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Hastingsite-series

Posted by Olav Revheim  
Hastingsite-series
May 13, 2011 03:02PM
    
First Draft




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Can you help make this a better article? What good localities have we missed? Can you supply pictures of better specimens than those we show here? Can you give us more and better information about the specimens from these localities? Can you supply better geological or historical information on these localities?


The hastingsite series minerals are minerals in the amphibole group, see Amphibole Group main article for an overview of the group. The series contains the following minerals:

Chloro-potassichastingsite
K Ca2(Fe4Fe)(Si6Al2)O22Cl2

Fluoro-magnesiohastingsite
NaCa2(Mg4Fe)(Si6Al2)O22F2

Fluoro-potassichastingsite
KCa2(Fe4Fe)(Si6Al2)O22F2

Hastingsite
NaCa2(Fe4Fe)(Si6Al2)O22OH2

Magnesiohastingsite
NaCa2(Mg4Fe)(Si6Al2)O22OH2

Potassic-magnesiohastingsite
KCa2(Mg4Fe)(Si6Al2)O22OH2

Potassichastingsite - NOT IMA Approved
KCa2(Fe4Fe)(Si6Al2)O22OH2


Hastingsite 4,5cm© A. Michalsen


The Hastingsite-series minerals lies within the calcio-amphibole subgroup in the amphibole group. They are characterized within this subgroup by having to Al atoms in the T position and ferric iron rather than Al as trivalent ions in the C-positions. Identifying the Fe3+/Fe2+ is paramount for the identification of a hastingsite-series mineral, as the chemical composition is very near the pargasite series, the edenite series, the kaersutite series and other series.

All minerals in this series, except hastingsite and magnesiohastingsite is very rare, with 5 or less locations listed in the Mindat database. Hastingsite is relatively common, but is almost exclusively found with magnetite ore, most often in skarn rocks. The largest and best crystals seems to have come from Franklin Hill in the US.

Magnesiohastingsite is found in several different environments, ranging from skarns, volcanic rocks and alkali rocks, but the presence of ferric iron is necessary for this mineral to form. Again, Franklin Hill seems to have produced the best specimens, although it is difficult to assign an idenity to the older material with any confidence. The Langesundfjord, Norway crystal is also outstanding, as is the Italian micro's.

It is difficult to see how any hastingsite-series mineral specimen can be valuable enough in monetary value to justify a precise identification. As for many other amphibole group specimens the required analytical work is only carried out if the mineral occurs in association with an ore of economical importance or at a location with scientific value.


Hastingsite
Australia
Tasmania, Hampshire district, Kara Mines, Kara #1 Pit

Hastingsite 20mm © Andrew Tuma


The Kara #1 pit is run on magnetite and scheelite in a skarn rock. This rock was formed by Devonian granites intruding Ordovician limestones. There are four independant stages of skarn mineralization, where different mineral assemblages have formed at gradually lower temperatures and more hydrous environments. The amphiboles are one of the main minerals in the third stage, and shoud as such be relatively abundant.

Microprobe analyses indicate that the majority of the skarn minerals are calcic and have high Fe3+/Fe2+. The amphiboles are largely of hastingsite and magnesian hastingsite composition.

Litterature;
"Formation of Magnetite-Scheelite Skarn Mineralization at Kara, Northwestern Tasmania: Evidence from Mineral Chemistry and Stable Isotopes", KHIN ZAW AND BLACKWELL SINGOYI, Economic Geology
Vol. 95, 2000, pp. 1215-1230


Magnesiohastingsite
Italy
Latium, Viterbo Province, Onano, Montenero quarry

Magnesiohastingsite 0,8mm crystals © Enrico Bonacina


Magnesiohastingsite 1mm© AMI-Antonazzo Pasquale
Magnesiohastingsite FOV 1,5mm © Luigi Mattei


The Montenero quarry is operated to extract material for road gravel and mass for the agricultural industry from pyroclastic flows in the Vulsini Volcanic District. The eruptions took placer some 600,000 to 100,000 years ago.

Magnesiohastingsite has been found in cracks in lava boulders as perfectly developed mm sized crystal sprays together with K-feldspar and pyroxene. The magnesiohastingsite was identified by EDS at the University of Rome.

Litterature:

IGNIMBRITIC DEPOSITS IN CENTRAL ITALY: PYROCLASTIC PRODUCTS OF THE QUATERNARY AGE
AND ETRUSCAN FOOTPATHS, G. Nappi, L. Valentini, M. Mattioli, Field trip guide 2004.

Gita sociale e ricerca mineralogica sul terreno nella cava di Montenero Onano (VT), Edgardo Signoretti
Roberto Pucci, Pubblicazioni Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, 2007


Hastingsite
Italy
Tuscony, Livorno Province, Elba Island, Capoliveri, Cape Calamita Mine (Calamita Mine)

Hastingsite, 5,5 cm specimen© Dan Weinrich


Hastingsite is found in an iron rich skarn with magnetite pseudomorphs after hematite as the primary ore mineral. This location is one of many classic iron mines on the island of Elba. Iron ores from Elba Island have been mined without interruption for almost three millennia, since the early Etruscan mine workings (early 1st Millennium BC: Corretti and Benvenuti, 2001) up to about twenty years ago (1981, closure of the Ginevro mine). At least 60 million tons of Fe ore have been extracted from Elba deposits from ancient times to the present.

The Cape Calamita mine has probably been mined since Etruscan or Roman time, with industrial mining starting in the 1960-ties. From 1860 to 1920 an estimated 2mill tonnes of ore was extracted. The skarn at Cape Calamita occurs on the border between a granittic intrusion ( Mt Calamita fm) and carbonate rocks ( limestones and marbles, locally dolomittic). Both an andradite-skarn and a hedenbergite-ilvaite skarn has been mined here, and both beautiful garnet and ilvaite specimens are known.

Hastingsite has not received much attention from neither miners, petrologists or mineral collectors, and little information is available on it's appearance. Cape Calamita is nevertheless one of the most frequent sources for larger hastingsite specimens, either alone or with ilvaite.

Litterature: SKARN DEPOSITS IN SOUTHERNTUSCANY AND ELBA ISLAND (CENTRAL ITALY). M. Benvenuti, M. Boni, L. Meinert. Field trip guide book B18, 2004


Hastingsite
Japan
Honshu Island, Chugoku Region, Okayama Prefecture, Takahashi City, Sampo mine

Hastingsite 5 cm tall© 2008, JGW


The Sampo Mine is one of the typical contact metasomatic ore deposits of the Chuhgoku Province and was emplaced
at the contact of Paleozoic limestone and slate with Late Cretaceous granite( Matsueda,1973,1980). The skarns here are iron rich, and are worked for magnetite ore.

Hastingsite is found in the skarn body, and is confirmed in the Handbook of Mineralogy. I have not found any information on haw common hastingsite is at this locality and how good the specimens get.


Hastingsite
Norway
Vestfold, Larvik, Tvedalen, Saga Pearl quarry

Hastingsite 4,5cm© A. Michalsen


Hastingsite is one of the amphiboles found in the Larvik plutonic complex. Although care should be taken when atttributing a name to one of them, Larsen et.al. (2010) provides a "rule of thumb" on amphibole identifiocation based on local changes in geochemistry. The black amphiboles in the Tvedalen area and further west are normally ferro-edenite, whereas the amphibole in the Larvik/Tjølling area are hastingsites or magnesiohastingsite. Further east, towards Sandefjord, the black amphibole are normally magnesiokatophorite.

Hastingiste normally occurs as prismatic crystals with rough surfaces. It can occationally show well defined faces in vugs. Well developed crystals exceeding 5 cm in length are known.

Literature:

Alf olav Larsen (ed) (2010): The Langesundfjord, history, geology. pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag

Fluoro-magnesiohastingsite
Romania
Hunedoara Co., Simeria, Uroi Hill (Arany Hill)

Fluoro-magnesiohastingsite FOV 4mm © Vincent Bourgoin


The Uroi hill quarry is the type locality for fluoro-magnesiohastingsite. Where it occurs in small cavities of an altered hematite-rich xenolith in the quaternary ( 1,6 mill years old) trachyandesite. Associated minerals are: titaniferous hematite, augite, phlogopite, enstatite, feldspar, tridymite,titanite, fluorapatite, ilmenite and pseudobrookite.

Fluoro-magnesiohastingsite is found as reddish-brown to yellowish crystals up to 3mm long. The type material gave the following composition: (Na0.50K0.22Ca0.17)0.89Ca2.00(Mg4.03Fe3+0.70Al0.13Ti0.13)4.99(Si5.89Al2.11)8.00O22.00F2.00.

Litterature: Fluoro-magnesiohastingsite from Dealul Uroi(Hunedoara county, Romania): Mineral data and crystal structure of a new amphibole end-member, HANS-PETER BOJAR and FRANZ WALTER, Eur. J. Mineral.
2006, 18, 503-508.


Magnesiohastingsite
Slovakia
Bratislava Region, Bratislava Co., Bratislava, Staré Mesto, Kalvária

Magnesiohastingsite 7cm©


This location is pretty much downtown Bratislava, near the main railway station. I have not been able to find any information on this location.


Hastingsite
USA
New Jersey, Sussex Co., , Franklin Mining District, Ogdensburg, Sterling Hill , Sterling Mine

Hastingsite 5mm© Christopher O'Neill


A thorough description of this location is given in the very good Mindat article “The Mines of Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, New Jersey”, Daniel E Russel (Link to Sterling Hill article ), and also at the web page [franklin-sterlinghill.com] which gives and extensive presentation of the mining operations, the minerals and the history.

In many ways, the the history of the amphiboles was re-written upon the release of Leake’s “ Nomenclature of the amphiboles” was published in 1978. With the introduction of “the 50% rule” for every position in the amphibole molecule, the majority of the older quantitative chemical analysis was no longer sufficient to positively ID an amphibole. This was also the case for the amphiboles here.

Hastingsite was first identified in 1983 ( Reilly) as an alteration product of diopside. Dunn (1995) has done more work on the amphiboles and he is also trying to tie his work back to earlier (pre-Leake) work, but suffers in that the amphiboles have been little studied. It appears that most of the black-green amphibole associated with magnetite is hastingsite, and much of the black amphibole (as described by Kloos 1886) appears to be intermediate between the hastingste and magnesiohastingsite end members. This is of interest since some of these older crystals can be really large. The largest recorded being 18 x 6 in (almost 50 x 15 cm).

Previously, what now is believed to be (magnesio)hastingsite has been called hornblende, and also jeffersonite and gamsigradite have been used. Note that other amphiboles than hastingsite has been called hornblende, so that an old specimen labeled hornblende is not necessarily a hastingsite-series mineral.


Fluoro-potassichastingsite
USA
New York, Orange Co., Town of Tuxedo, Greenwood mine (Patterson mine)

Fluoro-potassichastingsite 14x10 cm © Jake Slagle


This location is an iron mine in magnetite ore southeast of Arden in Tuxedo in a hornblende gneiss host rock.
Fluoro-potassichastingsite, is found in compact aggregates of crystals up to 1 cm size on the waste-rock dump and is associated with magnetite, diopside, enstatite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and, rarely, phlogopite.
The published type analysis gave the following composition: (K0.59Na0.25) 0.84 (Ca1.87Na0.13) 2.00 (Fe2+2.60Mg1.56Fe3+0.53Al0.26 Mn0.03Ti0.01) 4.99 (Si6.36Al1.64) 8.00 O22.68 [F1.11(OH)0.73Cl0.16] 2.00

Litterature: "FLUORO-POTASSICHASTINGSITE FROM THE GREENWOOD MINE, ORANGE COUNTY, NEW YORK: A NEW END-MEMBER CALCIC AMPHIBOLE"
Marian V. Lupulescu1, , John Rakovan2, M. Darby Dyar3, George W. Robinson4 and John M. Hughes5
The Canadian Mineralogist; August 2009; v. 47; no. 4; p. 909-916



Magnesiohastingsite
USA
New York , Orange Co., Town of Warwick, Amity

Magnesiohastingsite FOV 5cm©


“The Town of Warwick, New York, covers approximately 104 sq. miles. Amity, along with Edenville, is among many unincorporated areas within the town. Amity is approximately 2 miles west of Edenville and these locality designations represent essentially the same area. Virtually all the minerals listed for the Amity – Edenville area are derived from the Franklin Marble. Amity is near the center of the marble outcrop belt but Edenville is actually east of it in country underlain by Paleozoic dolomites and slate
This area has attracted collectors since the early 19th century. Since the landscape is generally gentle and outcrops are small and scattered it was originally a “stone wall fence” locality. A few outcrops that yielded unusual mineral assemblages, such as vesuvianite or large spinels, were thoroughly excavated with gunpowder. In the present era the area is gradually suburbanizing and so exposures are occasionally available in the foundation excavations for the new McMansions.”
The above is quoted from the Mindat locality description.

The pictured specimen is in the collection of Arizona mineral museum and it’s identification is confirmed by rruff.org.

May 2011, Olav Revheim

Click here to view Best Minerals H , and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation for finished Best Minerals articles.



Edited 13 time(s). Last edit at 05/22/2011 04:07PM by Olav Revheim.
avatar Re: Hastingsite-series
May 14, 2011 09:27AM
Olav,
Thanks very much for working on this group of minerals. It is not a group that is very popular with collectors, but there are those of us that appreciate these little beasties. I did a few of the borates that I know a little about and we sort of have to rub their noses in these kinds of things a little to make them realize there is more to mineralogy than gem minerals and colorful copper oxide minerals. Although I think we would like to add more of those kinds of things to our collections, given the chance to get them reasonably.
Rock

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Re: Hastingsite-series
May 14, 2011 10:37AM
Hi Rock Currier, I agree with you totally, I have most of the minerals in the Amphibole and Pyroxene group, and I also have to explain to a lot of collectors that mineralogy in not only about colourfull specimens!

Spencer.
Re: Hastingsite-series
May 14, 2011 10:13PM
    
Rock & Spencer

Thanks for the encouragement and support.

It has been very educating for me to write these articles, and I really enjoy doing them.

Since the amphiboles are overshadowed by other more attractive minerals at almost every location. it is often hard to find out much on the quality and availability from the variuos locations, and I would appreciate some input every now and then.


thumbs up(:P)

Olav
avatar Re: Hastingsite-series
May 15, 2011 08:51PM
    
The large "hornblende" crystals from Stussdalen in Kragerø were sold as the "world`s best" magnesiohastingsites by Gunnar Färber in Denver last year. I have not seen any analysis confirming this ID and I am allways cautious about accepting the ID of specimens from this dealer, but if so, this occurence should have a prominent place in "best minerals" for the hastingsite-series.

Knut



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/15/2011 08:54PM by Knut Eldjarn.
avatar Re: Hastingsite-series
May 16, 2011 03:02AM
Olav,
I know how you feel. Sometimes it is like working in a vacuum, but then six months later someone will make a suggestion or chip in with some information that your feel rather dumb you didn't think about it your self, or about something that you didn't even know about and the article will get better.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Re: Hastingsite-series
May 16, 2011 07:00AM
    
Thanks Knut.

I am a bit reluctant to add this locality [www.mindat.org] to the article without further confirmation on the ID.

For all the amphibole group articles, I have tried to limit the entries to locations where I feel reasonably confident on the ID of the specimens based on litterature references, or at least state that I have been unable to confirm the ID. The hornblende article ( [www.mindat.org]) illustrates how I've tried to cope with the uncertainties in amphibole group species identifications.

For the time being, I think your post is a perfect placeholder for the Stussdalen locality, while we are awaiting further info. I will also add this information to the hornblende article.

Olav
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