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Millerite

Posted by Harjo Neutkens  
avatar Millerite
March 19, 2009 07:42AM
    
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Can you help make this a better article? What good localities have we missed? Can you supply pictures of better specimens than those we show here? Can you give us more and better information about the specimens from these localities? Can you supply better geological or historical information on these localities?


Millerite
NiS Trigonal

Millerite from the Thompson Mine, Canada, 2.7X6.3X1.5cm© Cindy Hasler www.canadianminerals.net


A nickel sulfide mineral (NiS) found in carbonate veins, or as an alteration product of other nickel minerals. Other occurrences are in meteorites and as a sublimation product on Vesuvius. Millerite forms pale brass-yellow crystals that belong to the hexagonal system.


Millerite
Australia
Western Australia, Goldfields-Esperance region, Agnew (Perseverance Deposit)


5.2x4.2cm© Rob Lavinsky
7x4cm© JF Carpentier 2007

One of the largest nickel sulfide deposits in the world with reserves of 45 million tons at 2.05% nickel.
We need someone to tell us about the specimens from this locality.


Millerite
Belgium
Limburg Province, Genk, Winterslag Mine


FOV 4,5cm© Nilis
FOV 0,3cm© Richard De Nul

In concretions found on the dumps of the coal mines of Winterslag very nice up to 5 cm long Millerite crystals have been found over the years. Winterslag mine is located close to the provincial town of Genk.


Millerite
Canada
Manitoba, Moab-Setting Lakes area, Thompson Mine (Thompson T-1 Mine; Thompson Open pit)


2.7X6.3X1.5cm© Cindy Hasler www.canadianminerals.net
7X4X1cm© Cindy Hasler canadianminerals.net

7X4.5X2cm© Cindy Hasler www.canadianminerals.net
9.2X3.4x4.3cm© Cindy Hasler www.canadianminerals.net

An open pit nickel mine owned by Inco, Ltd. Started about 1986. Located on the Thompson nickel belt. The acicular Millerite was all frozen in Calcite and etched out using hydrochloric acid (info Rob Woodside)
Can you tell us more about specimens from this locality?


Millerite
Canada
Ontario, Nipissing District, Phyllis Township, Copperfields Mine (Temagami Mine), Temagami Island, Lake Temagami (Timagami Lake; Tamagaming)

7x3,5cm© JF Carpentier
2,1x1,2cm© dalerocks

A copper mine in a sulfide ore body. Produced $34,000,000 Canadian in copper. The mine is now flooded and closed 1972. Owned by Copperfields Mining Co.


Millerite
Canada
Québec, Sherbrooke Co.,St-Denis-de-Brompton, Orford Nickel Mine


FOV 1,8cm© Tony Peterson
FOV 0,23cm© Scott Whittemore

Can you help us with information on specimens from this locality?


Millerite
Canada
Ontario, Sudbury District, Strathcona Mine


4,4x3,8x1,8cm© Rob Lavinsky
7x4,5cm© G. van der Veldt

A nickel mine located in Levack Township. The ore is in the Sudbury nickel irruptive, a giant polymetallic deposit (hosted within one of the Earth's largest impact craters with a diameter of 250 km). Workings are deeper than 3,000 feet (> 1,000 meters). Millerite usually occurs as massive veins. The most attractive specimens are those where the silvery Millerite vein runs through massive chunks of golden coloured Chalcopyrite.
Can anyone help us with information and photographs of specimens from this locality?


Millerite
Czech Republic
Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Central Bohemia Region, Kladno, Ronna Mine


4,9x2,6x2,5cm© Rob Lavinsky
FOV 0,6cm© 2006 M. Kampf

Coal mine.
Can anyone help us with information and photographs of specimens from this locality?


Millerite
France
Lorraine, Moselle, Lorraine coal basin, Forbach, Stiring-Wendel, Simon Mine


19x15x9cm© R. Lang 2009
FOV 2cm© R. Lang 2009

Millerite from the Saar-Lorraine coal basin

The occurrence of Millerite led to the the first scientific research on Saar coal basin minerals by STEININGER (1819). He describes hairlike crystals associated with siderite/ankerite ("Braunspath" ), pyrite and sphalerite. They were found in a newly opened coal mine in the "Friedrichsthal" in 1806". JORDAN (1854, cited by GUTHÖRL 1963) also reported Millerite formed in crevices of sphaerosiderite on siderite crystals. At that time Millerite was known from the Jägersfreude, Dudweiler, Sulzbach, Friedrichsthal and St. Ingbert mines. Also during railway construction Millerite was found. Probably the best specimens were recovered at the Brefeld mine. GUTHÖRL (1963) reports that he obtained Millerite specimens from that mine with needles up to 60 mm lenght from the Hoffman collection for the geological collection of the Saarbrücken mining academy in 1944. They were associated with Ankerite and Chalcopyrite. Unfortunately most of the samples were lost during a bombing in WW II. GROTH (1878) also describes Millerite from the Dechen and Dudweiler mines occurring in needles of more than 1 Zoll (inch) lenght.
The most common association of millerite in the Saar coal basin is with Siderite/Ankerite, Dolomite and Chalcopyrite. Specimens with other sulfide minerals like Galena or Sphalerite are more rare. According to GUTHÖRL Millerite was found in almost all mines of the region except Ensdorf/Griesborn, Viktoria and Velsen mines. As a result of the closure of almost all mines no more finds are to be expected. Around 1980 a few Millerite samples were found at the dumps of the Camphausen mine by the contributor (Roger Lang). They consisted of lustrous sprays of acicular Millerites in Siderite covered vugs in siltstone/shale. As most of the dumps are landscaped or covered today new finds are almost impossible.
The millerite occurrences of the french side of the coal basin were not described by GUTHÖRL. In the early 1980s some millerite specimens from Lorraine were offered at a local mineral show. One sample was acquired by the contributor. It was told to originate from the Simon/Wendel mine between Petite-Rosselle and Forbach near the german-french border. It is a large specimen with Siderite crystals covered partly by hairlike Millerite crystals up to approx. 3 cm lenght, accompanied by small Chalcopyrite crystals. Consequentially also the french part of the basin can be considered to have been an important source of millerite specimens in the region.
Millerite specimens from the Saar coal basin are preserved in the geological collection of the Saarland. The collection is based at Landsweiler-Reden at the former Reden mine site. It is a merge of the geological collection of the Saarland University with the inventory of the geological-mineralogical collection of the Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK, the successor of the collection of the mining academy (Bergingenieurschule Saarbrücken), later Geologische Sammlung der Saarbergwerke AG). The collection is not at display at the moment (April 2009). According to GUTHÖRL other specimens were kept at the departments of mineralogy at Berlin, Munich and Heidelberg universities.
[Roger Lang 2009]

Mineralogy, geology and mining history of the Saar-Lorraine coal basin

The coal of the Saar coal basin has been mined for a long time with a first reference from the 14th century. The coal seams are of carboniferous age and were formed in an intramontane through and they are of limnic origin (in contrary to the Ruhr coal which is paralic). The seams are hosted by conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones and shales of the Westphalian C and D to the Stephanian C. Their average thickness is approx. 1,7 to 1,8 m.
The area where the coal was mined extends from Faulquemont and Folschviller in the southwest via Merlebach (all in Lorraine, France), to the german side with the Warndt, Völklingen and Saarbrücken to Neunkirchen and Bexbach in the northeast. During the 19th century hundreds of shafts were working and at the end of the century larger mines were established like the sites of Camphausen, Brefeld und Maybach. Due to the technical development the extraction tonnage increased - only interrupted by World War I, the economy crisis in the 1930s and shortly after World War II - to reach a peak of 17.2 million tonnes in 1955. From 1957 the coal crisis - caused by the increasing use of oil and the cheaper imported coal - led to the close-down of numerous mines and to a consolidation of smaller sites to larger combined mines. In
1968 only 5 mines were left: Ensdorf, Warndt/Luisenthal, Göttelborn, Reden and Camphausen. The latter was closed as a discrete mine and consolidated with Reden and Göttelborn to form the "Verbundbergwerk Ost" (combined East mine) in 1995. This mine was equipped with the worldwide highest headframe - and closed in 2000. In 2005 mining at the Warndt/Luisenthal mine ended and after the closing of the privately owned small scale Fischbach mine end of 2008 only one active mine was left: the "Bergwerk Saar"(Saar mine) in Ensdorf which is operated by the Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK). Due to mining-induced seismicity resulting in earthquakes the extraction of the Saar mine had to be reduced in 2008 from 15.000 t per day to almost a third. The closure is determined for the year 2012. Over the centuries approx. 1.5 billion tonnes of coal have been extracted.
During active mining quite a lot of mineral specimens were recovered in the Saar coal basin. The sand- and siltstone host rock contains smallscale hydrothermal mineralization in clefts and small veinlets as well as the coal itself locally was mineralized by hydrothermal fluids. Similar to other coal basins also ironstone geodes - consisting of clayey siderite concrections - contained epigenetic mineralization in shrink crevices. The mineralization is quite uniform. Most common non-metallic minerals are carbonates like Siderite, Dolomite, Ankerite and Calcite, also Baryte and Quartz occurred. Sulphides are Pyrite, Marcasite, Sphalerite, Chalcopyrite, more rare Galena and Linnaeite. An overview of the minerals of the Saar region coal mines was given by WILLERT (1914, cited by GUTHÖRL 1963). Most specimens were not very spectacular and can be looked upon as locality specimens but the Millerite samples were outstanding.
[Roger Lang 2009]


Millerite
Germany
Lower Saxony, Harz, St Andreasberg District, St Andreasberg

8x7,6cm© Rob Lavinsky
10x7,4cm© Rob Lavinsky

Historical silver mining area, located around 25 km SE of Clausthal-Zellerfeld. Quartz-calcite veins, carrying a suite of lead-copper-silver-arsenic ores, hosted by diabase included devonian schists. Today, all the mines are closed.


Millerite
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Sauerland, Hagen, Donnerkuhle Quarry


Beautiful 5cm spray of Millerite on Calcite© Harjo

8x6cm© Harjo
FOV 1cm© Harjo

FOV 0,6cm Bravoite,Millerite© Harjo
FOV 0,6cm Linnaeite-Polydymite,Millerite© Harjo

FOV 12cm© Harjo
6x4cm© Harjo

Locality photo: 1

The Donnerkuhle quarry (operated by the Rheinkalk company, a subsidiary of the Lhoist consortium) is situated on the northern edge of the "Rheinisches Schiefergebirge" (Rhine Slate Mountains) in an area of Devonian Limestone (Massenkalk) . In the north-eastern part of the quarry a small zone of Schwarzschiefer (black slated Limestone) is situated in which discordant Calcite veins occur regularly. The Millerite is encountered in these discordant Calcite veins. Specimens have been found showing lath like Millerite crystals up to 10 cm in length (!) and cabinet specimens with lots of Millerite crystals ranging from 5 cm upwards were no rarity. Corkscrew Millerites, twisted Millerite crystals like the one linked in picture 2 above, were quite common, as well as Millerite needles with epitaxial Bravoite. Two finds of Millerite needles with epitaxial Linnaeite-Polydymite Series crystals are documented.
Due to a fatal accident in another quarry of the Rheinkalk group there is now a ban on on-site collecting.
[Harjo Neutkens 2009]


Millerite
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Sauerland, Meschede, Ramsbeck


4,6x4cm© KrauklMinerals
4,6x4cm© Peter Haas

Ancient lead and zinc mines located near the town of Ramsbeck delivered very nice Millerite.
We need someone to tell us about the specimens from this locality.


Millerite
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Ruhr Coal Mining area, Recklinghausen, Marl-Hüls, Auguste-Victoria Mine


Scale 1 Inch, rule 1cm©
3cm© Peter Haas

Locality photo: 1

Ancient coal mine located at Marl-Hüls, around 7 km NW of Recklinghausen. Millerite was found in crystals up to 4 cm in length on splendid specimens, these have made Auguste-Victoria famous. [Bode, Wittern, Mineralien und Fundstellen BDR 1989]
Millerite was encountered in many of the Coal Mines in the Ruhrgebiet (Ruhr area), often in very good specimens.


Millerite
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Ruhr Coal Mining area, Essen, Zollverein Mine


FOV 3cm© Peter Haas
0,7cm© jo-esche 2007

Coal Mine, closed in 1987. Many fine Millerite specimens were recovered from the mine during the time it was operated.
Millerite occurred in single crystals up to 10 cm in length as well as in star-like aggregates around Chalcopyrite crystals [Bode, Wittern, Mineralien und Fundstellen BDR 1989]


Millerite
Germany
Rhineland-Palatine, Siegerland, Wissen, Eichelhardt, Petersbach Mine


4.5cm© Roger Lang 2003
Scale 1 Inch, rule 1cm©

Located near Eichelhardt, about 7 km SSW of Wissen.
The iron and base metal ore deposit of the Petersbach mine belongs to the Siegerland-Wied siderite district. The mine was situated near the township of Eichelhardt approx. 7 km south of Wissen. First time mentioned in the 17th century, the early workings were on Pb and Ag ore. A significant period lasted 1780 to 1811 when mainly base metal ores were mined. Due to the exceptional suitability of the iron ore for the production of Spiegeleisen, a ferromanganese alloy containing up to 20 % manganese and small quantities of carbon and silicon, the mine was claimed again in 1823 (for "Stahlstein") and worked until 1890, when Spiegeleisen became more and more obsolete due to newly developed techniques in the production of iron and steel.
In the same year the mine was purchased by the Wissener Eisenhütten AG. At the turn of the century this company had to extended its ore basis and in 1901 a new shaft was sunk. During the 1930s the exhaustion of the ore reserves became more and more evident and finally in 1937 the mine was closed. Reaching a depth of 1025 m, the mine was one of the deepest ore mines in the Siegerland.
From 1780 to 1937 a total of 2.36 million tons of siderite ore, and from 1811 to 1937 4300 t of copper ore, 11540 t of Pb ore, 4830 t of Zinkblende (sphalerite) and 107 t of Ni ore were mined.
The mineralization is of hydrothermal vein type in devonian (meta-)sedimentary rocks (Upper to Lower Siegen) and consists of siderite veins with quartz gangue and base metal sulfide ores especially at the upper levels of the mine. Laspeyres describes "Antimonnickelglanz" (Ullmannite) and Millerite from the Petersbach mine in his 1893 article about Nickel mineral occurrences of the Rhineland and Westphalia region. The millerite finds were among the best of the Siegerland and crystals reached up to 8 cm lenght.
[Roger Lang 2009]


Millerite
Germany
Rhineland-Palatine, Siegerland, Wissen, Schönstein, Friedrich Mine


1,7x1,5 cm© Rob Lavinsky
2,1x1,2 cm© Rob Lavinsky

Info needed about specimens from this locality.


Millerite
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Siegerland, Neunkirchen


Scale 1 Inch, rule 1cm©
FOV 6cm©

We need someone to tell us about specimens from this locality.


Millerite
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Siegerland, Littfeld, Victoria Mine


Scale 1 Inch, rule 1cm©
5,9x4,9cm© Edward Minerals

4x3cm© Rob Lavinsky
6x4,5cm© Kristalle and Crys

Pb-Zn mine.
Mining started here in the 17th century, and was finally abandoned in 1927.
In 1909 Victoria Mine delivered the best Millerite crystals of the Siegerland. The shiny Millerites occurred in sprays and thick aggregates. [Bode, Wittern, Mineralien und Fundstellen BDR 1989]


Millerite
Germany
Rhineland -Palatine, Westerwald, Wied Iron Spar District


Scale 1 Inch, rule 1cm©
4,8x3cm© Rob Lavinsky

can someone help us with information about specimens from this locality?


Millerite
Germany
Bavaria, Franconia, Münchberg Metamorphic complex, Oberkotzau, Wurlitz, Hess quarry


FOV 3,5cm© K.Gerl
FOV 3,4cm© jo-esche 2010

A very beautiful as wel as interesting paragenesis is encountered in Wurlitz, Millerite together with Topazolite Garnet.
Many very nice specimens reside in German museums as well as in private collections.
The quarry lies in a Serpentinite body with inclusions of saussurite gabbro, worked intermittently since around 1880. The material was initially used as a gravel for railway construction, because its low contents of sodium, potassium and calcium are largely prohibiting any plant growth. Later on, it was used as a filling material for synthetic polymers.
Located west of Wurlitz and about 5 km ESE of Oberkotzau.


Millerite
Ireland
Co. Mayo, Sheeffry Mine (Tawnycrower Mine; Sheefry Mine; Sheffry Mine)


FOV 2,5cm© Dr Stephen Moreton
FOV 2cm© Dr Stephen Moreton

19th century trial for argentiferous galena. Consists of a series of small adits on a hillside.
Can anyone help us with information about specimens from this locality?


Millerite
Italy
Emilia-Romagna, Bologna Province, Gaggio Montano, Ca' dei Ladri (Silla)


FOV 0,3cm© Chinellato Matteo
FOV 0,7cm© Chinellato Matteo

Area in which occur cretaceous sedimentary rocks with hydrothermal veins that contain interesting minerals. The locality is not known for cabinet sized specimens but rather for outstanding micromounts.


Millerite
Italy
Emilia-Romagna, Bologna Province, Grizzana, Monte Acuto Ragazza

3,8x3,2cm© Rob Lavinsky
5,8x2,8cm© Rob Lavinsky

Outcrops of hydrothermalites. Info needed.


Millerite
Netherlands
Limburg, Brunssum, Hendrik-Emma dumps


FOV 1cm© Leon Hupperichs
FOV 0,5cm© Leon Hupperichs

Dumps of the two former coal mines Hendrik and Emma. Nice Millerite has been found on the dumps comparable to those found in the Ruhr coal mining region just across the border in Germany and the Genk coal mining region nearby in Belgium.


Millerite
Norway
Telemark, Kragerø, Valberg Quarry


8cm© Knut Eldjarn



A small find of excellent specimens with aggregates of millerite crystals to 3 cm was made in the Valberg quarry near the city of Kragerø in 1996 by Aslak Jensen. There is a large specimen on display at the Kongsberg mining museum and a few good specimens also exist in private collections in Norway.
[Knut Eldjarn 2009]


Millerite
Poland
Upper Silesia (Śląskie), Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Czerwionka-Leszczyny, Szczygłowice Mine


FOV 3cm© Elek Szełęg
FOV 2cm© Elek Szełęg

Dump of Szczygłowice Mine. Mineralization within sphaerosiderites (ankerite-dolomite series, barite, calcite-siderite series, marcasite, millerite, pyrite, quartz, sphalerite)
Can anyone help us with information about specimens from this locality?


Millerite
Russia
Russia, Urals Region, Middle Urals, Permskaya Oblast', Gornozavodskii area, Saranovskaya (Sarany) Village, Saranovskii Mine (Saranovskoe)

2,7x2,6cm© Rob Lavinsky
1,5cm spray© Igor Savin

Locality famous for splendid specimens of Uvarovite, Titanite and Amesite.


Millerite
South Africa
Limpopo Province, Mabilikewe Hill, Pafuri nickel deposit

9,6cm© Rob Lavinsky
6,7cm© Weinrich Minerals, Inc.

35 km NW of Pafuri, 0.8 km south of Limpopo River. Deposit has not been economically exploited - specimens from outcrops.


Millerite
Spain
Catalonia, Tarragona, Priorat, Bellmint del Priorat, Eugenia Mine


2.5x2.1x3.3cm© fabreminerals.com
7x5cm© I. Gaspar 09

Site photo: 1, 2

The village of Bellmunt del Priorat was the center of one of the most prolific lead mining areas in Catalonia between the end of the 19th century and the 1970s.
The Eugenia Mine was the most important Pb mine in the area: it consisted of more than 14 km of galleries up to 620 m deep distributed in 20 levels, reaching more than 300 m below the sea level. A metallurgical ore-processing complex was built around the mine during the first years of the 20th century. A modernist syle building built in 1905, called "Casa de les Mines", hosted the "Minas del Priorato, S.A." company headquarters, laboratories and offices until the mine was definitely closed in 1972.


Millerite
United Kingdom
Bridgend (Wales, Mid Glamorgan; Glamorgan), Wyndham, Wyndham Colliery

1cm spray© Ian Jones
FOV ?cm©

Opened by John Brogden and Sons in 1868, the ownership of Wyndham Colliery passed to Tondu and Ogmore Coal and Iron Co. by 1880 and then to North's Navigation Collieries in 1889. Finally, the pit was worked by Cory Bros. & Co. Ltd., who owned it until Nationalisation in 1947.
Wyndham, a producer of both House and Steam coal, employed 1,332 men by 1918. During 1957 the colliery was linked underground with the nearby Western Colliery.
Wyndham/Western closed in 1984. The tips have subsequently been landscaped or removed


Millerite
United Kingdom
Wales, Rhonda-Cynon-Taff (Mid Glamorgan; Glamorgan), Coed Ely, Coed-Ely Colliery


crystals 1,5cm© Ian Jones
FOV 3,5cm© Peter Haas

FOV 0,6cm© 2003 ROM
2,8x2,5cm© Maggie Wilson

Possibly the best known of the coalfield millerite locations, Coed Ely Colliery was opened in 1916 by The Welsh Navigation Steam Coal Co. Ltd. By 1938 there were 1,006 men employed.
Following reconstruction schemes in the 1950s & 60s, Coed Ely was linked underground and worked jointly with Cwm Colliery at Llantwit Fardre, over 5km to the east By the 1970's the collieries jointly produced 515,000 tons of steam coal a year with a workforce of 1,580 men.
Coed Ely Colliery closed in November 1986 and the site has since been landscaped.
Also other Collieries in the region provided nice Millerite specimens (for instance the Ferndale Pits)


Millerite
United Kingdom
Wales, Merthyr Tydfil (Mid Glamorgan; Glamorgan), Treharris, Deep Navigation Colliery


Spray 2,7cm© Ian Jones
Spray 4,5cm© ian jones

Originally named Harris's Navigation after the Harris Navigation Steam Coal Company's main shareholder (who also gave his name to the village of Treharris), shaft sinking began in 1873. At the time of their completion in 1878, the 760 yards deep south shaft was the deepest in the coalfield.
By 1896 the colliery was owned by Ocean Coal Co. Ltd and named Deep Navigation, at which time it employed 1,846 men and boys, rising to 2328 men at its peak in 1923.
For many years the the pit produced the best quality Welsh steam coal, during the 1980's average annual output reached 375,000 tons .
The Colliery produced high quality steam coal which was greatly in demand notably by Cunard Steamlines. Deep Navigation became the sole source of the coal used for the record-breaking "Blue Ribband" trans-Atlantic crossings of both the SS. Mauretania and the SS Lusitania.
Deep Navigation closed in 1991, the colliery buildings have been removed and the site extensively landscaped.
[Ian Jones 2009]


Millerite
United Kingdom
Wales, Rhondda-Cynon-Taff (Mid Glamorgan; Glamorgan), Tylorstown, Ferndale Pits (Blaenllechau Colliery)


Spray 2,5cm© Ian Jones
Spray 2cm© Ian Jones

Heavily overgrown dumps from Ferndale numbers 8 & 9 pits remaining. Sometimes referred to as Tylorstown tip or Llanwonno tip.
Historical note:
On Friday 8th of November 1867 the whole district of Ferndale was shaken by two consecutive explosions. 178 men and boys perished and a month had nearly past before all their remains had been recovered.
Just seventeen months later, on the 10th of June 1869, another explosion occurred at this fated colliery this time killing 53 men and boys.
Can you help us with more information about specimens from this locality?


Millerite
United Kingdom
Wales, Rhondda-Cynon-Taff (Mid Glamorgan; Glamorgan), Gelli, Gelli (Globe) Colliery


Spray 2x1,5cm© Ian Jones
Main crystal 1,5cm© Ian Jones

Originally sunk in 1870 by Thomas and Griffiths to reach the higher bituminous coal levels, further shafts were sunk to the steam coal levels in 1878. The mine was subsequently owned by Cory Brothers and Co, who held it until Nationalisation in 1947. By 1908 the workforce numbered 777 (steam coal pit) and 128 (house coal pit). The latter pit closed by 1945 and the steam coal pit in 1962. Large but very heavily overgrown tips still remain.


Millerite
United Kingdom
Wales, Caerphilly (Gwent, Monmouthshire), Markham, Markham Colliery


10 cm© J.Ralph
FOV 6cm©

Millerite from the south Wales Coalfield, United Kingdom

Coalfield millerite occurs as individual needles and sprays, typically 2-3mm generally within cavities in the ironstone, but also occasionally with the associated sandstone. Specimens over 10mm are considerably rarer, although individual crystals and radiating sprays to a maximum of about 50mm have been found.
When unaltered, millerite is a bright golden colour although many specimens show a degree of oxidation and are partly coated with, or altered to, a greenish-yellow mineral. Originally thought to be morenosite, work undertaken by The National Museum of Wales failed to confirm it's presence. Subsequent work by The University of Western Sydney has now confirmed the presence of nicklehexahydrite.
Well-terminated millerite crystals are extremely rare in the coalfield, as are those having abrupt directional changes. Curved crystals or those twisted into spirals (screw dislocations) are relatively common. Millerite has been found in direct association with all of the ironstone minerals with the exception of marcasite.
Millerite, the most well-known mineral from south-east Wales, was recorded from ironstones at Dowlais Ironworks in 1842 by W H Miller, sometime Professor of Mineralogy at Cambridge. Although previously known on the continent and named 'hair pyrites' or 'capillary pyrites', Miller added substantially to knowledge of the mineral and, in recognition, the name millerite was proposed by the German mineralogist Haidinger in 1845. Interestingly, the first record of Welsh millerite considerably predates Miller's description, a specimen of "hair pyrites" in a coalfield ironstone is illustrated in plate 287 (dated 1808), in Volume 3 of James Sowerby's famous series British Mineralogy.
Many older specimens in the National Museum of Wales and Natural History Museum (London) collections are labelled Merthyr Tydfil, although millerite is surprisingly rare in the area. Whilst millerite occurred here, the Spotted Vein at Dowlais was given as a location in 1861, it is probable that Merthyr, then the largest town in the area, is simply a generic locality for many early South Wales millerites occurring across the heads of the valleys from Ebbw Vale to Merthyr, and perhaps further afield.
[Ian Jones 2009]

Mineralogy, geology and mining history of the South Wales coalfield

The south Wales coalfield has a long history of mining for coal and for the associated ironstone, both were important to the overall development and economy of the area, the former until recent times. The coalfield has produced a comprehensive range of minerals. Most famous is millerite, which occurs in world class specimens, the type locality being Dowlais near Merthy Tydfil.
The coalfield runs across the counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan, Carmarthen and Pembroke forming, an elongated oval of carboniferous rocks extending from St Bride's Bay in the west to Pontypool in the east, a distance of some 90 miles. Its width varies from a maximum of about 16 miles across the main body of the coalfield in Glamorgan to about 4 miles in the much smaller detached part of the coalfield in Pembrokeshire.
Three types of coal occur: anthracite in the west, steam coal in the centre and north and bituminous coal around the southern and eastern rim. Although the coals grade together, they differ in terms of their volatile constituents and carbon content, the former increasing from anthracite to steam coal to bituminous coal, the latter decreasing. In total, 48% of the coalfield produced steam coal, 30% bituminous coal and 22% anthracite.
Many of the coalfield minerals, particularly the sulphides, occur in well-crystallised forms within cavities in ironstones found on the coaltips. Although widely distributed, it is possible to draw broad conclusions regarding their occurrence. Mineralisation in the ironstones, particularly sulphide mineralisation, is seen to be greatest in the centre and east of the coalfield where the most volatile-rich coals, the steam and bituminous coals occurred.
[Ian Jones 2009]


Millerite
United Kingdom
Cornwall, Callington District, Lezant, Greystones Quarry


Spray 1,9cm© Ian Jones



A modern operation worked for roadstone, Greystone Quarry is situated on the strike of a lode system worked by several small 19th C lead mines(Greystone silver lead mine, Wh Sophia, North Tamar). The quarry cuts the eastern end of the vein system worked by the latter mine.


Millerite
United Kingdom
England, Co. Durham, North Pennines, Teesdale, Middleton-in-Teesdale, Colberry Mines, Coldberry Gutter


Scale 1 Inch, rule 1cm©
Spray 1cm© HW

Coldberry Gutter is the large hush at head of Hudeshope Beck. Fluorite, quartz, galena and sphalerite mineralisation is similar to that occurring at the adjacent Coldberry Mines complex, with the addition of a suite of minerals including millerite, quartz, siderite, galena sphalerite and calcite that occur within a bed of clay ironstones nodules found in an exposure at the top of the hush.


Millerite
USA
Illinois, Hancock Co., Hamilton, Grays Quarry

2,5cm spray© C. Stefano '10
2,8cm spray© C. Stefano '10

Info needed.


Millerite
USA
Iowa, Keokuk Co., Ollie, Kaser Quarry


5.7x4.1cm© Rob Lavinsky
3x1,8x1,5cm© Rob Lavinsky

We need someone to tell us about the specimens from this locality.


Millerite
USA
Kentucky, Lincoln Co., Halls Gap, US 27 roadcut


4.6x3.9cm© Rob Lavinsky
4x2,5x2cm© 2004 John H. Betts

2,5x2,3cm© Rob Lavinsky
5,6x4,3cm© Rob Lavinsky

Locality photo: 1

Halls Gap is about 5 miles south of Stanford on US 27. This site is reopened as of 4/20/03 Hwy 27. Stanford is approx 30 miles west of I-75 at Mt. Vernon. Take Hwy 150 West to Stanford.
We need someone to tell us about the specimens from this locality.


Millerite
USA
Pennsylvania, Lancaster Co., Bart Township, Gap, Gap Mine (Gap Nickel Mine)


Scale 1 Inch, rule 1cm©
4,5x3cm© M.Heintzelman

An old nickel mine with millerite as the principal ore mineral. The Gap Nickel Mine was discovered in 1732, and was worked to some extent for copper, but was abandoned due to the small quantities present in the ore. In the early 1850's, it was discovered that the large ore vein contained a considerable quantity of nickel. Operated by the Gap Mining Co. until 1863, When Joseph Wharton, Founder of the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania, took over ownership and operation of the mine.


Millerite
USA
Wisconsin, Milwaukee Co., Milwaukee, Estabrook Park (Bertlett; North Milwaukee; Cementville; Lincoln Park; Capitol Drive; Washington Street Bridge; Humbolt Street Bridge)


Scale 1 Inch, rule 1cm©
4.4x3.1cm© Rob Lavinsky

Outcrops of dolostones and old quarries along Milwaukee River.
We need someone to tell us about the specimens from this locality.


Millerite
USA
Indiana, Monroe Co, Harrodsburg, SR 37 Roadcut


8x4,5x4,5cm© Chris Tucker
FOV 6,5cm© 2007 Peter Cristofono

Approx 109 km (67 miles) south of Indianapolis and 17 km (10.5 miles) north of Bedford. Just south of Monroe Lake / Harrodsburg exit, north of Bedford. On both sides of road. Geodes occur in the Harrodsburg Limestone, Middle Mississippian age strata.


Millerite
USA
Michigan, Huron Co., Pigeon, Wallace Stone Company Quarry (Wallace Quarry)


2,5x1,9x1,5cm© Rob Lavinsky
1,2x1cm© Rui Nunes 2006

Excellent article by Chris Stefano about collecting Millerite in Wallace quarry: [www.stefanominerals.com]


Millerite
USA
New York, Jefferson Co., Antwerp, Sterling Mine


Scale 1 Inch, rule 1cm©
Spray 5cm© C. Stefano '11



We need someone to tell us about specimens from this locality.


Millerite
USA
Nevada, Elko Co., Bootstrap District, Meikle Mine


Millerite 5cm wide© A&M
2.6x2.5x1.6cm© Rob Lavinsky

Millerite 7cm© A&M
Millerite 3,3cm© Eric Graff

Locality photos: 1, 2, 3, 4


Can you help us with information about specimens from this locality?

[Harjo Neutkens 2009]



Click here to view Best Minerals M, click here to view and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.



Edited 153 time(s). Last edit at 01/16/2012 08:54AM by Harjo Neutkens.
avatar Re: Millerite
March 22, 2009 08:38PM
    
Ian, I added the two localities in the article, as soon as you give me some info about specimens from these (or other Welsh) localities I'll copy the in the article.
btw, is the info on mindat pages with the Welsh Collieries from your hand, if so I'll write your name under it in the article, OK?
One more question; what would be the best Millerite loc from Cornwall, I think at least one Cornish locality should be in the article.
Thanks in advance!

Harjo
avatar Re: Millerite
April 01, 2009 05:12PM
    
Hi Harjo

Some info on the south wales coalfield and the millerite that occurs there. i've pulled this from something i'm developing, feel free to use anything you want.

for cornwall, much the best location that i have seen specimens from is greystone quarry.

The south Wales Coalfield

The south Wales coalfield has a long history of mining for coal and for the associated ironstone, both were important to the overall development and economy of the area, the former until recent times. The coalfield has produced a comprehensive range of minerals. Most famous is millerite, which occurs in world class specimens, the type locality being Dowlais near Merthy Tydfil.

The coalfield runs across the counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan, Carmarthen and Pembroke forming, an elongated oval of carboniferous rocks extending from St Bride's Bay in the west to Pontypool in the east, a distance of some 90 miles. Its width varies from a maximum of about 16 miles across the main body of the coalfield in Glamorgan to about 4 miles in the much smaller detached part of the coalfield in Pembrokeshire.

Three types of coal occur: anthracite in the west, steam coal in the centre and north and bituminous coal around the southern and eastern rim. Although the coals grade together, they differ in terms of their volatile constituents and carbon content, the former increasing from anthracite to steam coal to bituminous coal, the latter decreasing. In total, 48% of the coalfield produced steam coal, 30% bituminous coal and 22% anthracite.
Hi Harjo

Many of the coalfield minerals, particularly the sulphides, occur in well-crystallised forms within cavities in ironstones found on the coaltips. Although widely distributed, it is possible to draw broad conclusions regarding their occurrence. Mineralisation in the ironstones, particularly sulphide mineralisation, is seen to be greatest in the centre and east of the coalfield where the most volatile-rich coals, the steam and bituminous coals occurred.

Millerite, the most well-known mineral from south-east Wales, was recorded from ironstones at Dowlais Ironworks in 1842 by W H Miller, sometime Professor of Mineralogy at Cambridge. Although previously known on the continent and named 'hair pyrites' or 'capillary pyrites', Miller added substantially to knowledge of the mineral and, in recognition, the name millerite was proposed by the German mineralogist Haidinger in 1845. Interestingly, the first record of Welsh millerite considerably predates Miller's description, a specimen of "hair pyrites" in a coalfield ironstone is illustrated in plate 287 (dated 1808), in Volume 3 of James Sowerby's famous series British Mineralogy.

Many older specimens in the NMW and NHM collections are labelled Merthyr Tydfil, although millerite is surprisingly rare in the area. Whilst millerite occurred here, the Spotted Vein at Dowlais was given as a location in 1861, it is probable that Merthyr, then the largest town in the area, is simply a generic locality for many early South Wales millerites occurring across the heads of the valleys from Ebbw Vale to Merthyr, and perhaps further afield. We will want to use the full names of the above institutions because an international audience will be reading this (hopefully)

Coalfield millerite occurs as individual needles and sprays, typically 2-3mm generally within cavities in the ironstone, but also occasionally with the associated sandstone. Specimens over 10mm are considerably rarer, although individual crystals and radiating sprays to a maximum of about 50mm have been found.

When unaltered, millerite is a bright golden colour although many specimens show a degree of oxidation and are partly coated with, or altered to, a greenish-yellow mineral. Originally thought to be morenosite, work undertaken by The National Museum of Wales failed to confirm it's presence. Subsequent work by The University of Western Sydney has now confirmed the presence of nicklehexahydrite.

Well-terminated millerite crystals are extremely rare in the coalfield, as are those having abrupt directional changes. Curved crystals or those twisted into spirals (screw dislocations) are relatively common. Millerite has been found in direct association with all of the ironstone minerals with the exception of marcasite.

This is really good stuff. The description of the nature of the crystals and specimens should go first and then the historical information.

hope this helps
You bet!! Rock

cheers

ian



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 04/02/2009 02:09AM by Rock Currier.
Re: Millerite
April 03, 2009 12:56AM
    
Rock and all,

The nickel-copper mines at Thompson Manitoba have produced astounding millerite specimens. I collected a number of great ones there in the late 80's and then gave contact info to Rod Tyson who purchased a quantity. I've attached a picture of a specimen that is 13.0cm across.I can contribute info on this locality to a "best of" article. Just give me some direction?

The Orford locality did produce thick, interesting crystals of millerite in white calcite. There are not that many around.

Dave J.
Attachments:
open | download - xxxmillerite.JPG (77.6 KB)
avatar Re: Millerite
March 19, 2009 10:07AM
    
Hello,

Nice article.

Some of the classic occurrences are missing:

-Kladno coal mining district near Prague, Bohemia, Czech Republic
-Siegen, western Germany: In the Sieg area, where some siderite veins outcrop, mining activities took place since ancient times. The area provided the first ores for the German steel industry in the Ruhr area, only about 150 km away. In that area sulphides such as chalkopyrite, ullmannite, millerite and even rere species like hauchecornite haven been found in the siderite veins. A famous millerite location has been the Jakobskrone Mine near Achenbach, for example. Millerite there occurred in xls up to several cm in length, usually bundles of needles occur.

Regards,
Sebastian Möller
avatar Re: Millerite
March 19, 2009 10:44AM
    
Thanks for the info Seb!
I included one from Siegerland, Petersbach Mine.
Could you upload a photograph of a good specimen from Jakobskrone mine here on Mindat so I can add it to the page?
Same goes for Kladno, the photos here on Mindat don't really show of its splendour, do you have photographs that you can upload that show class specimens?
Thanks for you help!

Cheers

Harjo
avatar Re: Millerite
March 19, 2009 12:31PM
Harjo, I wish I could help you, but I have uploaded all the worthwhile millerite pictures that I have. I have thousands of pictures, but it is very far from the complete photo file that I would like. That is what we are trying to achieve here on mindat. If you think those localities have produced significant millerite, put the description in and beg for pictures. Don't worry about being a beggar, you will get used to it and sometimes it works.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Millerite
March 19, 2009 01:08PM
    
Hello,

Sorry, I do no have any pieces or photos from there. But if you need some literature, I can tell you some publications (in German).

Infos on Halls Gap and Keokuk, USA you can find at www.mcrocks.com in the field trip reports.

Regards,
Sebastian Möller
avatar Re: Millerite
March 19, 2009 01:16PM
    
The Meikle mine also produced some very good millerites (2002-2003)

[www.mindat.org]

Probably the best photo we have from the locality on mindat, but there were a lot better specimens available.

[www.greatbasinminerals.com]
avatar Re: Millerite
March 19, 2009 01:35PM
    
I'll put Meickle in David, thanks.
avatar Re: Millerite
March 19, 2009 02:16PM
    
Marbridge No. 2 Mine, Malartic District, Malartic Township, Abitibi Co., Québec, Canada
[www.mindat.org]

The ore for this mine was millerite. Cleavage fragments to 6 inches in diameter.
avatar Re: Millerite
March 19, 2009 04:59PM
Harjo, I think I may be able to get a better picture of the Meickle Mine millerite. Casey Jones is a friend of mine is the one who found the stuff in the mine, and to my knowledge dug it all. I think probably has a better image than what we have. Ill see if we can get a picture from him and get the real scoop on how much there was etc.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Millerite
March 19, 2009 06:51PM
    
Great!
Anonymous User
Re: Millerite
March 19, 2009 09:33PM
If I recall correctly, the Orford nickel mine produced some nice thick (for species) crystals to 1cm +.

The best material I've seen from Thompson (Manitoba) were plates in excess of 20 cm.

Philippe.
avatar Re: Millerite
March 20, 2009 11:02AM
Harjo,
Did you see the input from Philippe above. Now you need to go and find out about those millerite and probably include them in the article. I know it is sometimes irritating to be distracted from creating the content you are working on, but input like Philippe's is the life's blood of a project like this and it these kind of little pesterings that will produce a good strong article. I will frequently try and handle these kinds of requests like this.

Philippe,
I don't think Harjo or I know anything much about the millerites from the Oxford nickel mine. Can you tell us something more about the kind of millerite specimens they produced? When, How many, what the best one looked like? Do you know about a article about them? Any information you could spare will be helpfull.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Anonymous User
Re: Millerite
March 20, 2009 02:30PM
Here is the info I have for the Orford nickel mine:

"Yellow metallic millerite is found sparingly as striated elongated prisms and as fine-grained tiny patches in white cleavable calcite and in a garnet-calcite-diopside assemblage.Millerite crystals exceeding 7 cm in length have been reported." - Geological Survey of Canada miscellaneous report 46 (1992) by Ann P. Sabina
Also from this report: - deposit first explored for Cu in 1860 (green garnet mistaken for indication of Cu).
- 1% Ni was found in assayed ore.
- Records indicate work was done 1877, suspended 1882.
- Mine=two shafts. Houses, a store, powder-house, smelting furnace were built.
- These buildings no longer exist and the area is overgrown.

The locality is best known for its very nice diopside crystals sometimes covered with bright green chromian garnets (I think grossular).

Philippe.



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 03/20/2009 08:28PM by Philippe M. Belley.
avatar Re: Millerite
March 20, 2009 08:33PM
    
Sorry, I'm back now winking smiley

Phillip, could you get hold of a photo of a good Orford Nickel mine specimen?

Thanks for the input!

Harjo
Anonymous User
Re: Millerite
March 21, 2009 02:48PM
Hi Harjo,

Unfortunately I doubt being able to find a photo of a very good millerite but I will keep my eyes open for some nice pics or specimens. This photo could do: [www.mindat.org] .

Philippe.
avatar Re: Millerite
March 21, 2009 02:55PM
    
Thanks Philippe, I'll use this photo until a better one pops up.

Cheers

Harjo
avatar Re: Millerite
March 22, 2009 07:53PM
    
south wales millerite ought to refer to the coalfield as millerite is widespread, and then list 3-4 locations.

millerite from the sw coalfield is amongst the world's best. coed ely is probably the best known of the locations, but deep navigation and ferndale collieries have produced better!

will do something on this during the week.
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