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Pseudomorphs & Replacements C

Posted by Rock Currier  
avatar Pseudomorphs & Replacements C
June 01, 2011 07:13AM
Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements A & B. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements D to I. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements J to M. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements N to P. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements Quartz. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements R to Z. Click here to view Best Minerals P, click here to view and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.

Can you help make this a better article? What good localities have we missed? Can you supply pictures of better specimens than those we show here? Can you give us more and better information about the specimens from these localities? Can you supply better geological or historical information on these localities?





Cacoxenite after Strunzite
USA
North Carolina, Cleveland Co., Kings Mountain District, Foote Lithium Co. Mine (Foote Mine)

2mm spray of Cacoxenite after Strunzite© 2005 JBS



Calcioancylite-(Ce) after Remondite
Canada
Québec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Calcioancylite-(Ce) @ Remondite© 2001 John H. Betts



Calcite after Aragonite
Australia
Tasmania, Zeehan district, North Dundas, Renison Bell Mine

Calcite after Aragonite >30cm© A. Tuma
Calcite @ Aragonite 16cm© DSW


Calcite after Aragonite
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Sauerland, Arnsberg, Holzen, Calcite quarry

Calcite after Aragonite 4.7cm wide© KrauklMinerals



Calcite after Aragonite
Italy
Sicily, Agrigento Province

Calcite after Aragonite & Sulfur 13.7cm wide© Rob Lavinsky
Calcite after Aragonite & Sulfur ~7.5cm wide©

Calcite after Aragonite 11cm wide© G. van der Veldt



Calcite after Aragonite
Japan
Honshu Island, Chubu region, Gifu prefecture, Neo-mura, Nogohakusan (Nogo-Hakusan)

Calcite after Aragonite FOV 4cm wide©



Calcite after Aragonite
Namibia
Otjikoto (Oshikoto) Region, Tsumeb, Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine)

Calcite after Aragonite 7cm wide© Rob Lavinsky



Calcite after Aragonite
Russia
Far-Eastern Region, Primorskiy Kray, Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)

Calcite after Aragonite 20cm long.© Rob Lavinsky



Calcite after Aragonite
Slovakia
Banská Bystrica Region, Štiavnica Mts, Banská Štiavnica Mining District, Banská Štiavnica (Selmecbánya; Schemnitz), Banská Štiavnica Mines

Calcite after Aragonite 15cm wide© Laco Turecky



Calcite after Aragonite
USA
Colorado, Larimer Co.

Calcite after Aragonite 7cm wide© DSW 2011



Calcite after Aragonite
USA
Oklahoma, Ottawa Co., Tri-State District, Picher Field

Calcite after Aragonite 2.4cm wide© 2008 Peter Cristofono



Calcite after Barite
Hungary
Heves Co., Mátra Mts., Gyöngyösoroszi, Károlytáró

Calcite after Barite 5.5cm wide© Tamás Ungvári 2005
Calcite after Barite 5.9cm wide© Tamás Ungvári 2005


Calcite after Calcite on Quartz
Bulgaria
Plovdiv Oblast, Rhodope Mts, Laki (Luki), Djurkovo Complex, Droujba (Drujba) Mine

Calcite after Calcite on Quartz ~4.5cm© Christian Bracke



Calcite after Calcite
Mexico
Chihuahua, Mun. de Saucillo, Naica, Naica Mine

Calcite after Calcite 11cm wide© Geoffrey Krasnov



Calcite after Calcite?
Romania
Maramures Co., Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik), Cavnic Mine (Kapnikbánya)

Calcite after Calcite 15cm wide© Geoffrey Krasnov



Calcite after Fluorite
Australia
Tasmania, Zeehan district, North Dundas, Renison Bell Mine

Calcite after Fluorite 4cm wide© R. Bottrill



Calcite after Glauberite
Germany
Hesse, North Hesse, Werra Valley, Phillippsthal, Hattorf Potash Works

Calcite after Glauberite FOV 2.25cm© 2005 - MMI



Calcite after Glauberite
USA
Arizona, Yavapai Co., Camp Verde District

Calcite after Glauberite 4.9cm tall© Rob Lavinsky
Calcite after Glauberite 4.5cm wide© Rob Lavinsky


Calcite after Glauberite 3.8cm wide© Christian Bracke
Calcite after Glauberite 8.3cm wide© Karl Volkman


Calcite after Glauberite 8.7cm© Weinrich
Calcite after Glauberite 4cm wide© 2002 John H. Betts

This locality has produced thousands of these specimens and I think you can still collect all of them that you want to bother picking up. In an effort to increase the sale of these items, the are sometimes soaked in a solution of copper sulfate or other chemicals to give them color and enhance their sails appeal to tourists. The last two examples, the blue/green ones, have been died to enhance their sale to tourists and the beginning collector. There are none of this color that occur naturally at the locality. There are very many of these around and that is why they are included here.


Calcite after Glauberite
USA
New Jersey, Passaic Co., Paterson, Upper New Street Quarry (Burger's Quarry)

Calcite after Glauberite ~6cm wide© EAS 2008


Casts of Quartz after glauberite (diamond shaped cavities) and after anhydrite (rectangular caviler) are found almost every where in the basalts of the Watchung Mountains of New Jersey. Casts of calcite after these minerals are much less common than the quartz casts. Those like these that are predominately may have a quartz component that predates the calcite.


Calcite after Gypsum
Romania
Maramures Co., Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik)

Calcite after Gypsum 6.1cm wide© Steve Hardinger



Calcite after Halite
USA
Oklahoma, Major Co.

Calcite after Halite 2.4cm wide© Rob Lavinsky




Calcite after Ikaite specimens have in some literature been given the name glendonites and other names as well. This large group of worldwide Calcite pseudomorphs after Ikaite have been described under a variety of different individual names, as will as being assigned various parentage. Many were consolidated under the name "Pseudogaylussite"(Von Calker 1897). However E. S. Dana(1884) while studing similar Calcite pseudos from Nevada, believed the precursor would be a mineral yet to be discovered. That material was finally located in a Greenland Fjord(Pauly 1963). It proved to be a thermally unstable, Calcium carbonate hexahedrite. He named it Ikaite, after the fjord. As it was a massive mineral, it did not create much interest among pseudomorph collectors, except in Russia(Kaplin 1978). The first Ikaite crystals were found in drill cores, extracted of the Bransfield Strait, Antartica. At tenperatures above 4-5 degrees Celsius, the Ikaite separated into a "Mush" of tiny Calcite crystals and water. Suess(1982), on the basis of crystal shape and the alteration to Calcite, he declared Ikaite to be the missing precusor for this group of pseudomorphs. He refered to the pseudos as being "Glendonites", a term being used for specimens of this type from nearby Australia. Some specimens show up due to the breakup of old collections. Russian and Australian pseudomorphs are still found on-line.

The decomposition/dehydration of a single Ikaite form, results in a large reduction in crystal volume. Many pseudo have a hard outer shell, with a spongy interior. It takes several additional cycles of Calcite deposition, to create a more solid form. Many World Wide sites for this pseudomorph type are known. Most are only of scientific intrest.
[Kieth Harshbarger 2010]

Calcite after Ikaite
Australia
New South Wales, Durham Co., Hunter Valley

Calcite after Ikaite ~65cm long© crocoite.com


The Australian Calcite pseudomorphs after Ikaite were first studied by the American J. D. Dana. He was carried as the Geologist aboard the Wilks Expoidition(1838-42), which sailed around the Pacific Rim . While exploring the Hunter Valley, N.S.W., he was presented several strange solid, dark brown crystals, by Mrs Robert Scott, of Glendon. Dana(1849) later described them as pseudomorphs, but it was David (1905) who officially called them “Glendonites”. Over 30 sites in Australia, have reported the pseudo, as singles, intergrowths, and rarer rounded clusters. Some elongated singles reached 60 Cm long. Most are no longer accessible due to urbanization, housing, vineyards, even being included in Parks. Occasionally they can be found available on-line.
[Kieth Harshbarger 2011]


Calcite after Ikaite
Canada
Northwest Territories

Calcite after Ikaite ~4cm wide©



Calcite after Ikaite
Germany
Saxony-Anhalt, Sangerhausen

Calcite after Ikaite ~2cm tall© Jasun McAvoy
Calcite after Ikaite, largest ~2cm © Jasun McAvoy

It was from this local, that this type of pseudomorph was first noted. Friesleben(1827) found small 10-15 mm, gray to tan, crystals in a sinkhole, near a mine he was inspecting. At Obersdorf, North-East of Sangerhausen. They occurred as singles, to rounded Crystal clusters. Friesleben named them “Gerstenkorner” (Barlycorn) Pseudomorphs.
[Kieth Harshbarger 2011]


Calcite after Ikaite
Japan
Honshu Island, Chubu region, Nagano prefecture, Godo

Calcite after Ikaite ~8cm tall©


Single Calcite pseudomorphs after Ikaite are found at numerous sites in Japan, were they were often often condidered to be an archaeological artifacts. The pseudomorphs which often looked like the head of a stone tool reached sizes of 10-15 cm. They now carry the name “Gennou-ishi”(Hammerstone).


Calcite after Ikaite
Russia
Northern Region, Murmanskaja Oblast', Kola Peninsula, White Sea Coast, Olenitsa River

Calcite after Ikaite 6.5cm wide© Eric Graff
Calcite after Ikaite 10.1cm tall© Rob Lavinsky


Calcite after Ikaite 2.5cm wide© 2001 John H. Betts
Calcite after Ikaite 1.75cm wide© Wright's Rock Shop


Calcite after Ikaite 3.4cm wide© jnemitz
Calcite after Ikaite 3cm© Russell G. Rizzo

Of all the many Russian locals Olenitsa has been the most prolific commercial site. Litterally thousands of small solid, redish-brown, clusters, were extracted from beds and tital muds, at the mouth of the Olenitsa River, as it flows off the Kola Peminsula, into the White Sea. Nice elongated, tapering, crystal clusters to 15 Cms, were often left partially embedded in the gray clay, to create quite dramatic specimens. A baseball bat shaped single crystal to 25 Cms was noted. Fishermen had long been encountering the pseudomorphs, in their nets, when dredging the Sea floor. The finding of two intergrowen crystals, looking like a Cross, was considered to bring very good luck. The pseudo have often been called “White Sea Hornlets”.
[Kieth Harshbarger 2011]


Calcite after Ikaite
UK
England, Tyne & Wear, Jarrow Slake

Calcite after Ikaite ~4.5cm wide©


Another old local was located while dredging the bottom of the Tyne Slake, a large Bay on the Tyne River, to allow oceangoing ships , access to the nearby Coal from Newcastle. The light tan, almost sandy, pseudomorphs , were found as singles, and groups up to about 4 cms. They were studied by Browell(1861) who named them “Jarrowites” after the nearby Jarrow Docks.


Calcite after Ikaite
USA
Alaska, North Slope Borough, Carter Creek

Calcite after Ikaite 6cm tall© Collectors Edge


This remote Alaskan local was found, on a side gully, three miles up Carter Creek, which flows North into Camden Bay, on the Arctic Coast. The distinctive white, bladed clusters, weather out of siltstone outcrops at the head of the cut. During early summer, they were collected, as float, from a “Awfully soupy Mess”, along the floor of the gully. Many of the mud wrapped groups were badly corroded, but sharp clusters to about 18 cm and very rare singles to 22 cm have been found.
[Kieth Harshbarger 2011]



Calcite after Ikaite
USA
Washington, Grays Harbor Co.

Calcite after Ikaite ~25cm wide©
Calcite after Ikaite ~40cm wide© Leo Scarpelli


Calcite after Laumontite?
UK
England, Leicestershire, Croft, Croft Quarry

Calcite after Laumontite to 4cm tall© Christine Rust



Calcite after Siderite
Canada
Québec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Calcite after Siderite ~6cm+ tall



Calcite after water? & Fluorite
USA
Illinois, Hardin Co., Illinois - Kentucky Fluorspar District, Cave-in-Rock Sub-District, Spar Mountain, Hastie's Quarry

Calcite after water & Fluorite FOV ~6mm© Alan Goldstein


It has been proposed that these balls of calcite were formed after water drops. Click on the image and read more about this.



Calderónite after?
USA
Nevada, Humboldt Co., Iron Point District, Valmy, Silver Coin Mine

Calderónite after ? FOV 3mm© Stephan Wolfsried



Cancrinite after Natrolite
Canada
Québec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Cancrinite @ Natrolite w Rhodochrosite 4cm© Lavinsky



Carminite after Bayldonite on Segnitite
UK
England, Cornwall, Mount's Bay District, St Hilary, Penberthy Croft Mine (Wheal Fancy)

1mm Balls of Carminite @ Bayldonite on Segnitite© Rust



Carminite after Duftite on Beudantite
Germany
Baden-Württemberg, Black Forest, Wolfach, Oberwolfach, Rankach valley, Clara Mine

Carminite @ Duftite on Beudantite FOV 6mm© Wolfsried



Caryopilite after Galena?
Sweden
Värmland, Filipstad, Persberg district, Pajsberg, Harstigen Mine

Caryopilite after Galena?© Kjell Gatedal



Cassiterite after Orthoclase
Australia
Tasmania, Rossarden district, Rex Hill mine

Cassiterite @ Orthoclase 3cm wide© Weinrich



Cassiterite after Orthoclase
UK
England, Cornwall, St Agnes District, St Agnes, Wheal Coates

Cassiterite after Orthoclase ~7cm wide©
Cassiterite after Orthoclase 3.4cm© Paul De Bondt


Cassiterite after Orthoclase ~4cm wide©
Calcite after Orthoclase 1.97cm tall© Jasun McAvoy


Cassiterite after Orthoclase© 2007 Peter Cristofono


These are considered to be classics and have been around for a long time. They are still available from time to time but are no longer common.



Catapleiite after Eudialite & Serandite
Canada
Québec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Catapleiite after Eudialyte with Serandite 2.4cm wide



Catapleiite after Eudialyite? and Franconite
Canada
Québec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Catapleiite @ Eudialyite? w Franconite FOV~2.5cm tall



Catapleiite after Petarasite
Canada
Québec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Catapleiite after Petarasite 6cm© JZL



Catapleiite after Sodalite with Serandite & mangan-neptunite
Canada
Québec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Catapleiite @ Sodalite w Serandite & neptunite 2.3cm© Tony Peterson



Cerussite after Anglesite
Australia
New South Wales, Yancowinna Co., Broken Hill, Block 14 Opencut

Cerussite after Anglesite 8.5cm wide© Greg Murray



Cerussite after Anglesite
Australia
New South Wales, Yancowinna Co., Broken Hill, Kintore Opencut

Cerussite after Anglesite ~9cm wide© Greg Murray



Cerussite after Anglesite
Mexico
Chihuahua, Mun. de Ahumada, Los Lamentos Mts (Sierra de Los Lamentos)

Cerussite after Anglesite~10cm wide©



Cerussite after Phosgenite
Italy
Sardinia, Carbonia-Iglesias Province, Iglesias, Monteponi Mine

Cerussite after Phosgenite ~6cm tall©


These are pretty rare creatures. I have never seen a good one for sale.



Cerussite & Willemite after Descloizite
Iran
Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province), Anarak District, Chah Milleh (Chah-Mileh; Tchah-Mille), Chah Milleh Mine (Chah Mileh Mine; Tchah-Mille Mine)

Cerussite & Willemite after Descloizite 7cm© 2001 John H. Betts



Cervantite after ?
Germany
Baden-Württemberg, Black Forest, Wolfach, Oberwolfach, Rankach valley, Clara Mine

Cervantite after ? FOV 4mm wide© Stephan Wolfsried



Cervantite after Stibnite
Mexico
San Luis Potosí

Cervantite after Stibnite 5.5cm© 2007 Peter Cristofono


There are a number of localities that produce these kinds of pseudomorphs. Often you will see them labeled Stibiconite after Stibnite. Most of these are probably mixtures of more than one mineral after Stibnite. Sometimes they are very sharp and well formed.



Chalcoalumite after Devilline
UK
Wales, Gwynedd (Merionethshire), Dolgellau Gold Belt, Bontddu, Vigra Mine, Trial level

Chalcoalumite after Devilline FOV 8mm wide© Steve Rust



Chalcocite after Covellite
USA
Montana, Silver Bow Co., Butte District, Butte, East Colusa Mine

Chalcocite after Covellite ~17cm wide©



Chalcocite after Covellite
USA
Montana, Silver Bow Co., Butte District (Summit Valley District)

Chalcocite@Covellite 8cm© Lavinsky
Chalcocite @ Covellite 11.5cm© Rob Lavinsky


Chalcocite after wood
USA
New Mexico, Sandoval Co., San Pablo, Nacimiento Mine

Chalcocite after wood ~7.5cm wide



Chalcocite after wood
USA
New Mexico, Torrance Co., Scholle, Abo Mine

Chalcocite after Wood ~4cm wide©



Chalcocite after wood
USA
Texas, Clay Co.

Chalcocite after wood ~8cm wide©



Chalcopyrite after Betekhtinite
Kazakhstan
Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast'), Dzhezkazgan (Zhezqazghan), Dzhezkazgan Mine (Zhezqazghan Mine)

Chalcopyrite @ Betekhtinite 18.5cm wide© Carpentier



Chalcopyrite after Chalcocite
UK
England, Warwickshire, Nuneaton, Judkins Quarry

Chalcopyrite @ Chalcocite FOV 3.4cm© Peter Haas



Charoite after Frankamenite?
Russia
Eastern-Siberian Region, Saha Republic (Sakha Republic; Yakutia), Aldan Shield, Chara and Tokko Rivers Confluence, Murunskii Massif, Sirenevyi Kamen' Deposit, Vostochnyi (Eastern) area

Charoite @ Frankamenite? 8cm© Pavel M. Kartashov



Chlorite after Axinite
UK
England, Devon, Okehampton area (Northern Dartmoor), Meldon Aplite Quarry

Chlorite after Axinite ~11cm wide© Steve Rust



Chlorite after Garnet with Stilbite
Sweden
Lappland, Gällivare, Malmberget

Chlorite after Garnet with Stilbite 7cm wide© ØT



Chlorite after Garnet
USA
Michigan, Marquette Co., Marquette iron range, Michigamme

Chlorite after Garnet 5.9cm wide© Rob Lavinsky
Chlorite after Garnet 3.9cm wide© Rob Lavinsky


Chlorite after Garnet 4.5cm wide© 2002 John H. Betts
Chlorite after Garnet 6.1cm wide© Eric Graff


chlorite after garnet 2cm wide©
Chlorite after Garnet 3.5cm wide© Rob Lavinsky

From time to time collectors have collected hundreds if not thousands of these crystals at this locality.



Chlorite after Magnetite
Austria
Tyrol, North Tyrol, Ziller valley

Chlorite after Magnetite 2.5cm wide© DSW 2011



Chlorite after Magnetite
USA
New Hampshire, Grafton Co., Sugar Hill, Ore Hill

5mm Chlorite after Magnetite© 2008 Peter Cristofono



Chlorite after Phillipsite
Germany
Hesse, Odenwald, Reinheim, Roßdorf, Roßberg Quarry

Chlorite after Phillipsite 5cm wide© Volker Betz




There are many different minerals that Chrysocolla replaces as you can see from the varieties of these pseudomorphs presented below.

Chrysocolla after Anglesite
USA
Arizona, Graham Co. Aravaipa District, Santa Teresa Mts, Klondyke, Grand Reef Mountain, Laurel Canyon, Grand Reef Mine (Aravaipa Mine; Lead Jewel; Joe Rubal Mine; Vivian Mine; Calistoga Mining & Development Co. Mine; Bringham Silver and Lead Mine)

Chrysocolla after Anglesite FOV ~3mm© WWB



Chrysocolla after Aurichalcite
USA
Arizona, Gila Co., Dripping Spring Mts, Banner District, Hayden area, Chilito, 79 Mine (79th Mine; Seventy-Nine Mine; Seventy-Nine property; McHur prospect)

Chrysocolla @ Aurichalcite FOV 4mm© Bruce J. Murphy



Chrysocolla after Azurite?
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
Katanga (Shaba), Katanga Copper Crescent, Western area, Kolwezi, Mashamba West Mine

Chrysocolla after Azurite? 4.2cm wide© Danny Jones



Chrysocolla after Azurite?
USA
Arizona, Greenlee Co., Shannon Mts, Copper Mountain District (Clifton-Morenci District), Morenci, Morenci Mine (Morenci pit; Phelps Dodge Morenci Mine; Morenci-Metcalf)

2mm Chrysocolla groups after Azurite?© C. Stefano '08



Chrysocolla after Barite? with Malachite
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
Katanga (Shaba), Katanga Copper Crescent, Western area, Kolwezi, Mashamba West Mine

Chrysocolla @ Barite? w Malachite 5cm© Betts



Chrysocolla after Bismutite
UK
England, Cornwall, Camborne - Redruth - St Day District, Illogan, Basset Mines, Wheal Basset

1mm epimorphs of Chrysocolla @ Bismutite© Steve Rust



Chrysocolla after Boleite
Mexico
Baja Claifornia Sur, Mun. de Mulegé, Boleo District, Santa Rosalía (El Boleo)

Chrysocolla after Boleite 1cm wide© C. Stefano '09
Chrysocolla after Boleite 2cm wide© C. Stefano '09


Chrysocolla @ Boleite 7.4cm© Peter Hargis
Chrysocolla after Boleite 1.7cm© 2009 Michael C. Roarke

These are not common and very few specimens of this type of pseudomorph were produced, or perhaps it might be more accurate to say that few survived as specimens rather than going through the crusher. The most prolific specimen producing period was when the French mining company operated the mine in the 1800's. In the 1980s the a one of the mines was reminded strictly for Boleites and Cumengeites.


Chrysocolla after Brochantite
USA
New Mexico, Socorro Co., Hansonburg District, Bingham

Chrysocolla after Brochantite 3.4cm© Weinrich Minerals



Chrysocolla after Gypsum?
USA
Arizona, Pinal Co., Dripping Spring Mts, Mineral Creek District (Ray District), Scott Mountain area, Ray Mine

Chrysocolla @ Gypsum 2.7cm© Lavinsky
Chrysocolla after Gypsum? 3cm tall© 2002 John H. Betts


Chrysocolla after Gypsum 5cm tall© Charles Creekmur
Chrysocolla after Gypsum 3.5cm tall © Jasun McAvoy


Chrysocolla after Hemimorphite
USA
Arizona, Gila Co., Dripping Spring Mts, Banner District, Hayden area, Chilito, 79 Mine (79th Mine; Seventy-Nine Mine; Seventy-Nine property; McHur prospect)

Chrysocolla @ Hemimorphite 4cm© John H. Betts
Chrysocolla after Hemimorphite with Cerussite 5cm©


Chrysocolla @ Hemimorphite 6.1cm tall© Weinrich
Close up of left© Dan & Diana Weinrich Minerals


Chrysocolla after Langite
UK
Wales, Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire), Llangynfelyn, Tre'r-ddol, Lodge Park Trial

Chrysocolla after Langite FOV 6mm© Steve Rust



Chrysocolla after Malachite
Australia
Queensland, Mt Isa - Cloncurry area, Cloncurry District, Cloncurry, Mt Glorious Mine

Chrysocolla after Malachite 9.5cm wide© Sharon Clifford



Chrysocolla after Malachite
Australia
Western Australia, Pilbara Region, Roebourne Shire, Whim Creek, Whim Creek Copper Mine (Whim Creek Copper prospect; Whim Well Mine)

Chrysocolla @ Malachite @ Azurite 6.2cm© Rob Lavinsky
Chrysocolla @ Malachite 2.8cm tall© Rob Lavinsky


Chrysocolla @ Malachite 3.4cm© Lavinsky
Chrysocolla after Malachite 4.8cm tall© Rob Lavinsky


Chrysocolla after Malachite 3.4cm tall© Lavinsky
Chrysocolla after Malachite 5cm tall© Rob Lavinsky


Chrysocolla after Malacihte on Siderite
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
Katanga (Shaba), Katanga Copper Crescent, Central area, Shinkolobwe

Chrysocolla after Malachite on Siderite FOV 1.5mm© EV



Chrysocolla after Malachite
Italy
Tuscany, Livorno Province, Elba Island, Capoliveri, Cape Calamita Mine (Calamita Mine), Vallone stope

3.1mm tuft of Chrysocolla after Malachite© Enrico Bonacina



Chrysocolla after Veszelyite
UK
Scotland, Dumfries & Galloway (Dumfries-shire), Wanlockhead, Waygate Shaft (Straitstep Vein)

Chrysocolla after Veszelyite FOV ~2mm© Steve Rust
Chrysocolla@VeszelyiteFOV8mm© Rust



Chrysocolla after ?
Chile
Atacama Region, Copiapó Province, Zapallar district, Los Azules area, Los Azules Mine

Chrysocolla after ? FOV 1cm© Leon Hupperichs



Chrysocolla after ? on Malachite
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
Katanga (Shaba), Katanga Copper Crescent, Western area, Kolwezi, Mashamba West Mine

Chrysocolla after ? on Malachite© Paul De Bondt



Cinnabar after Gortdrumite and Grotdrumite
Austria
Salzburg, Saalfelden, Leogang, Hütten, Schwarzleograben, Schwarzleo District, Neuschurf adit

Cinnabar after Gortdrumite with Gortdrumite FOV 3mm © AL



Chlorite after Aragonite with Calcite
Spain
Canary Islands, Las Palmas Province, Lanzarote, Playa Blanca, Punta del Aguila

chlorite group @ Aragonite w Calcite FOV 1.4 cm© Betz



Clarkite after gummite
USA
North Carolina, Yancey Co., Spruce Pine District, Celo, Micaville, Fanny Gouge Mine (Spruce Pine Mica Company No. 10 Mine)

Clarkite after gummite 2cm wide© 2007, JGW



clay after Halite
UK
England, South Gloucestershire (Bristol; Avon), Aust Cliff

clay after Halite 4.5cm wide© W. Gordon



Colemanite after Inyoite
USA
California, Inyo Co., Death Valley National Park, Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District), Black Mts, Corkscrew Canyon, Corkscrew Canyon Mine (Corkscrew Mine)

Colemanite after Inyoite ~15cm wide©
Colemanite after Inyoite 5.4cm wide© Rob Lavinsky


Colemanite after Inyoite ~12.5cm wide©
Colemanite after Inyoite ~7.5cm wide©

This mine is a real treasure chest of specimens. Everywhere you look there are open pockets of drusy Colemanite crystals that will sparkle from the reflection of your lamp. At various periods in years past the mine appeared to be abandoned and you could drive your car up to the adit and collect all the Colemanite specimens you could carry home. It is a small mine and though most of what you can find there is rather unremarkable drusy Colemanite specimens, you can sometimes find Colemanite after Inyoite, though often they are almost deformed beyond recognition. Often they are tinted brown with Todorokite. This is also the type locality for Nobleite and still I think the best location for this mineral.


Conichalcite after Azurite
Spain
Murcia, Pastrana, Mazarrón-Águilas, Dolores prospect

Conichalcite after Azurite FOV 9mm wide© Rafa Muñoz Alvarado



Copper after Aragonite
Bolivia
La Paz Department, Pacajes Province, Corocoro

Copper after Aragonite 2cm wide© Rob Lavinsky
Calcite after Aragonite ~2cm© Joseph A. Freilich


Copper after Aragonite 1.7cm wide© Rob Lavinsky
Copper after Aragonite 2.4cm wide© Lavinsky


Copper after Aragonite ~3cm wide©
Copper after Aragonite 2cm tall© Rob Lavinsky


Copper after Aragonite 2.8cm tall© Rob Lavinsky
Copper after Aragonite 3cm wide© Rob Lavinsky


Copper @ Aragonite 2cm© Rockpick Legend Co.


This mine has produced specimens of Copper after Aragonite for perhaps 100 years, and today it still produces specimens that the locals mine for sale as specimens if they can and for ore if all else fails. Frequently the mineralization is only skin deep with the bulk of the crystal still remaining as aragonite. In spite of a long history of specimens production fine examples of this pseudomorph are still sought after by collectors. The are not found in a naturally bright state as we see in some of the pictures above, but are commonly cleaned of oxides and clay to make the copper bright. Usually vinegar or citric acid is strong enough to accomplish the cleaning of these specimens.


Copper after Azurite
USA
Montana, Sanders Co., Noxon District

Copper after Azurite ~3cm wide©



Copper after Azurite
USA
New Mexico, Grant Co., Georgetown District, Georgetown

Copper after Azurite ~4cm wide©
Copper after Azurite 5.5cm wide©


Copper after Azurite 3.9cm wide© Rob Lavinsky
Copper after Azurite 3.6cm tall© Rob Lavinsky


Copper after Azurite 3.2cm tall© Rob Lavinsky


Copper after Azurite has been found at a number of localities, but those from Georgetown are usually considered to be the best and are still sought after by collectors.


Copper after Azurite
USA
New Mexico, Grant Co., Georgetown District, San Lorenzo, Copper Rose Mine (Rose Mine; McGregor Mine; Copper Glance Mine; Potosi Mine)

Copper after Azurite 3.6cm wide© Rob Lavinsky



Copper after Cuprite
Namibia
Otjikoto (Oshikoto) Region, Tsumeb
Copper after Cuprite 4cm wide© DSW 2011



Copper after Cuprite
Namibia
Khomas Region, Windhoek District, Seeis, Ogonja (Onganja), Ogonja Mine (Onganja Mine)

Copper after Cuprite 3.7cm wide© Jasun McAvoy
Copper after Cuprite 1.5cm wide© Jasun McAvoy


Copper after Cuprite
Russia
Western-Siberian Region, Altaiskii Krai, Rudnyi Altai, Rubtsovskoe Cu-Zn-Pb deposit

We don't have any pictures yet of these in the database, but when some show up there, we will include images of them here. They are hands down the best copper pseudomorphs after cuprite by perhaps an order of magnitude. I saw one that was sharp and I think about 5 cm in diameter. Many collectors would murder their grandmothers for one of these.


Copper after Cuprite
USA
Arizona, Cochise Co., Mule Mts, Warren District, Bisbee area

Copper after Cuprite 2.2cm tall© Michael Cline



Copper after drill-bit
USA
Michigan, Houghton Co.

Copper after drill bit 8.4cm wide© Collectors Edge



Copper after round rock
USA
Michigan, Houghton Co., Calumet Township, Calumet, Calumet & Hecla Mine

Copper after round rock 11cm wide© Rob Lavinsky
Copper after round rock 3.1 cm© Rob Lavinsky


Copper after round rock 6.8cm wide© Rob Lavinsky


These are commonly called copper skulls by collectors and to the best of my knowledge are only known from the mines in Michigan. The copper appears to have formed around round rocks and small boulders in the conglomerate rock formations found in some of the mines. Sometimes they have been found larger than 20 cm in diameter. The copper mines in Michigan are closed and there are none left that produce copper for smelting, but never the less specimens continue to trickle out of the region because of hard working field collectors.


Copper after wood
Cyprus island
We appear to have no images of wood replacing Cyprus in the database at this time, but some of the mines in Cyprus have produced spectacular copper pseudomorphs after wood.


Copper after wood
USA
Arizona, Pinal Co., Dripping Spring Mts, Mineral Creek District (Ray District), Scott Mountain area, Ray Mine

Copper after wood 8.7cm© Rob Lavinsky
Copper after wood, end view- left© Rob Lavinsky


Corkite after Pyromorphite
Australia
New South Wales, Yancowinna Co., Broken Hill, Kintore Opencut

Corkite @ Pyromorphite FOV 2.5cm© Crawford



Cornubite after Azurite
USA
Nevada, Pershing Co., Antelope District, Majuba Hill Mine (Mylar Mine), Copper Stope

Cornubite after Azurite ~2cm©
Close up of left©


Cornubite after Mimetite?
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Bergisches Land, Rösrath, Hoffnungsthal, Leibnitz-Dante Mine

Cornubite after Mimetite FOV 8mm© Harjo



Cornubite after Olivenite with Azurite
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Bergisches Land, Hoffnungsthal, Rösrath, Leibnitz-Dante Mine

Cornubite @ Olivenite with Azurite FOV 3mm© Thieme



Covellite after Bismuthinite
Portugal
Vila Real District, Montalegre, Borralha Mine

Covellite after Bismuthinite 2cm wide© Martins da Pedra



Crandallite after Fluellite
Spain
Navarre, Esteribar, Eugui, Azcárate Quarry

Crandallite after Fluellite 8.7cm wide© fabreminerals.com
Crandallite @ Fluellite, closeup left© fabre


Crandallite & Wardite after Variscite
USA
Utah, Utah Co., Oquirrh Mts, Fairfield, Clay Canyon

Crandallite & Wardite after Variscite ~7cm wide©


Crandallite is the yellow mineral associated with the green Variscite and the Gray Wardite and I think is present in every single nodule of Fairfield Variscite.


Crandallite after Wavellite
Australia
South Australia, Mt Lofty Ranges, North Mt Lofty Ranges, Kapunda, Tom's Phosphate quarry (Tom's quarry)

Crandallite after Wavellite 2.7cm wide© JSS



Crandallite after Wavellite?
Russia
Urals Region, Southern Urals, Chelyabinsk Oblast', Chebarkul', Zauralovo, Temir Mt. quarry

Crandallite after Wavellite? FOV 5cm© Sergei Epanchintsev



Cryptomelane/Lithiophorite after plant root
Spain
Castile-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Pozuelo, El Chorrillo mines

Cryptomelane/Lithiophorite after plant root 10cm wide© JRGL



Cuproroméite after Chalcostibite
Kyrgyzstan
Jalal-Abad Oblast, Chatkal region, Tereksai (Terek-Saj)

Cuproroméite @ Chalcostibite 2.5cm© Kartashov
Cuproroméite @ Chalcostibite 2.5cm© Kartashov



Cuprotungstite after Scheelite
Germany
Baden-Württemberg, Black Forest, Wolfach, Oberwolfach, Rankach valley, Clara Mine

Cuprotungstite after Scheelite FOV 7mm© Richard Bayerl



Cyanochroite after Piypite
Russia
Far-Eastern Region, Kamchatka Oblast', Tolbachik volcano, Great Fissure (Main Fracture) eruption, Northern Breakthrough (North Breach), Second scoria cone

Cyanochroite after Piypite FOV 1.2cm© Pavel M. Kartashov



Cymatolite after Spodumene
USA
New Hampshire, Strafford Co., Strafford, Parker Mt, Parker Mountain Pegmatite Quarry (Buzzo Quarry; Buzzo Mine)

Cymatolite @ Spodumene FOV 4cm© Peter Cristofono
Cymatolite @ Spodumene 3.2cm© 2008 Peter Cristofono






Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements A & B. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements D to I. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements J to M. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements N to P. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements Quartz. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements R to Z. Click here to view Best Minerals P, click here to view and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.



Images last selected December 2010 sorting on "after".

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.



Edited 26 time(s). Last edit at 09/09/2013 05:50AM by Alfredo Petrov.
avatar Re: Pseudomorphs C
June 07, 2011 08:10PM
Rock:

Great stuff, as always. I noticed one small hiccup when going through, though: there's no photo currently associated with "Copper after Cuprite"
for Bisbee, just the placeholder and size label. After taking a look through the Bisbee coppers, I presume you intended to use this one:
[www.mindat.org]

At some point I'm sure the brain-frying copper pseudos after cuprite from Rubtsovskoe will make an appearance in this section, but I was surprised to see there aren't any in the database yet. I have a nice partial replacement of cuprite by copper that also includes silver, but it's neither anywhere near the class of specimens on display at the Main Show in Tucson this year, nor is it currently photographed! I did take a few picutres of that case at Tucson, but unfortunately the shots were poorly lit and really not up to snuff.

Cheers,
D.
avatar Re: Pseudomorphs C
June 08, 2011 01:30AM
Don,
Thanks for comments. I am still working on these pseudomorph articles. Right now they are not much more than picture galleries of pseudomorphs. I just got through adding in about 300 more of them by searching our database on replaced, replacing, altered and altering. Now I am in the process of going through the articles and catching glitches like the one you pointed out and making all the images look the same size more or less and bringing the format into alignment with the other articles. When this get done I will go back through the articles and add the little I know about them to text blocks below the images. Perhaps another two weeks of work if all goes well.

I have a friend who each year for the last 20 years at Tucson, has wangled his way into the show during setup and taken pictures of all the good stuff while it was being put on display. I am trying to get him to break loose of these long enough to get them digitized so I can upload them to Mindat. This would include those great new cuprites that you are talking about. I saw a couple of them that were even better than the ones that were on display. Don't know if I will be able to get them for Mindat or not. They went into a black hole.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Pseudomorphs C
June 21, 2011 09:33PM
Calcite after Ikaite - Australia

Rock here is some more stuff on glendonites:

The decomposition/dehydration of a single Ikaite form, results in a large reduction in crystal volume. Many pseudo have a hard outer shell, with a spongy interior. It takes several additional cycles of Calcite deposition, to create a more solid form. Many World Wide sites for this pseudo type are known. Most are only of scientific intrest. Some lost local specimens show up due to the breakup of old collections. Russian and Australian pseudomorphs are still found on-line.

Calcite photo from Aklavik, Canada – after Gaylussite, reclassify to after Ikaite.

Calcite photo from Sangerhaussen -- after Gaylussite, reclassify to after Ikaite. It was from this local, that this pseudo type was first noted. Friesleben(1827) found Small, 10-15 mm, gray to tan, crystals in a sinkhole, near a mine he was inspecting

At Obersdorf, North-East of Sangerhausen. They occurred as singles, to rounded Crystal clusters. He named them “Gerstenkorner”(Barlycorn) Pseudomorphs.

The Australian pseudos were first studied by the American J. D. Dana. He was carried as the Geologist aboard the Wilks Expoidition(1838-42), which sailed around the Pacific Rim . While exploring the Hunter Valley, N.S.W., he was presented several strange solid, dark brown crystals, by Mrs Robert Scott, of Glendon. Dana(1849) later described then as pseudomorphs, but it was David(1905) who officially called them “Glendonites”. Over 30 sites in Australia, have reported the pseudo, as singles, intergrowths, and rarer rounded clusters. Some elongated singles reached 60 Cm long. Most are no longer accessible due to urbanization, housing, vineyards, even being included in Parks. Occasionally found On-line.

Japan – Single pseudo crystals from numerous sites in Japan, were often condidered to be an archaeological artifact. The pseudo, to 10-15 Cms, looked like the head of a stone tool. They now carry the name “Gennou-ishi”(Hammerstone)

Russia, Karelia. Agree with Stepan Koch, not a pseudo after Ikaite. Wrong crystal shape.
First photo under Olenitsa, by Griff, wrong color, crystal shape and was vugy not solid.
Likely from Khatanga, on the Taimyr Peninsula, Russia.

Of all the many Russian locals Olenitsa has been the most prolific commercial site. Litterally thousands of small solid, redish-brown, clusters, were extracted from beds and tital muds, at the mouth of the Olenitsa River, as it flows off the Kola Peminsula, into the White Sea. Nice elongated, tapering, crystal clusters to 15 Cms, were often left partially embedded in the gray clay, to create quite dramatic specimens. A baseball bat shaped single crystal to 25 Cms was noted. Fishermen had long been encountering the pseudos, in their nets, when dredging the Sea floor. The finding of two intergrowen crystals, looking like a Cross, was considered to bring very good luck. The pseudo have often been called “White Sea Hornlets”.

Alaska – This remote Alaskan local was found, on a side gully, three miles up Carter Creek, which flows North into Camden Bay, on the Arctic Coast. The distinctive white, bladed clusters, weather out of siltstone outcrops at the head of the cut. During early summer, they were collected, as float, from a “Awfully soupy Mess”, along the floor of the gully. Many of the mud wrapped groups were badly corroded, but sharp clusters to about 18 Cms and very rare singles to 22 Cms , have been found.

England – Another old local was located while dredging the bottom of the Tyne Slake, a large Bay on the Tyne River, to allow oceangoing ships , access to the nearby Coal from Newcastle. The light tan, almost sandy, pseudomorphs , were found as singles, and groups up to about 4 Cms. They were studied by Browell(1861) who named them “Jarrowites” after the nearby Jarrow Docks.

Will see if I can get Leo to writeup his Washington Site


More to come.
Keith Harshbarger [2011]

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Pseudomorphs C
June 21, 2011 09:36PM
Kieth,
I hope you will really keep this kind of "stuff" coming. It sounds to me that you should be writing this article rather than me, but Ill take as much information as you have the time to provide and put it in the article, and if you provide enough of it, Ill take my name off the article and put yours there in instead.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Re: Pseudomorphs & Replacements C
November 12, 2011 03:36PM
Since a very short time I became a member of a mineral working group of the Dutch Geological Association (Stichting GEA) for amateur geologists. They asked me to write a article on pseudomorphs. I discovered that there are no scientificaly based data on pseudomorphs. So there is no proof, only photo's or texts, about the existance of pseudomorphs in mineralogy. There is no international acknowledged institution with scientificaly based data on pseudomorphs, so there is a great risk that data produced in the past are fake, faked or falsified! Anyway all those data are not validated and because of that in principle worthless.
My proposal would be to do real scientific research on pseudomorphs, spondored by companies like Shell or by well known geological institutes.
avatar Re: Pseudomorphs & Replacements C
November 12, 2011 10:41PM
Jozef,
A most admiral ambition. Usually when submitting requests for funding to these institutions they like to see proposals to do work that could eventually have results that will have real world applications with possible payoffs in terms of additional revenue. I would be curious as to your ideas abut how to relate studies of pseudomorphs to real world results and benefits. Minerals for in the earth under particular sets of physical conditions, and when those conditions change, so often do the minerals. Formation and decomposition of hydro methane would probably interest them, possibly the formation of Ikaite as a sink for carbon? You can probably think of many others.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Re: Pseudomorphs & Replacements C
December 31, 2013 10:23AM
    


Cassiterite pseudomorphs after Othoclase, Wheal Bungay Mine, St Agnes, Cornwall.

This mine lies a short distance to the north of the better known source of Cassiterite pseudomorphs at Wheal Coates. Unlike the Wheal Coates occurence the Bungay specimens are found in a hard elvan matrix.
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