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Pseudomorphs & Replacements C

Posted by Rock Currier  
avatar Pseudomorphs & Replacements C
June 01, 2011 08:13AM
Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements A & B. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements D to I. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements J to M. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements N to P. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements Quartz. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements R to Z. Click here to view Best Minerals P, click here to view and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.

Can you help make this a better article? What good localities have we missed? Can you supply pictures of better specimens than those we show here? Can you give us more and better information about the specimens from these localities? Can you supply better geological or historical information on these localities?





Cacoxenite after StrunziteUSANorth Carolina, Cleveland Co., Kings Mountain District, Foote Lithium Co. Mine (Foote Mine)

2mm spray of Cacoxenite after Strunzite




Calcioancylite-(Ce) after RemonditeCanadaQuébec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Calcioancylite-(Ce) @ Remondite




Calcite after AragoniteAustraliaTasmania, Zeehan district, North Dundas, Renison Bell Mine

Calcite after Aragonite >30cm
Calcite @ Aragonite 16cm


Calcite after AragoniteGermanyNorth Rhine-Westphalia, Sauerland, Arnsberg, Holzen, Calcite quarry

Calcite after Aragonite 4.7cm wide




Calcite after AragoniteItalySicily, Agrigento Province

Calcite after Aragonite & Sulfur 13.7cm wide
Calcite after Aragonite & Sulfur ~7.5cm wide

Calcite after Aragonite 11cm wide




Calcite after AragoniteJapanHonshu Island, Chubu region, Gifu prefecture, Neo-mura, Nogohakusan (Nogo-Hakusan)

Calcite after Aragonite FOV 4cm wide




Calcite after AragoniteNamibiaOtjikoto (Oshikoto) Region, Tsumeb, Tsumeb Mine (Tsumcorp Mine)

Calcite after Aragonite 7cm wide




Calcite after AragoniteRussiaFar-Eastern Region, Primorskiy Kray, Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)

Calcite after Aragonite 20cm long.




Calcite after AragoniteSlovakiaBanská Bystrica Region, Štiavnica Mts, Banská Štiavnica Mining District, Banská Štiavnica (Selmecbánya; Schemnitz), Banská Štiavnica Mines

Calcite after Aragonite 15cm wide




Calcite after AragoniteUSAColorado, Larimer Co.

Calcite after Aragonite 7cm wide




Calcite after AragoniteUSAOklahoma, Ottawa Co., Tri-State District, Picher Field

Calcite after Aragonite 2.4cm wide




Calcite after BariteHungaryHeves Co., Mátra Mts., Gyöngyösoroszi, Károlytáró

Calcite after Barite 5.5cm wide
Calcite after Barite 5.9cm wide


Calcite after Calcite on QuartzBulgariaPlovdiv Oblast, Rhodope Mts, Laki (Luki), Djurkovo Complex, Droujba (Drujba) Mine

Calcite after Calcite on Quartz ~4.5cm




Calcite after CalciteMexicoChihuahua, Mun. de Saucillo, Naica, Naica Mine

Calcite after Calcite 11cm wide




Calcite after Calcite?RomaniaMaramures Co., Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik), Cavnic Mine (Kapnikbánya)

Calcite after Calcite 15cm wide




Calcite after FluoriteAustraliaTasmania, Zeehan district, North Dundas, Renison Bell Mine

Calcite after Fluorite 4cm wide




Calcite after GlauberiteGermanyHesse, North Hesse, Werra Valley, Phillippsthal, Hattorf Potash Works

Calcite after Glauberite FOV 2.25cm




Calcite after GlauberiteUSAArizona, Yavapai Co., Camp Verde District

Calcite after Glauberite 4.9cm tall
Calcite after Glauberite 4.5cm wide


Calcite after Glauberite 3.8cm wide
Calcite after Glauberite 8.3cm wide


Calcite after Glauberite 8.7cm
Calcite after Glauberite 4cm wide

This locality has produced thousands of these specimens and I think you can still collect all of them that you want to bother picking up. In an effort to increase the sale of these items, the are sometimes soaked in a solution of copper sulfate or other chemicals to give them color and enhance their sails appeal to tourists. The last two examples, the blue/green ones, have been died to enhance their sale to tourists and the beginning collector. There are none of this color that occur naturally at the locality. There are very many of these around and that is why they are included here.


Calcite after GlauberiteUSANew Jersey, Passaic Co., Paterson, Upper New Street Quarry (Burger's Quarry)

Calcite after Glauberite ~6cm wide



Casts of Quartz after glauberite (diamond shaped cavities) and after anhydrite (rectangular caviler) are found almost every where in the basalts of the Watchung Mountains of New Jersey. Casts of calcite after these minerals are much less common than the quartz casts. Those like these that are predominately may have a quartz component that predates the calcite.


Calcite after GypsumRomaniaMaramures Co., Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik)

Calcite after Gypsum 6.1cm wide




Calcite after HaliteUSAOklahoma, Major Co.

Calcite after Halite 2.4cm wide





Calcite after Ikaite specimens have in some literature been given the name glendonites and other names as well. This large group of worldwide Calcite pseudomorphs after Ikaite have been described under a variety of different individual names, as will as being assigned various parentage. Many were consolidated under the name "Pseudogaylussite"(Von Calker 1897). However E. S. Dana(1884) while studing similar Calcite pseudos from Nevada, believed the precursor would be a mineral yet to be discovered. That material was finally located in a Greenland Fjord(Pauly 1963). It proved to be a thermally unstable, Calcium carbonate hexahedrite. He named it Ikaite, after the fjord. As it was a massive mineral, it did not create much interest among pseudomorph collectors, except in Russia(Kaplin 1978). The first Ikaite crystals were found in drill cores, extracted of the Bransfield Strait, Antartica. At tenperatures above 4-5 degrees Celsius, the Ikaite separated into a "Mush" of tiny Calcite crystals and water. Suess(1982), on the basis of crystal shape and the alteration to Calcite, he declared Ikaite to be the missing precusor for this group of pseudomorphs. He refered to the pseudos as being "Glendonites", a term being used for specimens of this type from nearby Australia. Some specimens show up due to the breakup of old collections. Russian and Australian pseudomorphs are still found on-line.

The decomposition/dehydration of a single Ikaite form, results in a large reduction in crystal volume. Many pseudo have a hard outer shell, with a spongy interior. It takes several additional cycles of Calcite deposition, to create a more solid form. Many World Wide sites for this pseudomorph type are known. Most are only of scientific intrest.


Calcite after IkaiteAustraliaNew South Wales, Durham Co., Hunter Valley

Calcite after Ikaite ~65cm long



The Australian Calcite pseudomorphs after Ikaite were first studied by the American J. D. Dana. He was carried as the Geologist aboard the Wilks Expoidition(1838-42), which sailed around the Pacific Rim . While exploring the Hunter Valley, N.S.W., he was presented several strange solid, dark brown crystals, by Mrs Robert Scott, of Glendon. Dana(1849) later described them as pseudomorphs, but it was David (1905) who officially called them “Glendonites”. Over 30 sites in Australia, have reported the pseudo, as singles, intergrowths, and rarer rounded clusters. Some elongated singles reached 60 Cm long. Most are no longer accessible due to urbanization, housing, vineyards, even being included in Parks. Occasionally they can be found available on-line.



Calcite after IkaiteCanadaNorthwest Territories

Calcite after Ikaite ~4cm wide




Calcite after IkaiteGermanySaxony-Anhalt, Sangerhausen

Calcite after Ikaite ~2cm tall
Calcite after Ikaite, largest ~2cm

It was from this local, that this type of pseudomorph was first noted. Friesleben(1827) found small 10-15 mm, gray to tan, crystals in a sinkhole, near a mine he was inspecting. At Obersdorf, North-East of Sangerhausen. They occurred as singles, to rounded Crystal clusters. Friesleben named them “Gerstenkorner” (Barlycorn) Pseudomorphs.



Calcite after IkaiteJapanHonshu Island, Chubu region, Nagano prefecture, Godo

Calcite after Ikaite ~8cm tall



Single Calcite pseudomorphs after Ikaite are found at numerous sites in Japan, were they were often often condidered to be an archaeological artifacts. The pseudomorphs which often looked like the head of a stone tool reached sizes of 10-15 cm. They now carry the name “Gennou-ishi”(Hammerstone).


Calcite after IkaiteRussiaNorthern Region, Murmanskaja Oblast', Kola Peninsula, White Sea Coast, Olenitsa River

Calcite after Ikaite 6.5cm wide
Calcite after Ikaite 10.1cm tall


Calcite after Ikaite 2.5cm wide
Calcite after Ikaite 1.75cm wide


Calcite after Ikaite 3.4cm wide
Calcite after Ikaite 3cm

Of all the many Russian locals Olenitsa has been the most prolific commercial site. Litterally thousands of small solid, redish-brown, clusters, were extracted from beds and tital muds, at the mouth of the Olenitsa River, as it flows off the Kola Peminsula, into the White Sea. Nice elongated, tapering, crystal clusters to 15 Cms, were often left partially embedded in the gray clay, to create quite dramatic specimens. A baseball bat shaped single crystal to 25 Cms was noted. Fishermen had long been encountering the pseudomorphs, in their nets, when dredging the Sea floor. The finding of two intergrowen crystals, looking like a Cross, was considered to bring very good luck. The pseudo have often been called “White Sea Hornlets”.



Calcite after IkaiteUKEngland, Tyne & Wear, Jarrow Slake

Calcite after Ikaite ~4.5cm wide



Another old local was located while dredging the bottom of the Tyne Slake, a large Bay on the Tyne River, to allow oceangoing ships , access to the nearby Coal from Newcastle. The light tan, almost sandy, pseudomorphs , were found as singles, and groups up to about 4 cms. They were studied by Browell(1861) who named them “Jarrowites” after the nearby Jarrow Docks.


Calcite after IkaiteUSAAlaska, North Slope Borough, Carter Creek

Calcite after Ikaite 6cm tall



This remote Alaskan local was found, on a side gully, three miles up Carter Creek, which flows North into Camden Bay, on the Arctic Coast. The distinctive white, bladed clusters, weather out of siltstone outcrops at the head of the cut. During early summer, they were collected, as float, from a “Awfully soupy Mess”, along the floor of the gully. Many of the mud wrapped groups were badly corroded, but sharp clusters to about 18 cm and very rare singles to 22 cm have been found.




Calcite after Ikaite
USA
Washington, Grays Harbor Co.

Calcite after Ikaite ~25cm wide
Calcite after Ikaite ~40cm wide


Calcite after Laumontite?UKEngland, Leicestershire, Croft, Croft Quarry

Calcite after Laumontite to 4cm tall




Calcite after SideriteCanadaQuébec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Calcite after Siderite ~6cm+ tall




Calcite after water? & FluoriteUSAIllinois, Hardin Co., Illinois - Kentucky Fluorspar District, Cave-in-Rock Sub-District, Spar Mountain, Hastie's Quarry

Calcite after water & Fluorite FOV ~6mm



It has been proposed that these balls of calcite were formed after water drops. Click on the image and read more about this.



Calderónite after?USANevada, Humboldt Co., Iron Point District, Valmy, Silver Coin Mine

Calderónite after ? FOV 3mm




Cancrinite after NatroliteCanadaQuébec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Cancrinite @ Natrolite w Rhodochrosite 4cm




Carminite after Bayldonite on SegnititeUKEngland, Cornwall, Mount's Bay District, St Hilary, Penberthy Croft Mine (Wheal Fancy)

1mm Balls of Carminite @ Bayldonite on Segnitite




Carminite after Duftite on BeudantiteGermanyBaden-Württemberg, Black Forest, Wolfach, Oberwolfach, Rankach valley, Clara Mine

Carminite @ Duftite on Beudantite FOV 6mm




Caryopilite after Galena?SwedenVärmland, Filipstad, Persberg district, Pajsberg, Harstigen Mine

Caryopilite after Galena?




Cassiterite after OrthoclaseAustraliaTasmania, Rossarden district, Rex Hill mine

Cassiterite @ Orthoclase 3cm wide




Cassiterite after OrthoclaseUKEngland, Cornwall, St Agnes District, St Agnes, Wheal Coates

Cassiterite after Orthoclase ~7cm wide
Cassiterite after Orthoclase 3.4cm


Cassiterite after Orthoclase ~4cm wide
Calcite after Orthoclase 1.97cm tall


Cassiterite after Orthoclase



These are considered to be classics and have been around for a long time. They are still available from time to time but are no longer common.



Catapleiite after Eudialite & SeranditeCanadaQuébec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Catapleiite after Eudialyte with Serandite 2.4cm wide




Catapleiite after Eudialyite? and FranconiteCanadaQuébec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Catapleiite @ Eudialyite? w Franconite FOV~2.5cm tall




Catapleiite after PetarasiteCanadaQuébec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Catapleiite after Petarasite 6cm




Catapleiite after Sodalite with Serandite & mangan-neptuniteCanadaQuébec, Montérégie, Rouville RCM, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Desourdy quarry)

Catapleiite @ Sodalite w Serandite & neptunite 2.3cm




Cerussite after AnglesiteAustraliaNew South Wales, Yancowinna Co., Broken Hill, Block 14 Opencut

Cerussite after Anglesite 8.5cm wide




Cerussite after AnglesiteAustraliaNew South Wales, Yancowinna Co., Broken Hill, Kintore Opencut

Cerussite after Anglesite ~9cm wide




Cerussite after AnglesiteMexicoChihuahua, Mun. de Ahumada, Los Lamentos Mts (Sierra de Los Lamentos)

Cerussite after Anglesite~10cm wide




Cerussite after PhosgeniteItalySardinia, Carbonia-Iglesias Province, Iglesias, Monteponi Mine

Cerussite after Phosgenite ~6cm tall



These are pretty rare creatures. I have never seen a good one for sale.



Cerussite & Willemite after DescloiziteIranEsfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province), Anarak District, Chah Milleh (Chah-Mileh; Tchah-Mille), Chah Milleh Mine (Chah Mileh Mine; Tchah-Mille Mine)

Cerussite & Willemite after Descloizite 7cm




Cervantite after ?GermanyBaden-Württemberg, Black Forest, Wolfach, Oberwolfach, Rankach valley, Clara Mine

Cervantite after ? FOV 4mm wide




Cervantite after Stibnite
Mexico
San Luis Potosí

Cervantite after Stibnite 5.5cm



There are a number of localities that produce these kinds of pseudomorphs. Often you will see them labeled Stibiconite after Stibnite. Most of these are probably mixtures of more than one mineral after Stibnite. Sometimes they are very sharp and well formed.



Chalcoalumite after DevillineUKWales, Gwynedd (Merionethshire), Dolgellau Gold Belt, Bontddu, Vigra Mine, Trial level

Chalcoalumite after Devilline FOV 8mm wide




Chalcocite after CovelliteUSAMontana, Silver Bow Co., Butte District, Butte, East Colusa Mine

Chalcocite after Covellite ~17cm wide




Chalcocite after CovelliteUSAMontana, Silver Bow Co., Butte District (Summit Valley District)

Chalcocite@Covellite 8cm
Chalcocite @ Covellite 11.5cm


Chalcocite after woodUSANew Mexico, Sandoval Co., San Pablo, Nacimiento Mine

Chalcocite after wood ~7.5cm wide




Chalcocite after woodUSANew Mexico, Torrance Co., Scholle, Abo Mine

Chalcocite after Wood ~4cm wide




Chalcocite after woodUSATexas, Clay Co.

Chalcocite after wood ~8cm wide




Chalcopyrite after BetekhtiniteKazakhstanKaragandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast'), Dzhezkazgan (Zhezqazghan), Dzhezkazgan Mine (Zhezqazghan Mine)

Chalcopyrite @ Betekhtinite 18.5cm wide




Chalcopyrite after ChalcociteUKEngland, Warwickshire, Nuneaton, Judkins Quarry

Chalcopyrite @ Chalcocite FOV 3.4cm




Charoite after Frankamenite?RussiaEastern-Siberian Region, Saha Republic (Sakha Republic; Yakutia), Aldan Shield, Chara and Tokko Rivers Confluence, Murunskii Massif, Sirenevyi Kamen' Deposit, Vostochnyi (Eastern) area

Charoite @ Frankamenite? 8cm




Chlorite after AxiniteUKEngland, Devon, Okehampton area (Northern Dartmoor), Meldon Aplite Quarry

Chlorite after Axinite ~11cm wide




Chlorite after Garnet with StilbiteSwedenLappland, Gällivare, Malmberget

Chlorite after Garnet with Stilbite 7cm wide




Chlorite after GarnetUSAMichigan, Marquette Co., Marquette iron range, Michigamme

Chlorite after Garnet 5.9cm wide
Chlorite after Garnet 3.9cm wide


Chlorite after Garnet 4.5cm wide
Chlorite after Garnet 6.1cm wide


chlorite after garnet 2cm wide
Chlorite after Garnet 3.5cm wide

From time to time collectors have collected hundreds if not thousands of these crystals at this locality.



Chlorite after MagnetiteAustriaTyrol, North Tyrol, Ziller valley

Chlorite after Magnetite 2.5cm wide




Chlorite after MagnetiteUSANew Hampshire, Grafton Co., Sugar Hill, Ore Hill

5mm Chlorite after Magnetite




Chlorite after PhillipsiteGermanyHesse, Odenwald, Reinheim, Roßdorf, Roßberg Quarry

Chlorite after Phillipsite 5cm wide





There are many different minerals that Chrysocolla replaces as you can see from the varieties of these pseudomorphs presented below.

Chrysocolla after AnglesiteUSAArizona, Graham Co. Aravaipa District, Santa Teresa Mts, Klondyke, Grand Reef Mountain, Laurel Canyon, Grand Reef Mine (Aravaipa Mine; Lead Jewel; Joe Rubal Mine; Vivian Mine; Calistoga Mining & Development Co. Mine; Bringham Silver and Lead Mine)

Chrysocolla after Anglesite FOV ~3mm




Chrysocolla after AurichalciteUSAArizona, Gila Co., Dripping Spring Mts, Banner District, Hayden area, Chilito, 79 Mine (79th Mine; Seventy-Nine Mine; Seventy-Nine property; McHur prospect)

Chrysocolla @ Aurichalcite FOV 4mm




Chrysocolla after Azurite?Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)Katanga (Shaba), Katanga Copper Crescent, Western area, Kolwezi, Mashamba West Mine

Chrysocolla after Azurite? 4.2cm wide




Chrysocolla after Azurite?USAArizona, Greenlee Co., Shannon Mts, Copper Mountain District (Clifton-Morenci District), Morenci, Morenci Mine (Morenci pit; Phelps Dodge Morenci Mine; Morenci-Metcalf)

2mm Chrysocolla groups after Azurite?




Chrysocolla after Barite? with MalachiteDemocratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)Katanga (Shaba), Katanga Copper Crescent, Western area, Kolwezi, Mashamba West Mine

Chrysocolla @ Barite? w Malachite 5cm




Chrysocolla after BismutiteUKEngland, Cornwall, Camborne - Redruth - St Day District, Illogan, Basset Mines, Wheal Basset

1mm epimorphs of Chrysocolla @ Bismutite




Chrysocolla after BoleiteMexicoBaja Claifornia Sur, Mun. de Mulegé, Boleo District, Santa Rosalía (El Boleo)

Chrysocolla after Boleite 1cm wide
Chrysocolla after Boleite 2cm wide


Chrysocolla @ Boleite 7.4cm
Chrysocolla after Boleite 1.7cm

These are not common and very few specimens of this type of pseudomorph were produced, or perhaps it might be more accurate to say that few survived as specimens rather than going through the crusher. The most prolific specimen producing period was when the French mining company operated the mine in the 1800's. In the 1980s the a one of the mines was reminded strictly for Boleites and Cumengeites.


Chrysocolla after BrochantiteUSANew Mexico, Socorro Co., Hansonburg District, Bingham

Chrysocolla after Brochantite 3.4cm




Chrysocolla after Gypsum?USAArizona, Pinal Co., Dripping Spring Mts, Mineral Creek District (Ray District), Scott Mountain area, Ray Mine

Chrysocolla @ Gypsum 2.7cm
Chrysocolla after Gypsum? 3cm tall


Chrysocolla after Gypsum 5cm tall
Chrysocolla after Gypsum 3.5cm tall


Chrysocolla after HemimorphiteUSAArizona, Gila Co., Dripping Spring Mts, Banner District, Hayden area, Chilito, 79 Mine (79th Mine; Seventy-Nine Mine; Seventy-Nine property; McHur prospect)

Chrysocolla @ Hemimorphite 4cm
Chrysocolla after Hemimorphite with Cerussite 5cm


Chrysocolla @ Hemimorphite 6.1cm tall
Close up of left


Chrysocolla after LangiteUKWales, Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire), Llangynfelyn, Tre'r-ddol, Lodge Park Trial

Chrysocolla after Langite FOV 6mm




Chrysocolla after MalachiteAustraliaQueensland, Mt Isa - Cloncurry area, Cloncurry District, Cloncurry, Mt Glorious Mine

Chrysocolla after Malachite 9.5cm wide




Chrysocolla after MalachiteAustraliaWestern Australia, Pilbara Region, Roebourne Shire, Whim Creek, Whim Creek Copper Mine (Whim Creek Copper prospect; Whim Well Mine)

Chrysocolla @ Malachite @ Azurite 6.2cm
Chrysocolla @ Malachite 2.8cm tall


Chrysocolla @ Malachite 3.4cm
Chrysocolla after Malachite 4.8cm tall


Chrysocolla after Malachite 3.4cm tall
Chrysocolla after Malachite 5cm tall


Chrysocolla after Malacihte on SideriteDemocratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)Katanga (Shaba), Katanga Copper Crescent, Central area, Shinkolobwe

Chrysocolla after Malachite on Siderite FOV 1.5mm




Chrysocolla after MalachiteItalyTuscany, Livorno Province, Elba Island, Capoliveri, Cape Calamita Mine (Calamita Mine), Vallone stope

3.1mm tuft of Chrysocolla after Malachite




Chrysocolla after VeszelyiteUKScotland, Dumfries & Galloway (Dumfries-shire), Wanlockhead, Waygate Shaft (Straitstep Vein)

Chrysocolla after Veszelyite FOV ~2mm
Chrysocolla@VeszelyiteFOV8mm



Chrysocolla after ?ChileAtacama Region, Copiapó Province, Zapallar district, Los Azules area, Los Azules Mine

Chrysocolla after ? FOV 1cm




Chrysocolla after ? on MalachiteDemocratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)Katanga (Shaba), Katanga Copper Crescent, Western area, Kolwezi, Mashamba West Mine

Chrysocolla after ? on Malachite




Cinnabar after Gortdrumite and GrotdrumiteAustriaSalzburg, Saalfelden, Leogang, Hütten, Schwarzleograben, Schwarzleo District, Neuschurf adit

Cinnabar after Gortdrumite with Gortdrumite FOV 3mm




Chlorite after Aragonite with CalciteSpainCanary Islands, Las Palmas Province, Lanzarote, Playa Blanca, Punta del Aguila

chlorite group @ Aragonite w Calcite FOV 1.4 cm




Clarkite after gummiteUSANorth Carolina, Yancey Co., Spruce Pine District, Celo, Micaville, Fanny Gouge Mine (Spruce Pine Mica Company No. 10 Mine)

Clarkite after gummite 2cm wide




clay after HaliteUKEngland, South Gloucestershire (Bristol; Avon), Aust Cliff

clay after Halite 4.5cm wide




Colemanite after InyoiteUSACalifornia, Inyo Co., Death Valley National Park, Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District), Black Mts, Corkscrew Canyon, Corkscrew Canyon Mine (Corkscrew Mine)

Colemanite after Inyoite ~15cm wide
Colemanite after Inyoite 5.4cm wide


Colemanite after Inyoite ~12.5cm wide
Colemanite after Inyoite ~7.5cm wide

This mine is a real treasure chest of specimens. Everywhere you look there are open pockets of drusy Colemanite crystals that will sparkle from the reflection of your lamp. At various periods in years past the mine appeared to be abandoned and you could drive your car up to the adit and collect all the Colemanite specimens you could carry home. It is a small mine and though most of what you can find there is rather unremarkable drusy Colemanite specimens, you can sometimes find Colemanite after Inyoite, though often they are almost deformed beyond recognition. Often they are tinted brown with Todorokite. This is also the type locality for Nobleite and still I think the best location for this mineral.


Conichalcite after AzuriteSpainMurcia, Pastrana, Mazarrón-Águilas, Dolores prospect

Conichalcite after Azurite FOV 9mm wide




Copper after AragoniteBoliviaLa Paz Department, Pacajes Province, Corocoro

Copper after Aragonite 2cm wide
Calcite after Aragonite ~2cm


Copper after Aragonite 1.7cm wide
Copper after Aragonite 2.4cm wide


Copper after Aragonite ~3cm wide
Copper after Aragonite 2cm tall


Copper after Aragonite 2.8cm tall
Copper after Aragonite 3cm wide


Copper @ Aragonite 2cm



This mine has produced specimens of Copper after Aragonite for perhaps 100 years, and today it still produces specimens that the locals mine for sale as specimens if they can and for ore if all else fails. Frequently the mineralization is only skin deep with the bulk of the crystal still remaining as aragonite. In spite of a long history of specimens production fine examples of this pseudomorph are still sought after by collectors. The are not found in a naturally bright state as we see in some of the pictures above, but are commonly cleaned of oxides and clay to make the copper bright. Usually vinegar or citric acid is strong enough to accomplish the cleaning of these specimens.


Copper after AzuriteUSAMontana, Sanders Co., Noxon District

Copper after Azurite ~3cm wide




Copper after AzuriteUSANew Mexico, Grant Co., Georgetown District, Georgetown

Copper after Azurite ~4cm wide
Copper after Azurite 5.5cm wide


Copper after Azurite 3.9cm wide
Copper after Azurite 3.6cm tall


Copper after Azurite 3.2cm tall



Copper after Azurite has been found at a number of localities, but those from Georgetown are usually considered to be the best and are still sought after by collectors.


Copper after AzuriteUSANew Mexico, Grant Co., Georgetown District, San Lorenzo, Copper Rose Mine (Rose Mine; McGregor Mine; Copper Glance Mine; Potosi Mine)

Copper after Azurite 3.6cm wide




Copper after CupriteNamibiaOtjikoto (Oshikoto) Region, Tsumeb
Copper after Cuprite 4cm wide




Copper after CupriteNamibiaKhomas Region, Windhoek District, Seeis, Ogonja (Onganja), Ogonja Mine (Onganja Mine)

Copper after Cuprite 3.7cm wide
Copper after Cuprite 1.5cm wide


Copper after CupriteRussiaWestern-Siberian Region, Altaiskii Krai, Rudnyi Altai, Rubtsovskoe Cu-Zn-Pb deposit

We don't have any pictures yet of these in the database, but when some show up there, we will include images of them here. They are hands down the best copper pseudomorphs after cuprite by perhaps an order of magnitude. I saw one that was sharp and I think about 5 cm in diameter. Many collectors would murder their grandmothers for one of these.


Copper after CupriteUSAArizona, Cochise Co., Mule Mts, Warren District, Bisbee area

Copper after Cuprite 2.2cm tall




Copper after drill-bit USAMichigan, Houghton Co.

Copper after drill bit 8.4cm wide




Copper after round rockUSAMichigan, Houghton Co., Calumet Township, Calumet, Calumet & Hecla Mine

Copper after round rock 11cm wide
Copper after round rock 3.1 cm


Copper after round rock 6.8cm wide



These are commonly called copper skulls by collectors and to the best of my knowledge are only known from the mines in Michigan. The copper appears to have formed around round rocks and small boulders in the conglomerate rock formations found in some of the mines. Sometimes they have been found larger than 20 cm in diameter. The copper mines in Michigan are closed and there are none left that produce copper for smelting, but never the less specimens continue to trickle out of the region because of hard working field collectors.


Copper after woodCyprus island
We appear to have no images of wood replacing Cyprus in the database at this time, but some of the mines in Cyprus have produced spectacular copper pseudomorphs after wood.


Copper after woodUSAArizona, Pinal Co., Dripping Spring Mts, Mineral Creek District (Ray District), Scott Mountain area, Ray Mine

Copper after wood 8.7cm
Copper after wood, end view- left


Corkite after PyromorphiteAustraliaNew South Wales, Yancowinna Co., Broken Hill, Kintore Opencut

Corkite @ Pyromorphite FOV 2.5cm




Cornubite after AzuriteUSANevada, Pershing Co., Antelope District, Majuba Hill Mine (Mylar Mine), Copper Stope

Cornubite after Azurite ~2cm
Close up of left


Cornubite after Mimetite?GermanyNorth Rhine-Westphalia, Bergisches Land, Rösrath, Hoffnungsthal, Leibnitz-Dante Mine

Cornubite after Mimetite FOV 8mm




Cornubite after Olivenite with AzuriteGermanyNorth Rhine-Westphalia, Bergisches Land, Hoffnungsthal, Rösrath, Leibnitz-Dante Mine

Cornubite @ Olivenite with Azurite FOV 3mm




Covellite after BismuthinitePortugalVila Real District, Montalegre, Borralha Mine

Covellite after Bismuthinite 2cm wide




Crandallite after FluelliteSpainNavarre, Esteribar, Eugui, Azcárate Quarry

Crandallite after Fluellite 8.7cm wide
Crandallite @ Fluellite, closeup left


Crandallite & Wardite after VarisciteUSAUtah, Utah Co., Oquirrh Mts, Fairfield, Clay Canyon

Crandallite & Wardite after Variscite ~7cm wide



Crandallite is the yellow mineral associated with the green Variscite and the Gray Wardite and I think is present in every single nodule of Fairfield Variscite.


Crandallite after WavelliteAustraliaSouth Australia, Mt Lofty Ranges, North Mt Lofty Ranges, Kapunda, Tom's Phosphate quarry (Tom's quarry)

Crandallite after Wavellite 2.7cm wide




Crandallite after Wavellite?RussiaUrals Region, Southern Urals, Chelyabinsk Oblast', Chebarkul', Zauralovo, Temir Mt. quarry

Crandallite after Wavellite? FOV 5cm




Cryptomelane/Lithiophorite after plant rootSpainCastile-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Pozuelo, El Chorrillo mines

Cryptomelane/Lithiophorite after plant root 10cm wide




Cuproroméite after ChalcostibiteKyrgyzstanJalal-Abad Oblast, Chatkal region, Tereksai (Terek-Saj)

Cuproroméite @ Chalcostibite 2.5cm
Cuproroméite @ Chalcostibite 2.5cm



Cuprotungstite after ScheeliteGermanyBaden-Württemberg, Black Forest, Wolfach, Oberwolfach, Rankach valley, Clara Mine

Cuprotungstite after Scheelite FOV 7mm




Cyanochroite after PiypiteRussiaFar-Eastern Region, Kamchatka Oblast', Tolbachik volcano, Great Fissure (Main Fracture) eruption, Northern Breakthrough (North Breach), Second scoria cone

Cyanochroite after Piypite FOV 1.2cm




Cymatolite after SpodumeneUSANew Hampshire, Strafford Co., Strafford, Parker Mt, Parker Mountain Pegmatite Quarry (Buzzo Quarry; Buzzo Mine)

Cymatolite @ Spodumene FOV 4cm
Cymatolite @ Spodumene 3.2cm






Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements A & B. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements D to I. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements J to M. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements N to P. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements Quartz. Click here to view Pseudomorphs & Replacements R to Z. Click here to view Best Minerals P, click here to view and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.



Images last selected December 2010 sorting on "after".

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.



Edited 26 time(s). Last edit at 09/09/2013 06:50AM by Alfredo Petrov.
avatar Re: Pseudomorphs C
June 07, 2011 09:10PM
Rock:

Great stuff, as always. I noticed one small hiccup when going through, though: there's no photo currently associated with "Copper after Cuprite"
for Bisbee, just the placeholder and size label. After taking a look through the Bisbee coppers, I presume you intended to use this one:
http://www.mindat.org/photo-102700.html

At some point I'm sure the brain-frying copper pseudos after cuprite from Rubtsovskoe will make an appearance in this section, but I was surprised to see there aren't any in the database yet. I have a nice partial replacement of cuprite by copper that also includes silver, but it's neither anywhere near the class of specimens on display at the Main Show in Tucson this year, nor is it currently photographed! I did take a few picutres of that case at Tucson, but unfortunately the shots were poorly lit and really not up to snuff.

Cheers,
D.
avatar Re: Pseudomorphs C
June 08, 2011 02:30AM
Don,
Thanks for comments. I am still working on these pseudomorph articles. Right now they are not much more than picture galleries of pseudomorphs. I just got through adding in about 300 more of them by searching our database on replaced, replacing, altered and altering. Now I am in the process of going through the articles and catching glitches like the one you pointed out and making all the images look the same size more or less and bringing the format into alignment with the other articles. When this get done I will go back through the articles and add the little I know about them to text blocks below the images. Perhaps another two weeks of work if all goes well.

I have a friend who each year for the last 20 years at Tucson, has wangled his way into the show during setup and taken pictures of all the good stuff while it was being put on display. I am trying to get him to break loose of these long enough to get them digitized so I can upload them to Mindat. This would include those great new cuprites that you are talking about. I saw a couple of them that were even better than the ones that were on display. Don't know if I will be able to get them for Mindat or not. They went into a black hole.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Pseudomorphs C
June 21, 2011 10:33PM
Calcite after Ikaite - Australia

Rock here is some more stuff on glendonites:

The decomposition/dehydration of a single Ikaite form, results in a large reduction in crystal volume. Many pseudo have a hard outer shell, with a spongy interior. It takes several additional cycles of Calcite deposition, to create a more solid form. Many World Wide sites for this pseudo type are known. Most are only of scientific intrest. Some lost local specimens show up due to the breakup of old collections. Russian and Australian pseudomorphs are still found on-line.

Calcite photo from Aklavik, Canada – after Gaylussite, reclassify to after Ikaite.

Calcite photo from Sangerhaussen -- after Gaylussite, reclassify to after Ikaite. It was from this local, that this pseudo type was first noted. Friesleben(1827) found Small, 10-15 mm, gray to tan, crystals in a sinkhole, near a mine he was inspecting

At Obersdorf, North-East of Sangerhausen. They occurred as singles, to rounded Crystal clusters. He named them “Gerstenkorner”(Barlycorn) Pseudomorphs.

The Australian pseudos were first studied by the American J. D. Dana. He was carried as the Geologist aboard the Wilks Expoidition(1838-42), which sailed around the Pacific Rim . While exploring the Hunter Valley, N.S.W., he was presented several strange solid, dark brown crystals, by Mrs Robert Scott, of Glendon. Dana(1849) later described then as pseudomorphs, but it was David(1905) who officially called them “Glendonites”. Over 30 sites in Australia, have reported the pseudo, as singles, intergrowths, and rarer rounded clusters. Some elongated singles reached 60 Cm long. Most are no longer accessible due to urbanization, housing, vineyards, even being included in Parks. Occasionally found On-line.

Japan – Single pseudo crystals from numerous sites in Japan, were often condidered to be an archaeological artifact. The pseudo, to 10-15 Cms, looked like the head of a stone tool. They now carry the name “Gennou-ishi”(Hammerstone)

Russia, Karelia. Agree with Stepan Koch, not a pseudo after Ikaite. Wrong crystal shape.
First photo under Olenitsa, by Griff, wrong color, crystal shape and was vugy not solid.
Likely from Khatanga, on the Taimyr Peninsula, Russia.

Of all the many Russian locals Olenitsa has been the most prolific commercial site. Litterally thousands of small solid, redish-brown, clusters, were extracted from beds and tital muds, at the mouth of the Olenitsa River, as it flows off the Kola Peminsula, into the White Sea. Nice elongated, tapering, crystal clusters to 15 Cms, were often left partially embedded in the gray clay, to create quite dramatic specimens. A baseball bat shaped single crystal to 25 Cms was noted. Fishermen had long been encountering the pseudos, in their nets, when dredging the Sea floor. The finding of two intergrowen crystals, looking like a Cross, was considered to bring very good luck. The pseudo have often been called “White Sea Hornlets”.

Alaska – This remote Alaskan local was found, on a side gully, three miles up Carter Creek, which flows North into Camden Bay, on the Arctic Coast. The distinctive white, bladed clusters, weather out of siltstone outcrops at the head of the cut. During early summer, they were collected, as float, from a “Awfully soupy Mess”, along the floor of the gully. Many of the mud wrapped groups were badly corroded, but sharp clusters to about 18 Cms and very rare singles to 22 Cms , have been found.

England – Another old local was located while dredging the bottom of the Tyne Slake, a large Bay on the Tyne River, to allow oceangoing ships , access to the nearby Coal from Newcastle. The light tan, almost sandy, pseudomorphs , were found as singles, and groups up to about 4 Cms. They were studied by Browell(1861) who named them “Jarrowites” after the nearby Jarrow Docks.

Will see if I can get Leo to writeup his Washington Site


More to come.
Keith Harshbarger <2011>

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Pseudomorphs C
June 21, 2011 10:36PM
Kieth,
I hope you will really keep this kind of "stuff" coming. It sounds to me that you should be writing this article rather than me, but Ill take as much information as you have the time to provide and put it in the article, and if you provide enough of it, Ill take my name off the article and put yours there in instead.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Re: Pseudomorphs & Replacements C
November 12, 2011 03:36PM
Since a very short time I became a member of a mineral working group of the Dutch Geological Association (Stichting GEA) for amateur geologists. They asked me to write a article on pseudomorphs. I discovered that there are no scientificaly based data on pseudomorphs. So there is no proof, only photo's or texts, about the existance of pseudomorphs in mineralogy. There is no international acknowledged institution with scientificaly based data on pseudomorphs, so there is a great risk that data produced in the past are fake, faked or falsified! Anyway all those data are not validated and because of that in principle worthless.
My proposal would be to do real scientific research on pseudomorphs, spondored by companies like Shell or by well known geological institutes.
avatar Re: Pseudomorphs & Replacements C
November 12, 2011 10:41PM
Jozef,
A most admiral ambition. Usually when submitting requests for funding to these institutions they like to see proposals to do work that could eventually have results that will have real world applications with possible payoffs in terms of additional revenue. I would be curious as to your ideas abut how to relate studies of pseudomorphs to real world results and benefits. Minerals for in the earth under particular sets of physical conditions, and when those conditions change, so often do the minerals. Formation and decomposition of hydro methane would probably interest them, possibly the formation of Ikaite as a sink for carbon? You can probably think of many others.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
Re: Pseudomorphs & Replacements C
December 31, 2013 10:23AM
    


Cassiterite pseudomorphs after Othoclase, Wheal Bungay Mine, St Agnes, Cornwall.

This mine lies a short distance to the north of the better known source of Cassiterite pseudomorphs at Wheal Coates. Unlike the Wheal Coates occurence the Bungay specimens are found in a hard elvan matrix.
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