The land is owned by the St. Aubyn Estate. Permission for site visits and bona fide research must be made prior to any visit through the Agent for the St. Aubyn Estates. The address is Manor Office, Marazion, Cornwall, TR17 0EF, England. Telephone: +44 (0) 1736 710507.
The mine is quite ancient and records of output give approximately 3000 tons of copper ore toward the end of the 18th century. Mixed copper and tin mining took place at depth at a later date, the lodes being stoped out to a depth of 53 fathoms below adit level. The mine closed around 1840. There being no further activity until recent years when at a time of high tin prices the dumps were sampled to evaluate their cassiterite content. The mine became listed as a SSSI by English Nature for its mineralisation in 1993.
The sett is situated in Devonian metasediments consisting of lower-grade-greenschist facies (killas) slates between the Land's End and Godolphin granite masses. The slates belong to the Mylor Slates Formation and are a series of dark coloured rocks with a slaty cleavage and well-developed foliation. They are generally characterised by a series of siltstones and mudstones, with occasional impersistant sandstone sequences. A series of interbedded metabasic rocks strikes east-west within the sett. The main Penberthy lode strikes east-west and dips to the south. The lode is associated with a rhyolite porphyry elvan dyke and cross course structures, and is probably related to a shear zone. There are in addition five other named lodes within the sett.
The mineralisation is of a multi-stage, polymetallic and hydrothermal character. The deposit consists of several, but distinct overlapping assemblages: Minor, burial-related quartz-albite-anatase-monazite veins of a pre-tectonic, metamorphic origin; main-stage high-temperature hypothermal-mesothermal Sn-Cu-As-W veins; later lower-temperature epithermal Pb-Zn sulphide mineralisation; and a late-stage, low-temperature Fe-Mn mineralisation. Subsequent supergene oxidation and weathering of lodes resulted in formation of complex gossans with oxide and supergene enrichment zones. Post-mining formation of other minerals both underground and on the dumps has resulted in a very large variety of mineral species in a small area. These in order of approximate abundance include arsenates, arsenate-sulphates and phosphates. The greatest diversity in terms of species has been located in five main areas of the old dumps: Three in the western and two in the eastern section of the workings. Most minerals here are found as good quality subhedral to euhedral microcrystals with occasional miniature specimens. Brecciation, fracturing, silicification, chloritization and carbonatization are abundant. The mineralisation formed over a very wide period of time extending from the Upper Palaeozoic through to the Cenozoic.
A major comprehensive mineralogical study was recently completed on this important locality by Betterton (2000) and was published in the UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
Note on the mineral list:
Reference to adamite at Penberthy Croft is from Kingsbury. Given the doubts about the provenance of other Kingsbury specimens (Ryback et al. 1998, 2001), investigated this and discredited the occurrence.
Mineral ListMineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities
104 entries listed. 98 valid minerals. 1 type locality (valid mineral).
Localities in this Region
The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
G Ryback, A D Hart & C J Stanley - Journal of the Russell Society, Vol 7, Part 2, 2001
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Locality Updated: Thulite locality (Walkley Hill), Haddam, Middlesex Co., Connecticut, USAFrom Harold Moritz, 6th Dec 2013 00:34:25