Homestake Mine, Lead, Lead District, Lawrence Co., South Dakota, USA
|Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):||44° 21' 21'' North , 103° 45' 54'' West|
|Latitude & Longitude (decimal):||44.35583,-103.76500|
A recently closed major Au-Ag mine located in sec. 33, T5N, R3E, BHM, 0.8 km (0.5 mile) NE of Lead (city hall). Discovered in 1875 by Moses Manuel and Frank Harney. Original claim was filed April, 1876. Owned by the Homestake Mining Co. Closed in 2002. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 10 meters. This mine is very evident on the topo maps.
The Homestake Mine is famous in scientific circles for being the site at which the solar neutrino problem was first discovered.
Alternate names which apply to this property include: Black Hills Consolidated Mines; Yates shaft; Calhoon Mill; Homestake Cyanide Mill No. 1; Homestake & Open Cut; Ellison shaft; Homestake Cyanide; Deadwood Mill; Highland Mill; Ross shaft; Oro Hondo shaft; Old Abe shaft; Homestake slime plant; De Smet Mill; Terra Mill; Hidden Fortune Mining Co.; Homestake Mill; Golden Star Mill; Homestake Extension shaft; and the Columbus Consolidated Gold Mining Co.
Mineralization is Neoproterozoic in age. The ore bodies are irregular, pipe-like structures. Controls for ore emplacement included 1.) a sulfide-bearing phase of the Homestake Formation; 2.) cross folds; and, 3.) proximity to garnet isograd...
Ore body No. 1: Pipes and lenses; plunge:40°; depth-to-bottom: 2,438.4 meters; width: 30.48 meters; length: 121.92 meters. It strikes N40E and dips 60S. The depth-to-top is 1,525 meters.
Second ore body: It is a shear zone body that is tabular in shape, strikes N10E, dips 70W, with a depth-to-top of 185 meters and a length of 1,350 meters. The primary mode of origin is hydrothermal. Primary ore control was lithology. Wall rock alteration is moderate (propylitic, silicification, and pyritization). Controls for ore emplacement include tightly folded plunging anticlines and synclines. Local rocks include sedimentary Iron Formation. Geologic units near the site include metamorphosed carbonaceous shale, the Whitewood Limestone, Winnipeg Formation, and Deadwood Formation.
Ore from the Homestake usually consists of masses of chlorite and quartz with leaves, rods of irregular masses of free gold attached, which is seldom more than 2 cm in largest dimension and usually much smaller. Exceptional specimens consisting of well-developed arsenopyrite crystals enclosing or encrusting with native gold, and occasional octahedral crystals of gold up to 2 mm in size have been collected.
Associated rocks include Pliocene-Neoproterozoic syenite; rhyolite; granite, granite porphyry, cutting stock; rhyolite & syenite dikes; amphibolite, irregular intrusives.
Regional geological structures include the Black Hills.
Local structures: Local subsidiary domes; the Lead syncline. The rocks are in a set of large isoclinal folds that have been refolded by two sets of smaller folds, which result in extremely complex configurations. Also, warping is caused by Tertiary igneous rocks and the dome formed around the cutting stock, which is exposed West of Lead. The ore bodies are located in the younger set of crossfolds.
Workings include surface and underground openings and achieved a depth of at least 2,300 meters. The depth in 1968 was 2073 meters.
Produced 1.7 million tons of ore in 1984 (9,200 kg Au).
Analytical data results: Native Au contains an average of 17% Ag, 1% Cu and other metals.
Resource/reserves data: Year: 1997: total resources 43,555,000 metric tons ore at 6.320000 grams/metric ton Au.
Mineral ListMineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities
42 valid minerals.
This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.
Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org
1600 - 2500 Ma
|Metamorphosed quartzite, pelite, and graywacke|
Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)
Description: Gray to tan quartzite, phyllite, and quartzose schist. Includes Ellison Formation (Hosted and Wright, 1923) in Lead area and Moonshine Gulch Quartzite (Bayley, 1972c) in Rochford area. Large area west of Nahant is mainly metagraywacke that contains subgraywacke or quartzite in upper part. Tuffaceous bed in Ellison Formation at Lead has a U-Pb zircon age of 1,974 ± 8 Ma (Redden and others, 1990). Shallow-water shelf sandstone and thin carbonate beds in Lead area change laterally toward the Nahant area to deeper water, coarser clastic beds. Thickness uncertain due to extreme deformation in Lead area but probably ranges from about 200 m to more than 1,000 m in Nahant area.
Reference: Redden, J.A., E. DeWitt. Maps Showing Geology, Structure, and Geophysics of the Central Black Hills, South Dakota. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2777. 
1600 - 2500 Ma
|Metamorphosed Carbonaceous Shale|
Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)
Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. 
Localities in this Region
- South Dakota
- Lawrence Co.
- Lead District
- Homestake Mine
- Lead District
- Lawrence Co.
Emmons and Becker (1885), Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports, Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States Census office.
Irving, J. D., et al (1904), USGS Professional Paper 26: Geological map.
Engineering and Mining Journal (1932), The Homestake Enterprise: 132(12).
American Mineralogist (1936): 21: 607-610.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, Volume I, 834 pp.: 92.
McLaughlin, D. H. (1949), The Homestake Mine: Canadian Mining Journal: 70(12): 49-53.
Noble, J. A., et al (1949), Structure of a Part of the Northern Black Hills and the Homestake Mine, Lead, South Dakota: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America: 60: 321-352.
Roberts, Willard Lincoln, and George Rapp, Jr. (1965), Mineralogy of the Black Hills, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Bulletin 18.
Slaughter, A. L. (1968), The Homestake Mine, in: J. D. Ridge, editor, Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933-1967, Volume II, A.I.M.E., New York, 1968: 1436-1459.
Conolly, T. (1974), Mining Engineering: 26(3): 24-27. (compilation).
USGS, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the South Dakota Geological Survey (1975), Mineral and Water Resources of South Dakota, South Dakota Geological Survey Bulletin 16.
McCarthy, T.R. (1976) The metamorphic petrology of the sideroplesite and cummingtonite schist facies of the Homestake Formation, Homestake Mine, Lead, South Dakota.
Mining Annual Review (1985): 326.
Rocks & Minerals (1985): 60: 111.
Homestake Mining Co. (1988), Annual Report: 13.
Homestake Mining Co. (1992), Annual Report: 18.
International Corona Corp. (1992), (6/15/92): 68-70.
Northern Miner (1993): 79(37) (11/15/93): 14.
Pay Dirt (1993), (11-93): 12A.
Pay Dirt (1993), (5-93): 18B.
Homestake Mining Co. (1994), Annual Report: 20-22.
Pay Dirt (1994): (6-94): 20B.
Randal Mining Directories (1994-1996).
Homestake Mining Co. (1995), Annual Report: 19.
Homestake Mining Co. (1996), Annual Report: 18-19, & Form 10-K: 4, 7.
Rocks & Minerals (2000): 75(3): 156-169.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10106953, 10069099 & 10202280.
Morelli, Ryan, Chris Bell, Robert Creaser, Antonio Simonetti (2010): Constraints on the genesis of gold mineralization at the Homestake Gold Deposit, Black Hills, South Dakota from rhenium–osmium sulfide geochronology. Mineralium Deposita: 45: 461-480.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0460810021.
(NOTE: This site has a multitude of original MRDS records. One/yr, from 1944-1977: #10110024 - 1944; #10055430 - 1945; #10055431 - 1946; #10055432 - 1947; #10110025 - 1948; #10055433 - 1949; #10110026 - 1950; #10110027 - 1951; #10055434 - 1952; #10110028 - 1953; #10055435 - 1954; #10055436 - 1955; #10110029 - 1956; #10055437 - 1957; #10110030 - 1958; #10055438 - 1959; #10110031 - 1960; #10055439 - 1961; #10110032 - 1962; #10055440 - 1963; #10055441 - 1964; #10110033 - 1965; #10055442 - 1966; #10110034 - 1967; #10055443 - 1968; #10110035 - 1969; #10055444 - 1970; #10110036 - 1971; #10055445 - 1972; #10055446 - 1973; #10110037 - 1974; #10055447 - 1975; #10110038 - 1976; and #10055448 - 1977)
Simons, F.S., and Prinz, W.C., Gold, in: United States Mineral Resources, USGS Professional Paper 820: 267.