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Dubník, Červenica, Prešov Co., Prešov Region, Slovakia
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Latitude: 48°54'16"N
Longitude: 21°27'40"E
 
Name(s) in local language(s): Dubník, Červenica, okres Prešov, Prešovský kraj, Slovenská republika
 
The largest, oldest and most significant opal deposit in Europe.
The opal is hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks (predominantly andesites), and accompanied by stibnite, pyrite and marcasite.
The mineralization occurs in the border zone of the stratovolcano Zlatá Baňa.

The opal deposits appear to have already been known in Roman times.
The precious opal was dominating the world market until the rich opal fields in Australia were found. The opal mining activity in the Dubník area stopped in 1922.


Note on the mineral list: All "wupatkiite" reported from Dubnik is Co-rich/-bearing pickeringite, also called 'kasparite' [Ref. Tschechien & Slowakei, Jaroslav Hyrsl and Petr Korbel, Bode Verlag 2008, page 520].


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities
Acanthite
Actinolite
'Agalmatolite'
Albite
var: Andesine
var: Oligoclase
Allophane
Almandine
Alunite
Alunogen
Amarantite
Amphibole Supergroup
Anhydrite
Ankerite
Anorthite
var: Bytownite

var: Labradorite
Antimony
'Apatite'
Apjohnite
Aragonite
Arsenolite
Arsenopyrite
Augite
'Barrandite'
Baryte
Berthierite
'Biotite'
Boulangerite
Brushite
Calcite
var: Manganoan Calcite
Carpathite
Celadonite
Celestine
var: Barian Celestine

Cervantite
Chalcanthite
Chalcopyrite
'Chlorite Group'
Cinnabar
Copiapite
Cristobalite
Dawsonite
Diadochite
Dickite
Diopside
Dolomite
var: Ferroan Dolomite
Dyscrasite
Epidote
Evenkite
Fibroferrite
Fluorite
Goethite
Gold
Greigite
Gypsum
var: Selenite
'Halloysite'
'var: Ferrian Halloysite'
Halotrichite
'Hatchettite'
Hematite
'Hornblende'
'Hydromuscovite'
'Hypersthene'
Idrialite
Ilmenite
Jamesonite
Jarosite
Kaersutite
Kaolinite
Kermesite
'Limonite'
Maghemite
Magnesiocopiapite
Magnetite
var: Titaniferous Magnetite
Malachite
Marcasite
Melanterite
'Melnikovite'
Mercury
'Meta-alunogen'
Metacinnabar
'Metahalloysite'
Metavoltine
Molybdenite
Montmorillonite
Muscovite
var: Illite
var: Sericite
Natroalunite
Nontronite
Opal
var: Fire Opal
var: Hydrophane
var: Jasper Opal
var: Milk Opal
var: Mother of Pearl Opal
var: Onyx Opal
var: Opal-AN
var: Opal-Agate
Opal
var: Precious Opal

var: Wax Opal
Orpiment
'Ozocerite'
Pararealgar
Pickeringite
var: Ferropickeringite
var: Kasparite
'Psilomelane'
Pyrite
Pyrophyllite
Pyrrhotite
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
var: Rock Crystal
Realgar
Rhodochrosite
Rozenite
Rutile
Schorl
Schwertmannite
Sénarmontite
Siderite
Sideronatrite
Sphalerite
Stibnite
Sulphur
Titanite
Tridymite
Tschermigite
Valentinite
'Wad'
Wupatkiite
Zircon


137 entries listed. 92 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Localities in this Region

Slovakia

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References

- Butkovič Š., 1970: História slovenského drahého opálu z Dubníka. Alfa, Bratislava, 268 p. (in Slovak)
- Bachmayer C., 1978. In den Farben des Regenbogens - Edelopal. Mineralien-Magazin, 2, 5, 324-xx. (in German)
- Ďuďa R., Černý P. , Kaličiak M., Kaličiaková E., Tözsér J., Ulrych J., Veselovský F., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Miner. Slovaca, Monografia, 2, 99 p. (in Slovak)
- Harman M. & Chovanec V., 1981: Mikrotextúry dubníckych opálov a ich vzťah k opalizácii. Miner. Slov., 8, 209-220. (in Slovak)
- Schenk G., 1981: Der Edelopalbergbau bei Dubnik/CSSR. Fundgrube, 17, 70-83. (in German)
- Koděra M., Andrusovová-Vlčeková G., Belešová O., Briatková D., Dávidová Š., Fejdiová V., Hurai V., Chovan M., Nelišerová E., Ženiš P., 1986-1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska. I-III. Veda, Bratislava, 1592 p. (in Slovak)
- Ďuďa R. & Molnár J., 1992: Die Mineralien aus den slowakischen Edelopal-Lagerstätten. Lapis, 17, 4, 23-28; 50. (in German)
- Ďuďa R., 1994: Die ersten Edelopale Europas. Geschichte, Gewinnung, bedeutende Steine. Opal, Mineralientage München (Messethemenheft), 42-45. (in German)
- Ďuďa R., 1996: Slovenské opály. Minerál, 4, 4, 254-258. (in Slovak)
- Huber P., 1996: Historisches Edelopal – Vorkommen, Klassisch: Slowakei. ExtraLapis, 10, 26. (in German)
- Semrád P. & Kováč J., 2000: Dubnícke opálové bane. Vydavateľstvo Michala Vaška, Prešov, 153 p. (in Slovak)
- Barok M. & Molnár J., 2001: Najkrajším slovenským drahokamom je opál. Minerál, 9, 4, 295-299. (in Slovak)
- Barok M. & Semrád P., 2001: Dubnícky opál - drahokam známy i neznámy. Karnat, Košice, 54 p. (in Slovak)
- Kotuľák P. & Baláž B., 2001: Dubnícky drahý opál – mýty a realita. Minerál, 9, 4, 303-306. (in Slovak)
- Rondeau, B., Fritsch, E., Guiraud, M. & Renac, CH. 2004: Opals from Slovakia („Hungarian“ opals): a re-assessment of the conditions of formation. Eur. J. Mineral., 16, 789-799.
- Constantitni L., 2005: Slovenský opál. Znovuobjavenie kráľovského drahokamu. Vivit, Kežmarok, 282 p. (in Slovak)
- Ďuďa R. & Pauliš P., 2006: Opály Slovenské a České republiky a možnosti jejich sběru. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 92 p. (in Slovak)
- Grolig D., 2006: Gold, Opal und Wein - Mineraliensammeln im Zemplén- und Slanské-Gebirge in Ungarn und der Slowakei. Mineralien-Welt, 17, 3, 52-62. (in German)
- Semrád P., 2011: The Story of European Precious Opal from Dubník. Granit, Praha, 216 p.

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Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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