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Schalenblende

Posted by Harjo Neutkens  
avatar Schalenblende
April 16, 2009 06:59PM
    
Click here to view Best Minerals S and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.


Can you help make this a better article? What good localities have we missed? Can you supply pictures of better specimens than those we show here? Can you give us more and better information about the specimens from these localities? Can you supply better geological or historical information on these localities?

Schalenblende

Schalenblende from Olkusz, Poland© E. Szełęg


A mixture of Sphalerite (Zn,Fe2+)S and Wurtzite (Zn,Fe)S masses of a pale brown colour, occurring in concentric layers with reniform surfaces which also may contain pyrite and galena. It is believed to have formed by crystallization of a sulfide gel.


Schalenblende
Australia
New South Wales, Yancowinna Co., Broken Hill


5cm© Knut Eldjarn


These coatings are usually called secondary Sphalerite rather then Schalenblende but they do also contain Wurtzite (by XRD) and usually include dendritic galena. They were abundant in the 1970's.
In Australia the Schalenblende specimens were called "Brunckite"
[Ralph Bottrill, Knut Eldjarn, 2009]


Schalenblende
Austria
Carinthia, Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen Mts, Bleiberg District


14x17cm© Rudo
7cm© H. Prasnik

8,5x5,5cm© PMB
6,5x5cm© PMB

Ancient lead-zinc mining area, worked from the 16th century until the late 1980's when the Stefanie mine was the last mine to close. The deposit is situated in a raised valley west of Villach, which separates the Dobratsch massif to the south from the Gailtaler Alpen Mts to the north.
A tourist mine can be visited.
Sedimentary Pb-Zn mineralizations in triassic limestones (Wetterstein formation) and intercalate carbonatites. The valley is believed to have been part of a marine rift system in the triassic age. The main ores are galena (nearly free of silver) and cadmian sphalerite. Due to fault systems, the oxidation zone extends to depths of around 400 m in some areas of the district (Rudolf mine, Bad Bleiberg). Within the deposit, the galena content decreases to the west: at Kreuth (Max mine), sphalerite was more abundant than galena. Identical mineralizations are found in superimposing layers (Cardita formation, basal main dolomite) to the north. Together, these rocks form a several km wide zone that extends far up the Gail valley (to the west). Within this zone, numerous small Pb-Zn deposits with similar mineralizations are located (e.g. Jaukenhöhe, Radnig near Hermagor, Förolach, Zuchengraben and Schliwagraben near St Stefan, Mitterberg, Golsernock near Stockenboi and Burg near Rubland).
Can anyone help us with information on specimens from this locality?


Schalenblende
Belgium
Liège Province, Engis, La Mallieue

5,7cm© Paul De Bondt
11,5cm© Paul De Bondt

Carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit.


Schalenblende
Belgium
Liège Province, Verviers, Plombières-Vieille Montagne (Plombières-Altenberg) District, Kelmis, Moresnet, Schmalgraf Mine


35,2cm© Paul De Bondt
22,5cm© Paul De Bondt

12,4cm© Paul De Bondt
11x8,5cm© JDehove

20cm© R. Lang 2009
5,2cm© R. Lang 2009

7,2cm© Paul De Bondt
8,6cm© Paul De Bondt

Ancient zinc and lead mine that started in 1867 and was abandoned in 1932.
The mine is located 2.5 km west of Moresnet with old dumps opposite the adit (Oskarstollen) in the valley of “Lontzener Bach”. Many very fine examples of Schalenblende came out of the mine during the many years of operation.
The light bands in Schalenblende from Schmalgraff(Neu-Moresnet) show an orange fluorescence under long wave UV light (info Nico Nilis).
Can anyone help us with information on specimens from this locality?


Schalenblende
Belgium
Liège Province, Verviers, Plombières-Vieille Montagne (Plombières-Altenberg) District, Welkenraedt


14cm© C.H.M.-Schäfer
FOV 3,4cm© Paul De Bondt

Ancient lead and zinc mine located 7 km NNW of Eupen and 4 km SW of Moresnet.
Can anyone help us with information on specimens from this locality?


Schalenblende
Belgium
Liège Province, Verviers, Plombières-Vieille Montagne (Plombières-Altenberg) District, Lontzen, Astenet, Fossey, Fossey Mine


6,8x3,8cm© PMB
5x4cm© Leon Hupperichs

Can anyone help us with information on specimens from this locality?


Schalenblende
Belgium
Namur Province, Andenne,Seilles


12x11cm© Harjo
10cm© Paul De Bondt

18,6cm© Paul De Bondt
10cm© Richard De Nul

8,2cm© Paul De Bondt
10,8cm© Paul De Bondt

Active Limestone quarry famous (in Belgium) for outstanding Fluorite specimens found in the 1970s and 80s. The Schalenblende specimens were recovered from a single " walk-in " pocket in 2007 (info Paul de Bondt)


Schalenblende
Belgium
Namur Province, Namur, Vedrin

6,2cm© Paul De Bondt



Part of the Meuse-Vesdre lead-zinc district.
The mine was more an iron mine with large amounts of marcasite rather than a lead-zinc mine. [Paul de Bondt]


Schalenblende
Canada
Northwest Territories, Pine Point

10,7cm© Paul De Bondt 2013



Pine Point sets on coarsely crystalline dolomite of the Presqu'ile formation and the dolomitic calcarenite of the underlying Pine Point formation, Mississippi Valley type Pb-Zn deposit. 36 pits over an area of 20x60 km.
Located near Great Slave Lake.


Schalenblende
Canada
Nunavut Territory, Little Cornwallis Island, Polaris Mine (Arvik Mine)

7x6,5cm© PMB
9,2cm© Paul De Bondt

A lead-zinc mine owned by Cominco. Production was at 100,000 tons/year Zn & 30,000 tons/year Pb in concentrates. This mine is the farthest north in the world!


Schalenblende
Germany
Baden-Wurtenberg, Heidelberg, Wiesloch, Segen Gottes Mine


3x5cm© Volker Betz
FOV 12cm© 2005 M. Kampf

FOV 4,5cm© 2005 M. Kampf
7x6cm© PMB

Ancient lead and zinc mine, closed in 1953, located near Wiesloch, about 12 km south of Heidelberg.
Information on Wiesloch mining history
Can anyone help us with information on specimens from this locality?


Schalenblende
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Aachen, Stolberg, Breinig, Breinigerberg Mine


FOV 4cm© C.H.M.-Schäfer
8x6cm© Leon Hupperichs


A lead and zinc mine, closed in 1893. Located near Breinig, 4 km SSE of Stolberg.
Can anyone help us with information on specimens from this locality?


Schalenblende
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Aachen, Stolberg, Mausbach, Diepenlinchen Mine, Henriette Shaft


13cm© R. Lang/F. Holtz 2009
5x4cm© R. Lang/F. Holtz 2009

17x9cm© Leon Hupperichs
17x13x8cm© R. Lang 2009

Schalenblende from Diepenlinchen Mine

The Diepenlinchen mine produced quite a few good mineral specimens. From the main site beautiful Calcite crystals on colloform Schalenblende are noticeable. The most known specimens are beautifully banded Schalenblende samples. The best ones were found at the Henriette shaft site. The primary sulphide paragenesis is dominated by Schalenblende with a variable content of Galena and Marcasite. The pale layers of the Schalenblende only contain Sphalerite, in the dark layers also Wurtzite may be present. Some veins carry silver-rich galena as main ore mineral. Between the compact schalenblende and the wallrock often an impregnation zone can be observed with idiomorphic crystals of Sphalerite, Pyrite crystals, Tetrahedrite, Chalcopyrite and Quartz. Marcasite generally was precipitated at the final stage of the ore mineralization and hence forms the outermost layers of the schalenblende. Bravoite is a characteristic mineral of the paragenesis.
[Roger Lang 2009]

Mineralogy, geology and mining history of Diepenlinchen Mine

The Diepenlinchen mine was one of the most important mines of the Aachen-Stolberg Zn-Pb ore district. The occurrences are hosted by devonian and carboniferous sediments - mostly limestones, sand-, silt- and mudstones. Mineralization is structurally controlled and of low temperature hydrothermal origin. It is considered to be of post-Variscan age and similar to the Mississipi Valley Type deposits. The ore occurs as fissure veins and vein or veinlet boxworks (called 'stockworks'). Besides the vein type deposits also concordant orebodies are known which occur in fracture zones along bedding or longitudinal faults particularly where these are intersected by cross-faults. Mineralized karst-sinks have been described as 'ore-pipes' or 'ore-caves'. The mineralization of the Aachen-Stolberg Zn-Pb ore district consists in the upper levels - down to around 60 m, maximum 100 m - predominantly of Calamine, Limonite and relics of primary sulphide ore towards depth. As a particularity at Diepenlinchen calamine was mined down to 300 m depth.

The Diepenlinchen concession is geologically positioned at the NE-end of the Werth syncline, SE of the city of Stolberg. The syncline is formed by sedimentary rocks of Couvinean to Visean age. The strata strike SW-NE with a steep dip at the Southern flank and a flat at the Northern flank. The concession covers a size of 8 km2. Commodities were Pb, Zn, Fe and Cu.

Mining in the area of the Diepenlinchen concession goes back to the 2nd and 3rd centuries when the romans extracted calamine for brass manufacturing. Also galena was mined at that time. From the 16th to the 19th century small scale calamine mining operations were carried out. The concession was created in the first quarter of the 19th century by the consolidation of numerous small claims. In 1809 Bäumer, Buchacker & Cie. were granted a concession on Pb ore, Calamine and 'Ironstone'. An underground mining operation was established reaching 80 m depth. Water problems caused the early installation of steam machines but nevertheless mining wasn´t successfull. In 1820 the works were stopped and the concession was leased to miners from the nearby village Mausbach. The industrial mining period started in 1838. The Diepenlinchen mine was operated by the METALLURGISCHE GESELLSCHAFT and their followers KOMMANDITGESELLSCHAFT DE SASSENAY & CIE. and STOLBERGER GESELLSCHAFT. Exploitation at the Diepenlinchen mine lasted until 1919 with the deepest level reaching 376 m. From 1855 to 1919 450,000 t of Zn concentrate and 150,000 t of Pb concentrates have been produced. The ore grade was 14% ZnS and 3% PbS on average. The closure of the mine was related to the impact of World War I. The extraction tonnage decreased during WW I and severe problems of coal transport for the power plants supply led to a critical situation at the mine. The actual inducement of the closure was a general strike in 1919. In 1927/28 a flotation processing plant with a capacity of 5 tons per hour was built in order to recover the base metal content of the older tailings. In 1933 more than 4,000 t of ore concentrate could be extracted. The flotation plant was finally closed in 1942 and the last chapter of ore mining in Stolberg came to an end. Estimated remaining reserves are > 1 million tonnes of ore. The concession was still owned by Metallgesellschaft (Stolberger Zink) in 1990.

The Diepenlinchen concession comprised the following sites/occurrences:
Deposits in Devonian reef limestone: Doerrenberg, 'Lichtloch VII' of Dohm gallery, Theuerkauf, Scheidt, Mausbacher Hecken.
Deposits in Carboniferous limestone (from SW to NE): Henriette site with 2 veins and nests. Diepenlinchen site with nest no. II with 'Gang IV', nest no. I with 'Gang III', 'Schwefelkies' stockwork, 'Brennessel' stockwork, Brennesselgang, 'Weissbleierz' stockwork, 'Andreasgang', 'Leongang', nest at main shaft, 'Gang V', 'Gang III', 'Heinrich stockwork' with 'Gang I' and 'II'.'Ludwiggang','neuer Franzgang','alter Franzgang','Johanngang', 2 nameless veins, 'Gang VI', 'Weissenberg' stockwork, 'Schwarzgruben' nest. Neuer Simon site with 5 small veins (Streifen I to V). Alter Simon site with 2 nests. Hitzberg site with only some small nests and veinlets. Alter Ravelsberg site with small unnamed veins and 'Gang I and II'.
[Roger Lang 2009]


Schalenblende
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Aachen, Stolberg, Hammerberg Mine


9x5cm© Leon Hupperichs
8x5cm© R. Lang/F. Holtz 2009

The Hammerberg Mine, south of Stolberg, was one of the mines of the Aachen-Stolberg Zn-Pb ore district. Industial mining started in the 1840's. The Hammerberg Mine was operated by the Eschweiler Bergwerks-Verein and their follower the Eschweiler Gesellschaft. Main veins: Fuchsgang and Schürfgang.
Exploitation ended at the end of the 19th century. Like most of the mines in the Stolberg area this mine also produced some very nice schalenblende specimens.
[Leon Hupperichs 2009]


Schalenblende
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Niederberg area, Wülfrath, Rohdenhaus, Rohdenhaus Quarry


8,5x6cm© Harjo
24x20cm© Harjo

21x14cm© Harjo
19x14,5x9cm© Harjo

A quarry in upper Devonian limestones disseminated by lead, zinc and copper bearing veins, located 1.5 km NNE of Rohdenhaus, NW of Wülfrath. Early 2008 a massive wall came down due to a landslide in the upper parts of the north-eastern side of the quarry. The whole wall was mineralised with Schalenblende and Marcasite. Many splendid specimens of Schalenblende with Marcasite were collected during the first half of 2008.
[Harjo Neutkens 2009]


Schalenblende
Germany
North Rhine-Westphalia, Sauerland, Meschede, Ramsbeck, Dörnberg Mine


9,2cm© Paul De Bondt
12,2cm© Paul De Bondt

Ancient lead and zinc mine. Located on the east slope of Dörnberg mountain, about 2.5 km ENE of Ramsbeck.
Could anyone tell us more about specimens from this locality?


Schalenblende
Germany
Baden-Württemberg, Black Forest, Lahr, Reichenbach, Gereuth, Felgendobel creek, Silbereckle Mine


5,5x2,5cm© P Blümner
7x6,5cm© PMB

This location has produced some samples of Schalenblende, mostly consisting of banded greyish to yellowish brown sphalerite with minor wurtzite. Pyrite/marcasite is not common at the Reichenbach localities at all. Typically it is accompanied by grey chert-like quartz and white to pale greyish or brownish baryte as dense, earthy aggregates without tabular forms. Jordanite (pseudomorphs after gratonite), mostly pseudomorphed by mimetite is present at one sample. In this vein, native arsenic is another typical ore mineral as well as the main ore, galena. Secondary minerals include adamite and köttigite, both as very nice xls.
The vein is part of a larger vein system in a fault zone, striking NE-SW (parallel to the main fault system of the Upper Rhine Graben). It is tertiary in age as well as the main fault zone, parallel to the eastern flank of the main fault zone (Schwarzwaldrandverwerfung). The vein goes to the south to the Michael Mine (type locality of hallimondite, hügelite, the first descriptions of a Zn-Fe-arsenate (later described from Tsumeb as Tsumcorite) and Weilerite (SO4-rich Arsenogorceixite) have been made there). But interestingly the Silbereckle Mine is the only known location in the Black Forest that has Schalenblende.
[Sebastian Möller 2009]


Schalenblende
Germany
Saxony, Erzgebirge, Freiberg District, Halsbrücke, Beihilfe Mine

11cm© Paul De Bondt



Info needed.


Schalenblende
Germany
Saxony, Erzgebirge, Freiberg District, Naundorf

6,3x4,3cm© PMB


Info needed.


Schalenblende
Italy
Friuly Venezia Giulia, Udine Province, Tarvisio, Cave del Predil, Raibl Mines

8cm© Paul De Bondt 2011


Dolomitic limestone in contact with upper Permian limestones.

These mines were surely active in the XIV century when Emperor Philip the Nice conceded permission to extract lead and zinc to a group of miners. In the XIX century, under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the mine was half an Imperial property and half property of Hanckel Von Donnersmarck Earls. After WWI, Italy annexed the Tarvisio area, and the Italian government assigned the extraction concessions to the Society Cave del Predil. In 1953 the mine changed hands various times, and in 1963 became property of the Italian government, with Azienda Mineraria Metallurgica Italiana Spa. In 1965 the Friuli Venezia Giulia Regions became the mine owner and conceded the use of the mine to AMMI up to 1987. But gestional costs are so high that in 1976 the mine was almost closed. In 1978 a new society, SAMIM, appeared that operated the mine up to 1986. The mine has closed on February, 6, 1991 (sic!).


Schalenblende
Poland
Małopolskie, Olkusz District, Olkusz Mine


15x7cm© G. Bijak
10cm© R. Lang 2006


Schalenblende
Poland
Małopolskie, Olkusz District, Pomorzany Mine


19,7cm© Paul De Bondt
8x10cm© E. Szełęg

The most wanted specimens of Olkusz Schalenblende by collectors are "closed", concentric forms (looking like agates). Usually the size of better quality specimens is about 8-15 cm. Prices vary from a few $ to 50-150$ for good quality specimens. The best ones may cost about 200-300$, but the best quality is really hard to find on the market. The biggest problem with these specimens is that Marcasite is very unstable there. It should be kept in really dry conditions otherwise Marcasite will be decomposed by bacteria. The Sphalerite/Wurtzite bands in Pomorzany specimens show an orange fluorescence under long wave UV light (info Stefan Oertel and Axel Emmerman)
[Tomasz Praszkier 2009]


Schalenblende
Slovenia
Mežica (Miess)

6,4 cm© Paul De Bondt



Pb-Zn mineralizations in triassic limestones, similar to those at Bad Bleiberg in Carinthia.
The Mezica mining district is located near the Austrian border - the area was part of Carinthia before the first world war.


And can anyone help us with information and photographs of specimens from other localities worldwide?


[Harjo Neutkens 2009]



Click here to view Best Minerals S and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.



Edited 98 time(s). Last edit at 05/11/2013 08:39PM by Harjo Neutkens.
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 16, 2009 07:45PM
    
Hi Harjo,
i should have some good specimens left (from my RWTH Aachen time) .... from Diepenlinchen, Stolberg [www.mindat.org]; from Breinigerberg [www.mindat.org], from Fossei (Fossey mine) near Kelmis [www.mindat.org] and Schmalgraf of course... please give me some time to take pictures (still try to get access to the millerites of the Saar coal basin winking smiley ).
Wiesloch, Germany [www.mindat.org] is another locality which should be mentioned, also Polaris mine [www.mindat.org], Bleiberg, Carinthia [www.mindat.org] ... and some more

will post during the next days/weeks again winking smiley

cheers
Roger
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 16, 2009 07:46PM
    
.. during typing you added some of the locales winking smiley
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 16, 2009 07:54PM
    
Thanks Roger!
Any info and photographs are more then welcome, I'll patiently await your replies winking smiley
Paul de Bondt will photograph more specimens from his collection as well.
I think this will become a nice one!

Cheers

Harjo
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 16, 2009 08:47PM
    
Harjo,
found a nice specimen but not so good picture ... it is displayed at Mechernich mining museum so i won´t be able to take better photos for a while as i am some 200 km away at the moment. Nevertheless this is a quite good Schmalgraf sample IMHO .. may be you´ll use it. [www.mindat.org]

Cheers
Roger
Re: Schalenblende
April 16, 2009 09:22PM
I have heard the conjecture that "schalenblende" was formed by the burial and later metamorphosis of ancient "black smokers" similar to ones depositing metal sulfides today on the bottom of several oceans. Has anyone investigated this theory?
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 16, 2009 09:42PM
    
Howard,
the Schalenblende from Aachen-Stolberg-Kelmis (Belgium) district are low temperature hydrothermal epigenetic formations in lower carboniferous and upper devonian limestones as open space vein fillings and partly replacing limestone. We did some research on those quite some years ago. I won´t rule out that also banded sphalerite deposits may be formed by the process you describe but for the localities we have listed here until now the hydrothermal origin is sure (also the polish occurrences),

cheers
Roger
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 16, 2009 09:56PM
    
Harjo,
i added some new pictures, maybe one of them can be used...
[www.mindat.org]
[www.mindat.org]
[www.mindat.org]
[www.mindat.org]

Groeten naar NL,
ik zal nog een beetje gaan zoeken naar Blende winking smiley

cheers
Roger
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 16, 2009 10:24PM
    
Hi Roger, einiges ist schon drinne winking smiley
Von Philip (sluggy vom MineralienAtlas) habe Ich auch noch einiges bekommen.....

Grüss

Harjo

(Klasse dein Holländisch!!)
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 16, 2009 10:29PM
    
Harjo,
mijn moeder is van Brunssum, Zuid-Limburg ... ik ben in Heerlen geboren dus praat ik een beetje nederlands winking smiley

Cheerio (looking for more Stolberg specimens ...)

Roger
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 17, 2009 02:02AM
Some good specimens have come from Broken Hill, Australia eg : [www.mindat.org]

These are usually called secondary sphalerite but also contain wurtzite (by XRD) and usually include dendritic galena. They were abundant in the 1970's but I have not seen any for a long while.

Ralph

Regards,
Ralph
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 17, 2009 04:38AM
    
Don`t forget the excellent Schalenblende from Slovenia. There are excellent specimen from Mezica for example!
avatar Re: Schalenblende Wiesloch
April 17, 2009 05:54AM
Hi,

this link contains the mining history of wiesloch.

[www.xfaweb.baden-wuerttemberg.de]

Volker
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 17, 2009 09:35PM
    
Thanks guys for your information!
I'll try to incorporate it in the article this weekend.

Cheers

Harjo
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 17, 2009 10:23PM
    
Harjo,
i updated some info about Diepenlinchen [www.mindat.org] and added another specimen photo for Henriette shaft. You may choose what you can use for the article. More to follow ASAP (but not before next week).

Cheers
Roger
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 18, 2009 08:24AM
    
Hi all,

Robert, that's a fantastic description of the Diepenlinchen mine site.

Thank you for sharing.

Take care and best regards.

Paul.
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 18, 2009 09:00AM
A great addition to best minerals, but:

I'm a greedy collector and I want to know how I can get some of this stuff? It looks like it must be pretty common because of all the pretty pictures, but no one is telling me anything much about the stuff except that this stuff comes from old lead zinc mines. How much of this stuff is around? Which localities are still producing? Which are the most prolific. How big do these pieces get? Do they get any better than this? I have these old rocks in my basement that my grandfather the miner left and I think they are this kind of stuff? How can I cut it up and make this kind of thing? Is there any particular trick to cutting and polishing it? Certainly you guys can come up with answers to some of the ten questions about some of the stuff at some of these localities? There was a picture of an amazing one with purple coloration. Is this common or is this the only piece. What is the purple color? There is a mine I can visit that produced the stuff? Where is the mine? What village or town? These are some of the things I want to know about. How much does this stuff sell for in general?

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 18, 2009 09:21AM
    
Rock,

I think that the most prolific and productive are mines in Olkusz, Poland - [www.mindat.org]
The most wanted by collectors are "closed", concentric forms (looking like agates). Usually size of better quality specimens is about 8-15 cm.
Prices are varied from few $ to 50-150$ for good quality specimens. The best ones may cost about 200-300$, but the best quality is really hard to find on the market.
The biggest problem with this specimens is that marcasite is very unstable there. It should be kept in really dry conditions otherwise marcasite will be decomposed by bacterias.

Tom

-------------------------------------
"Spirifer" Geological Society
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 18, 2009 07:43PM
Thomas, Thats useful information that should find its way into the article. OK

So now I am a technical geek and want to know:

Wow, those ring like things are way cool? Are they like tree rings that represent yearly fluctuations in growth? OK so they are mixtures of sphalerite and wurtzite. Are they fifty fifty mixtures or are the dark rings the sphalerite and the light colored rings wurtzite? The guy above says they fall apart because there is marcasite in them. Funny they didn't say anything about marcasite. OK someone must have studied this stuff in detail and characterized it. Why didn't they put some references to good publications about it. This must be some sort of light weight silly collector website. Is the stuff still being produced?

Yours truly, Devels Advocate

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Schalenblende
April 18, 2009 09:39PM
    
Rock,

they were analyzed a lot of times in Poland. Majority of specimens contain sphalerite/wurzite, marcasite and galena. In Poland usually galena is the oldest one and mracasite is the youngest, but it is not always like this.

I will try to find some references and put here.

Tom

-------------------------------------
"Spirifer" Geological Society
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