent coatings on specimens from Devil’s Basin (this study).
Quartz SiO2 was listed by Krumm & Teichman (1958) as occurring as casts after calcite.

Serpentine Group: Massive Serpentine includes Antigorite Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4 and Lizardite Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4. Serpentine is very common at both quarries. Massive serpentine, some of it gem-quality (precious or noble serpentine) was reported by Cleaveland (1816), Nuttall (1822), Vanuxem (1823), Philips (1823), Robinson (1825), Cushing (1826), Literary and Historical Society of Quebec (1829), Hitchcock (1833), Finch (1833), Dwight (1833), Newhall (1835), Feuchtwanger (1838), Trimmer (1841), Coffin & Bartlett (1845), Felton (1854), Hunt (1854), Essex Inst. (1858), Woods (1860), Perkins (1864), Barden (1864), Balch (1869), Nason (1876), McDaniel (1884), Whitney & Wadsworth (1884), Essex Inst. (1885), Crosby (1888), Dana (1892), Sears (1894, 1905), Ladd (1894), Clapp & Ball (1905, 1909), Clapp (1921), Bartsch (1941), Boston Mineral Club (1949), Krumm & Teichman (1958) and Sinkankas (1959).

Julien (1914) interprets chemical analyses of Newbury serpentine as showing antigorite with up to 22% deweylite etc. Deweylite is not considered a valid mineral, but is a mixture, primarily of lizardite and stevensite: (Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2. Deweylite was also listed by Hitchcock (1833).

Varietal names which have been used for serpentine from Newbury include picrolite: Sears (1894, 1905) and Boston Mineral Club (1949); picrosmine, marmolite and Baltimorite by Sears (1894, 1905); and retinalite (Essex Inst., 1885). Serpentine pseudomorphs after augite, hornblende, and olivine were seen in thin section by Sears (1894, 1905). Verde antique (a marble consisting of green serpentine with white carbonate minerals) was reported by Hitchcock (1833, 1841), Balch, (1869), McDaniel (1884), Ladd (1894), Sanford & Stone (1914) and Sinkankas (1959).

Barden (1864) exhibited an elegant vase made of serpentine by a Mr. Osgood of Newburyport.


Gem Serpentine

Chrysotile

"Picrolite"


Serpentine Group: Chrysotile Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4 ("asbestos; "amianthus"; "rag-stone"). Chrysotile is commonly seen at Devil’s Den. Reported by Belknap (1780) as asbestos, Morse (1792) as asbestos, Parish (1810) as asbestos, Cleaveland (1816) as asbestus [sic] and amianthus, V.P. (1816) as asbestos on Kent Island, B.P. (1819) as asbestus [sic], Nuttall (1822) as amianthus, Robinson (1825) as “amianthus and the common variety of asbestos,” Cushing (1826) as asbestos, Literary and Historical Society of Quebec (1829) as "serpentine variety amianthus", Hitchcock (1833) as amianthus, Dwight (1833) as amianthos [sic] and asbestos, Newhall (1835) as asbestos and amianthos [sic], Finch (1833) as asbestos, Coffin & Bartlett (1845) as asbestos and amianthus, Felton (1854) as rag-stone, Dana (1854) as chrysolite [sic], Essex Inst. (1858) as asbestos, Woods (1860) as asbestos and amianthus, Perkins (1864) as asbestos, Barden (1864) as "asbestos or amianthus", Dana & Brush (1868) as chrysotile, Balch (1869) as asbestos, Meader (1869) as “asbestos and amianthus, a variety of hornblende” Lund (1873) as asbestos, Nason (1876) as chrysolite [sic] and asbestos and amianthus, Crosby (1880, 1888) as chrysotile, McDaniel (1884) as “asbestiform serpentine, or chrysotile,” Essex Inst. (1885) as chrysolite [sic], Dana (1892) as chrysotile, Sears (1905) as chrysotile, Boston Mineral Club (1949) as chrysotile and Krumm & Teichman (1958) as chrysotile.

Sodalite Erroneously reported; Listed by Gleba (1978). The source of this report is not known; there may have been a mix-up with a specimen from Salem.
“Steatite” A massive variety of talc, Mg3(Si4O10)(OH)2. Listed by Perkins (1864). Doubtful.
Tremolite ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2. The white massive mineral with a bladed habit found at Devil’s Den was identified as tremolite until Wadsworth (1878) proved the mineral was actually wollastonite. Early reports of tremolite were provided by Cleaveland (1816), Robinson (1825), Cushing (1826), Comstock (1832), Hitchcock (1833), Coffin & Bartlett (1845), Essex Inst. (1858) and Balch (1869). Sears (1894) was the last to report it. Frondel (1988) called the asbestos at Devil’s Den “tremolite” but this is questionable. [See the entry for Serpentine Group: Chrysotile.] Tremolite remains unverified.
Vesuvianite (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10 was first reported by Crosby (1888) and later listed by Kunz (1890), Dana (1892) and Bartsch (1941). Sears (1894) at first doubted that the massive brown mineral studied by Crosby was vesuvianite believing it to be garnet, but later (1905) he accepted the identification. A massive brown mineral from Devil’s Basin found in the present study may be vesuvianite.
Wollastonite CaSiO3 was reported by Wadsworth (1878), Crosby (1880, 1888), McDaniel (1884), Essex Inst. (1885), Clapp & Ball (1905, 1909), Bartsch (1941), Boston Mineral Club (1949) and Krumm & Teichman (1958). Evans (1945) identified a white fibrous mineral from Devil’s Den as wollastonite via optical and X-ray methods. Gosse (1969) says wollastonite is occasionally cut and polished for collectors. The mineral is common in both quarries. ■


Grossular

Wollastonite

Serpentine in Marble


Conclusion

Devil's Den and Devil's Basin have somehow survived for centuries, their atmosphere of mystery remaining intact. Hidden in thick woods and underbrush, these two ancient quarries are in need of modern mineralogical investigation, as the list of species in this article is certainly not complete. At the same time, both sites are in need of protection (especially Devil's Den) so that they may be preserved for the benefit of future generations.


REFERENCES

– B. P. (1819) [full name not recorded]: An Essay on Asbestus (Journal of the Times, Baltimore, January 30, 1819; Originally in the Newburyport Herald).
– Balch, David (1869): List of Minerals Collected in Essex County, and Arranged in the County Collection of the Peabody Academy of Science (First Annual Report of the Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science).
– Baker, Emerson W. (2007): The Devil of Great Island: Witchcraft and Conflict in Early New England (NY: Palgrave Macmillan).
– Barden, S. (1864) [Field Meeting at Devil’s Den, September 16, 1864] (Proceedings of the Essex Institute, Vol. 3, p. 51.)
– Bartsch, Rudolf (1941): New England Notes (Rocks & Minerals 16:56).
– Beard, Robert (2008): Enter the Devil’s Den (Rock & Gem v. 38, no. 8).
– Belknap, Jeremy (1780): Letter to Ebenezer Hazard: Dover, August 28, 1780, in Belknap Papers (Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. II – Fifth Series, Boston, 1877).
– Blake, Euphemia Vale (1854): History of Newburyport.
– Boston Mineral Club (1949): The Newbury–Newburyport Field Trip (Boston Mineral Club newsletter, March 1949).
– Clapp, C. H. and W. G. Ball (1905): Geology of the Newbury Mining District (MIT Thesis).
– Clapp, C. H. and W. G. Ball (1909): The Lead-Silver Deposits at Newburyport, Massachusetts and Their Accompanying Contact-Zones (Economic Geology, 4(3):239–250).
– Clapp, Charles H. (1921): The Geology of the Igneous Rocks of Essex County, Mass. (USGS Bulletin 704).
– Cleaveland, Parker (1816): An Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy and Geology (Boston: Cummings and Hilliard), p.153.
– Coffin Joseph and Bartlett, Joseph. (1845): A sketch of the history of Newbury, Newburyport, and West Newbury from 1635 to 1845. (Boston: Samuel G. Drake).
– Comstock, John Lee (1832): An Introduction to Mineralogy.
– Crosby, William O. (1880): Contributions to the Geology of Eastern Massachusetts. (Occasional papers of the Boston Society of Natural History, Volume 3).
– Crosby, William O. and Greely, James T. (1888): Vesuvianite from Newbury, Mass. MIT Technology Quarterly, vol. 1, pp. 407–408.
– Currier, John J. (1896): “Ould Newbury”: Historical and Biographical Sketches (Boston: Damrell and Upham), pp. 421–423.
– Cushing, Caleb (1826): The History and Present State of the Town of Newburyport (Newburyport: E. W. Allen), p. 38.
– Dana, Edward S. (1892): A System of Mineralogy, 6th edition.
– Dana, James D. (1844): A System of Mineralogy, 2nd edition.
– Dana, James D. (1854): A System of Mineralogy, 4th edition.
– Dana, James D. and Brush, George J. (1868): A System of Mineralogy, 5th edition.
– Daniels, Elizabeth (1931): Devil’s Den (Rocks & Minerals 6:28).
– De Alcedo, Antonio; George Alexander Thompson, Aaron Arrowsmith (1812): The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies, p. 232.
– Dwight, Theodore (1833): Gazetteer of the United States of America (Hartford, Conn.: Edward Hopkins).
– Essex Institute (1858): Field meeting at Newburyport (Proceedings of the Essex Institute, Vol.1, p. 277).
– Essex Institute (1885): Report of the Annual Meeting Held Monday, May 18, 1885. [Description of field trip of Oct. 13, 1884].
– Evans, Howard T. (1945): Identification of Minerals (Boston Mineral Club newsletter, Feb. 1945).
– Ewell, John (1904): The Story of Byfield: A New England Parish (Boston: George E. Littlefield), p. 194.
– Felton, C. C. (1854) in A Report on the Proceedings on the Occasion of the Reception of the Sons of Newburyport, July 4, 1854 (Newburyport, MA: Moses H. Sargent).
– Feuchtwanger, Lewis (1838): A Treatise on Gems: In Reference to Their Practical and Scientific Value (NY: A. Hanford), p. 148.
–Finch, I. (1833): Travels in the United States of America and Canada (London: Longman et al.).
– Frondel, Clifford (1988): Benjamin Franklin’s purse and the early history of asbestos in the United States (Archives of Natural History, Vol. 15, pp. 281–287).
– Gosse, Ralph (1969): A Catalogue of Massachusetts Gemstones – Essex County (Part Two) (Rocks and Minerals 44:198).
- Hazard, Ebenezer (1788): Letter to Jeremy Belknap, May 10, 1788. (Collections of the Mass. Historical Society, vol. 3, 5th series, 1877)- A request for 3–4 lbs of “asbestos.”
– Hitchcock, Edward (1833): Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts.
– Hitchcock, Edward (1841): Final Report on the Geology of Massachusetts, Vol. 1.
– Hunt, T. S. (1854) On some of the crystalline limestones of North America [abstract] (American Journal of Science, 2nd series, vol. 53, Sept. 1854.).
– Julien, Alexis A. (1914) The Genesis of Antigorite and Talc (Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 24:23–38).
– Krumm, Jerry and Teichman, Chester (1958): [Field Trip Notice, Nov. 9, 1958] Chipman Mine and Devil’s Den (Boston Mineral Club newsletter, Nov. 1958).
– Kunz, George F. (1890): Gems and Precious Stones of North America.
– Ladd, George E. (1894): The building stone collection (Report of the Massachusetts Board of World’s Fair Managers).
– Literary and Historical Society of Quebec (1829): Catalogue of the Mineralogical Collection in Transactions of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, Vol. 1.
– Lunt, George (1873): Old New England Traits (Cambridge: Riverside Press), pp.15–16 (“rag-stone” = asbestos).
– McDaniel, B.F. (1884): Geology and Mineralogy of Newbury in Bulletin of the Essex Institute, volume XV.
– Meader, J. W. (1869): The Merrimack River (Boston: B.B. Russell).
– Morse, Jedidiah (1792): The American Geography, 2nd ed. (London: John Stockdale), p. 183.
– Nason, Elias (1876): A Gazetteer of Massachusetts. (Boston: B.B. Russell).
– Newhall, James Robinson (1835): The Essex Memorial for 1836 (Salem, MA: Henry Whipple).
– Nuttall, Thomas (1822): Observations and Geological Remarks on the Minerals of Paterson and the Valley of Sparta, in New Jersey (The New York Medical and Physical Journal, Vol. 1., p. 197.).
– Perkins, H. C. (1864) [Field Meeting at Devil’s Den, September 16, 1864] (Proceedings of the Essex Institute, Vol. 3, p. 51).
– Parish, Elijah (1810): A New System of Modern Geography (Newburyport, MA: Thomas & Whipple).
– Philips, William (1823): An Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy (London: 1823).
– Robinson, Samuel (1825). A Catalogue of American Minerals, With Their Localities, p. 63.
Rocks & Minerals (1938): 13:183.
– Sanford, Samuel and Stone, Ralph W. (1914): Useful Minerals of the United States (USGS Bulletin 585).
– Sears, John Henry (1894): Geological and Mineralogical Notes, No. 9 in Bulletin of the Essex Institute, volume XXVI.
– Sears, John Henry (1905): The Physical Geography, Geology, Mineralogy and Paleontology of Essex County.
– Sewall, Samuel (1697): Diary, vol. 1, p.458. in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. 5, 1878.
– Sinkankas, John (1959). Gemstones of North America, Vol. 1, p.544.
– Skinner, Catherine W.; Ross, Malcolm; and Frondel, Clifford (1988): Asbestos and Other Fibrous Materials (NY: Oxford University Press).
– Trimmer, Joshua (1841): Practical Geology and Mineralogy (London: John W. Parker).
– V.P. [initials only] (1816) Asbestos (Baltimore, MD: Niles Weekly Register, Vol. 10, p. 400; August 10, 1816) V.P. was the editor of a Richmond newspaper.
– Vanuxem, Lardner (1823): On the Marmolite of Mr. Nuttall (Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. 3, pp.129–135).
– Wadsworth, M. Edward (1878): On the So-Called Tremolite of Newbury, Mass. (Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 19:251).
– Whitney, J. D and Wadsworth M. E. (1884): The Azoic System and Its Proposed Subdivisions (Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Geological Series v.1).
– Whittier, John Greenleaf (1859): The Double-Headed Snake of Newbury” (Atlantic Monthly, March 1859).
– Woods, Leonard (1859): Address of the Life and Character of Parker Cleaveland, LL.D. (Portland: Brown & Thurston), p. 32.






Article has been viewed at least 13989 times.

Comments

Excellent article, Peter! Super job! Thank you!


Joe Mulvey
21st Apr 2012 2:43am
Well done Peter, first rate.

Ronald John Gyllenhammer
23rd Apr 2012 1:31am
Interesting - makes me want to pay both locations a visit!

Henry Minot
27th Apr 2012 2:40pm
This article is AWESOME!

Justin Zzyzx
2nd May 2012 4:42am

In order to leave comments to this article, you must be registered
Mineral and/or Locality  
Search Google  
Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
Current server date and time: November 27, 2014 14:29:20
Mineral and Locality Search
Mineral:
and/or Locality:
Options
Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
Hide Social Media Links
Slideshow frame delay seconds