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Goethite

Posted by David Von Bargen  
avatar Goethite
March 10, 2011 04:32PM
    
Click here to view Best Minerals G and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.


Can you help make this a better article? What good localities have we missed? Can you supply pictures of better specimens than those we show here? Can you give us more and better information about the specimens from these localities? Can you supply better geological or historical information on these localities?


Goethite
FeO(OH) Orthorhombic

Goethite, Pikes Peak, Teller Co., Colorado, USA 4cm© Jasun McAvoy


Goethite is found as an supergene oxidizing (weathering) product of many iron minerals. In the near surface, it was an important iron ore mineral developed over banded iron formations. It is found in sedimentary rocks as concretions and was mined from bog ore deposits. It is a component of limonite and is found in the weathered gossans of sulfide rich ore deposits and was used as a prospecting indicator.

Massive specimens of goethite are relatively common with a reniform, botyroidal or stalagtitic habit. These specimens are made of numerous acicular crystals and were found in Cornwall and the states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota in the USA. Individual crystals are rare, the best ones are found in pegmatites from Colorado. Goethite crystals also are found from many localities as crystals suitable for micromounting. or as inclusions in quartz. While the mineral is a yellow brown in color, iridescent coatings can result in aesthetic specimens. There are numerous good examples of goethite pseudomorphing other iron minerals, especially pyrite, marcasite and siderite.
[David Von Bargen 2011]

"Limonite" is nowadays just a general field term for earthy iron oxides, not a species name. So, although theoretically "limonites" could be composed of lepidocrocite, hematite, maghemite, various hydrous iron oxides or oxy-hydroxides, and even powdery jarosite-group species, they are most commonly composed of goethite, so it's fairly safe to label them that way, especially when the streak is yellow-brown, they show no magnetism, and they have been kept dry for a long time (after which the less stable hydrated oxides mostly alter into goethite anyway). I've had a lot of hard brown iron oxides x-rayed. Once in a while they turn out to be mainly hematite, like the christmas-tree shaped pseudos from Egypt, in spite of not having a very red streak, and once one locality turned out to be maghemite (I should have checked it with a magnet before wasting an XRD :( ) and another had a lot of jarosite in it. Never yet found a "limonite" that was lepidocrocite. Even if a sample turned out to be a goethite-bearing mixture, that wouldn't make a "goethite" label wrong.
[Alfredo Petrov 2011]

Goethite
Australia
South Australia, Olary, Kirkeeks Treasure Mine

Goethite, pseudomorphing pyrite, 3 cm© Keith Compton


Goethite
Australia
Tasmania, Dundas, Red Lead Mine

Botryoidal Goethite, 3 cm© R. Bottrill 2007


Goethite
Egypt
Matruh Governorate, Farafra Oasis

Goethite @ Marcasite @ fossil shell 4.6cm© Christian Bracke
Goethite @ Marcasite 5.1cm tall© Bracke

Goethite @ Marcasite 5cm wide© Bracke
Goethite @ Marcasite 4.1cm wide © Christian Bracke

Goethite @ Marcasite 5cm tall © Bracke
Goethite @ Marcasite 5.8cm wide © Weinrich


Goethite
France
Centre, Indre, Chaillac, Chaillac Mine

Goethite 7cm wide© Dan & Diana Weinrich Minerals
Goethite blades to 6mm© Peter Haas


Goethite
France
Midi-Pyrénées, Ariège, Vicdessos, Sem, Le Rancié Mine

Goethite 9cm tall © FERRACIN Frédéric



Goethite
Germany
Hesse, Odenwald, Bensheim, Roßbach, Link marble works

Goethite 9cm tall © MikeHaritos2005



Goethite
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Siegerland, Neunkirchen, Salchendorf, Pfannenberger Einigkeit Mine

Goethite 6.3cm tall © Rob Lavinsky



Goethite
Germany
Rhineland-Palatinate, Siegerland, Herdorf

Goethite 8.8cm tall© Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
Goethite 7.2cm tall© CCURTO2009


Goethite
Hungary
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co., Rudabányai Mts., Rudabánya

Goethite 3.5cm wide© Pécsi Tivadar 2006



Goethite
Hungary
Pest Co., Budai Mts., Budaörs, Frank Hill (Kakukk Hill)

Goethite @ Marcasite FOV 2.5cm wide© Szepi



Goethite
Ireland
Co. Wicklow, Blessington, Kilbride, Cloghleagh mine (Cloghlea mine)

Goethite 19cm wide© Stephen Moreton



Goethite
Italy
Piedmont, Torino Province, Canavese District, Léssolo, Cálea, Brosso Mine

Goethite 4cm wide© GiovanniFraccaro
Goethite FOV 2.2mm wide© Castagneri


Goethite
Italy
Tuscany, Livorno Province, Elba Island, Porto Azzurro, Cape Arco Mine

Goethite FOV 2.5cm wide?© Peter Rögner 2008



Goethite
Italy
Tuscany, Livorno Province, Elba Island, Porto Azzurro, Cape Bianco Mine

Goethite 7.5cm tall© 2008 Paolo Malesci



Goethite
Madagascar
Antsiranana Province, Diana Region, Ambanja District, Ampasindava Peninsula, Befitina, Rare Earths Prospect

Marcasite, thin section argillaceous laterite FOV 0.6mm© Wolfgang Hampel



Goethite
Mexico
Chihuahua, Mun. de Aquiles Serdán, Santa Eulalia District

Goethite 1.9cm wide© Dan & Diana Weinrich Minerals
@ gypsum© Lavinsky


Goethite
Mexico
Sonora, Mun. de Alamos, San Antonio

Goethite after Pyrite 11cm wide © 2003 John H. Betts



Goethite
Morocco
Meknès-Tafilalet Region, Er Rachidia Province, Taouz

Goethite forms the matrix for many secondary minerals from here.

Goethite ~8cm? © M.Youssef



Goethite
Morocco
Meknès-Tafilalet Region, Er Rachidia Province, Taouz, Four Man Mine

Goethite & Vanadinite 12cm © M.Youssef
Goethite FOV 3cm wide©


Goethite
Poland
Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie), Jawor District, Stanisławów

Goethite 8.5cm wide© G. van der Veldt
Goethite 8cm wide© G. van der Veldt


Goethite
Portugal
Castelo Branco District, Vila Velha de Rodão, Serra de Rodão, Tavila

Goethite 6cm wide© Martins da Pedra



Goethite
Portugal
Setúbal District, Grândola, Caveira Mine

Goethite 4cm wide© Martins da Pedra



Goethite
Portugal
Setúbal District, Grândola, Lousal Mine

Goethite 3.5cm wide© Martins da Pedra



Goethite
Portugal
Setúbal District, Santiago do Cacém, Cercal (Cercal do Alentejo), Serra da Mina

Goethite 10cm tall © Martins da Pedra
Goethite 5cm© Martins da Pedra
.
Goethite FOV15mm © Rui Nunes 2005
.
Goethite 14cm© Martins da Pedra


Goethite
Slovakia
Košice Region, Slovenské Rudohorie Mts

Goethite 4cm© Albert Russ



Goethite
Slovakia
Košice Region, Slovenské Rudohorie Mts, Rožňavské Bystré

Goethite FOV ~2.5cm© Albert Russ
Goethite FOV 3cm© Albert Russ


Goethite
Slovenia
Litija (Littai), Sitarjevec mine

Goethite 4.7cm tall© I. Dolinar



Goethite
Spain
Andalusia, Huelva, Alosno, La Lapilla Mine

Goethite 5.4cm tall© fabreminerals.com
Goethite 5.2cm tall© fabreminerals.com


Goethite
Spain
Andalusia, Huelva, Alosno, Tharsis, Filón Sur Mine

Goethite 7.4cm tall© fabreminerals.com
Goethite 10cm tall© fabreminerals.com


Goethite 6.7cm tall© fabreminerals.com
Goethite 5cm wide© Martins da Pedra



Goethite
Spain
Castile and Leon, Soria

Goethite after Pyrite 2.6cm wide© CCURTO2008



Goethite
Switzerland
Wallis (Valais), Lötschen valley, Blatten

Goethite @ Pyrrhotite 3.7cm© Christian Bracke



Goethite
UK
England, Bedfordshire, Leighton Buzzard, Munday's Hill Quarry

Goethite 7.6cm wide© Antonio Borrelli



Goethite
UK
England, Cornwall, St Austell District, Lostwithiel, Restormel Royal Iron Mine

Goethite on Quartz 4cm wide© Kristalle and Crys



Goethite
UK
England, Cornwall, St Just District, St Just, Kenidjack Valley, Wheal Drea

Goethite after Siderite FOV 1.7cm© Peter Haas



Goethite
UK
England, Leicestershire, Stanton under Bardon, New Cliffe Hill Quarry

Goethite xl spray ~3mm wide© C.Thomson 2008



Goethite
UK
Wales, Cardiff, Bwlch-y-cwm, Blaengwynlais Quarry

2cm Goethite @ Pyrite on Calcite© jones
Goethite after Pyrite© J.Ralph


Goethite
USA
Alaska, Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Borough, Prince of Wales Island, Copper Mountain

Goethite after Pyrite 5cm wide© DSW 2011



Goethite
USA
Arkansas, Polk Co., Shady, Coon Creek Mine

Goethite 8.5cm wide© Peter Hargis



Goethite
USA
Colorado, El Paso Co., Pikes Peak, Sentinel rock, Mona Mine

Goethite @ Siderite with Microcline 4.2cm wide© Michael Shaw
Goethite @ Siderite 9.7cm© Edwards Minerals


Goethite
USA
Colorado, Lake Co., Leadville District, Leadville

Goethite 8.8cm wide© Rob Lavinsky



Goethite
USA
Colorado, Park and Teller Cos., Crystal Peak area

Goethite 5.8cm tall© Rob Lavinsky
Goethite 17cm tall© Christian Bracke


Goethite 4cm wide© Rob Lavinsky
Goethite after Siderite? 5.5cm wide© Weinrich


Goethite & Quartz 7.3cm© Rob Lavinsky
Goethite 5.9cm tall© Rob Lavinsky


Goethite 5.9cm tall© Rob Lavinsky



Goethite
USA
Colorado, Park Co., Lake George, Clarence Coil claim

Goethite 5.2cm wide© Rob Lavinsky



Goethite
USA
Georgia, Lincoln Co., Graves Mountain

Goethite 4cm tall© Rob Lavinsky



Goethite
USA
Michigan, Dickinson Co., Menominee iron range, Aragon Mine

Goethite ~ 6cm wide©



Goethite
USA
Michigan, Iron Co.

Goethite 4.8cm tall© Dan & Diana Weinrich



Goethite
USA
Michigan, Iron Co., Menominee iron range, Stambaugh, Hiawatha Group, Hiawatha No. 1 Mine

Goethite & Calcite ~6cm tall©



Goethite
USA
Michigan, Marquette Co., Marquette iron range, Champion

Typical acicular crystals forming botyroidal masses in iron ore.

Goethite 2.9cm wide© Weinrich Minerals, Inc.



Goethite
USA
Michigan, Marquette Co., Marquette iron range, Humboldt Township, Bessie Mine

Goethite 10cm wide©



Goethite
USA
Michigan, Marquette Co., Marquette iron range, Morris-Lloyd, Lloyd Mine

Goethite 14cm wide



Goethite
USA
Michigan, Marquette Co., Marquette iron range, Negaunee, Negaunee Mine

Goethite 14.4cm wide© Rob Lavinsky



Goethite
USA
Michigan, Marquette Co., Marquette iron range, Palmer, Richmond Mine

Goethite 6cm wide© 2002 John H. Betts



Goethite
USA
Minnesota, St. Louis Co., Mesabi Range, Thunderbird Mine

Typical goethite vein.

Goethite 4cm wide© Charles Calkins



Goethite
USA
Nevada, Elko Co., Proctor District, Silverzone Pass, Radar Hill

Goethite after Pyrite 2cm wide© Darlymple
Goethite after Pyrite 4cm wide© Rockpick Legend Co.


Goethite
USA
New Mexico, Eddy Co., Guadalupe Mountains

Goethite after Pyrite 3.4cm wide© Rob Lavinsky



Goethite
USA
Ohio, Licking Co., Washington Township

Weathered concretion.

Goethite, "Indian paint pot" ~9cm wide



Goethite
USA
Utah, Garfield Co.

Moqui Balls (marbles) are goethite concretions.

Goethite 4cm wide© Rockpick Legend Co.
Goethite 4cm wide© Rockpick Legend Co.


Goethite 3cm wide© Rockpick Legend Co.
Goethite 2.5cm wide© Rockpick Legend Co.


Goethite
USA
Utah, Utah Co., Pelican Point Area

Goethite after Pyrite 4.8cm tall© Rob Lavinsky
Goethite after Pyrite 5.9cm wide© Rob Lavinsky


Goethite
USA
Wisconsin, Iron Co., Gogebic Range, Montreal Mine

Goethite ~17cm tall©




3/10/2011



Edited 21 time(s). Last edit at 02/05/2012 11:19AM by Ralph Bottrill.
avatar Re: Goethite
March 10, 2011 10:21PM
Dave,
I have been working on pseudomorphs and as you can imagine there are a lot of limonite and goethite images that have been uploaded to the image bank and actually I have used a few of the examples that you have shown above in those articles too. I have come to feel that many of the images are probably labeled hematite/goethite/limonite without anyone knowing what they are for sure. Most are probably limonite, that is a mixture of iron oxide minerals which include goethite and limonite. How confident are you that the images in your article here are really mostly pure goethite rather than limonite? Probably the Goethites from the Restormel mine, UK and the Crystal Peak area of Colorado and a couple of others? I often think what the uploaders or the dealers put on their labels and what gets passed on to the captions of our images is rather arbitrary with no grounding in real mineralogy. If you agree you might want to add in the introduction to the article a warning that many of these images may be limonite, a mixture of various iron oxide minerals and not real pure goethite. Perhaps in the captions of those that are know to be pure or nearly pure goethite, it could be emphasized that these are real goethite specimens/crystals. I plan to do this in the pseudomorph articles, at least to the best of my ability.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Re: Goethite
March 10, 2011 11:00PM
"Limonite" is nowadays just a general field term for earthy iron oxides, not a species name. So, although theoretically "limonites" could be composed of lepidocrocite, hematite, maghemite, various hydrous iron oxides or oxy-hydroxides, and even powdery jarosite-group species, they are most commonly composed of goethite, so it's fairly safe to label them that way, especially when the streak is yellow-brown, they show no magnetism, and they have been kept dry for a long time (after which the less stable hydrated oxides mostly alter into goethite anyway).

I've had a lot of hard brown iron oxides x-rayed. Once in a while they turn out to be mainly hematite, like the christmas-tree shaped pseudos from Egypt, in spite of not having a very red streak, and once one locality turned out to be maghemite (I should have checked it with a magnet before wasting an XRD :( ) and another had a lot of jarosite in it. Never yet found a "limonite" that was lepidocrocite. Even if a sample turned out to be a goethite-bearing mixture, that wouldn't make a "goethite" label wrong.
avatar Re: Goethite
March 11, 2011 01:42AM
    
[www.mindat.org]

Tordelrabano, Guadalajara, Castile-La Mancha, Spain
Re: Goethite
March 11, 2011 02:08AM
    
Here is another one to add: [www.mindat.org]
avatar Re: Goethite
March 12, 2011 09:43PM
Dave,
Ive tweaked the formatting some to bring the Goethite article in line with the other articles here in best Minerals and added Alfredo's comment to the introduction.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Goethite
April 04, 2011 01:53PM
    
A small quarry near Freisen, Saarland, produced fine acicular crystals to over 2 cm (commonly < 1 cm, though). They occur in miarolitic cavities of a melaphyr basalt that are lined with smoky quartz, often together with chabazite. An undisclosed locality in Morocco (usually just described as "High Atlas Mts.") produced similar material, but never with chabazite.

[www.mindat.org]
avatar Re: Goethite
April 05, 2011 10:51AM
Peter, Lets wait a bit and see if David wants to include them in the article at this time.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Goethite
April 05, 2011 01:10PM
    
Goethite was mined in NW Connecticut (Ore Hill in particular), western Massachusetts and adjacent New York state for almost 200 years. Many fine specimens are out there, but woefully few are pictured on mindat. I have several and will eventually photograph and post them, but it may be a few weeks...Also micro sprays of acicular golden-brown goethite crystals are known from East Haven, Connecticut. There are some photos up on the Cinque Quarry page: [www.mindat.org] and the High Street construction site: [www.mindat.org]
avatar Re: Goethite
April 05, 2011 01:31PM
    
I basically don't have any problems if people want to edit any of my Best mineral articles.
avatar Re: Goethite
April 05, 2011 08:41PM
Noted

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Re: Goethite
January 31, 2012 03:54AM
Interesting selection of specimens. I love the iron oxide minerals but
often find that sellers do not check their material even with simple streak
test to distinguish what is likely hematite from goethite. For that matter the
manganese oxides with their gray streak also come into play here. But then
as I think Alfredo points out it may take formal testing to be certain
regarding some specimens. There are also pieces that vary in
streak depending on what part of the rock you check.

Shifting topics here, does anyone know the explanation for the color bands in some
massive goethite specimens? It is common in the Great Lakes Iron Ranges of North
America. In the posted images under "Best Minerals" there are examples from Marquette Co,
Michigan and Wisconsin as well as the Minnesota specimen. Sometimes the
banding is very regular, almost like tree rings and assume the solution from which
crystals form must oscillate in composition. Has anyone seen fine banding in micro
xls of goethite such as occurs in some linear malachite xls?

Thanks for your thoughts,

George
avatar Re: Goethite
February 04, 2012 07:31AM
George,
You question about the cause of color banding in massive goethite specimens would probably draw more attention in one of the other forums rather than here in the Best Minerals section, but you may get lucky and someone will respond to with the information you want. I don't know the answer, but I would expect that the difference would be found in the variable mineralogy of fine grained iron minerals that undoubtedly comprise the bulk of these specimens. Perhaps some grad student has made a study of them.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
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