Warren District, Mule Mts, Cochise Co., Arizona, USAThis page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Ransome, F.L. (1904), The geology and ore deposits of the Bisbee quadrangle, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 21, 168 p., 3 sheets, scales 1:12,000 and 1:62,500.
Ransome, F.L. (1904) The geology and copper-deposits of Bisbee, Arizona: American Institute of Mining Engineers, Transactions: 34: 618-642.
Ransome, F.L. (1906) Geology of the Bisbee district, Arizona: Engineering and Mining Journal, v. 81, p. 1103.
Bonillas, Y.S., et al (1917), Geology of the Warren mining district: A.I.M.E. Transactions, Vol. 55: 284-355.
Palache, C. & Shannon, E.V. (1920), Higginsite, a new mineral of the olivine group, American Mineralogist: 5: 155-157.
Ransome, F.L. (1920), Deposits of manganese ore in Arizona: Bisbee and Tombstone districts: USGS Bull. 710: 96-119.
Holden, E.F. (1922), Ceruleofibrite, a new mineral, American Mineralogist: 9: 55-56.
Trischka, C., et al (1929), Boxwork siderite, Economic Geology: 24: 677-686.
Hewett, D.F. & O.N. Rove (1930), Occurrence and relations of alabandite, Economic Geology: 25: 36-56.
Taber, S. & W.T. Schaller (1930), Psittacinite from the Higgins Mine, Bisbee, Arizona, American Mineralogist: 15: 575-579.
Trischka, C. (1931), Bisbee orebodies reviewed: Engineering & Mining Journal, Vol. 131(11): 500-505.
Schwartz, G.M. (1934), Paragenesis of the oxidized ores of copper, Economic Geology: 29: 55-75.
Trischka, C. (1938), Bisbee district, in Some Arizona ore deposits, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 145: 32-41.
Frondel, C. (1941), Paramelaconite: A tetragonal oxide of copper, American Mineralogist: 26: 567-672.
Hogue, W.G. & E.D. Wilson (1950), Bisbee or Warren district, in Arizonaq zinc and lead deposits, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 156: 17-29.
Schwatz, G.M. (1956), Argillic alteration and ore deposits, Economic Geology: 51: 407-414.
Schwartz, G.M. (1958), Alteration of biotite under mesothermal conditions, Economic Geology: 53: 164-177.
Burnham, C.W. (1959), Metallogenic provinces of the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico: New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Bull. 65.
Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 30.
Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, Arizona Geological Society Digest: 3: 53-56.
Hewett, D.F. & M. Fleischer (1960), Deposits of the manganese oxides, Economic Geology: 55: 1-55.
Hewett, D.F., et al (1963), Deposits of the manganese oxides, supplement, Economic Geology: 58: 1-51.
Hayes, P.T. & E.R. Landis (1964), Geologic map of the southern part of the Mule Mountains, Cochise County, Arizona: USGS Map I-418.
Sinkankas, J. (1964), Mineralogy for Amateurs, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ.
Bryant, D.G. & R.A. Metz (1966), Geology and ore deposits of the Warren mining district, in Titley, S.R. and Hicks, C.L., eds., Geology of the porphyry copper deposits, southwestern North America: 189-203, University of Arizona Press.
Roseboom, E.H., Jr. (1966), An investigation of the system Cu-S and some natural copper sulfides between 25º and 700ºC., Economic Geology: 61: 641-672.
Keith, Stanton B. (1973), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 187, Index of Mining Properties in Cochise County, AZ: 14-15, 85 (Table 4).
Pierce, L. & P.R. Buseck (1978), Superstructuring in the bornite-digenite series: A high-resolution electron microscopy study, American Mineralogist: 63: 1-15.
Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Mineralogical Record: 24: 421-436.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 118, 127, 157, 159, 167, 172, 179, 198, 203, 204, 206, 207, 216, 234, 238, 239, 241, 247, 254, 271, 274, 292, 298, 301, 317, 325, 331, 339, 357, 370, 374, 391, 396, 401, 406, 416, 422, 430, 431, 432.
Arizona Bureau of Mines files.
A Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au-Mn-F (Cd-Bi-Se-Te-As-Sb-U) mining district located in T.22-24S., R.23-25E.
Mineralization is of several types: (1) Base metal oxides, carbonates, and sulfides in large, irregular replacement bodies in tilted and faulted Paleozoic limestone formations that have been invaded by Jurassic granitic porphyry stocks, dikes, and sills; (2) Disseminated copper oxides, carbonates, and sulfides in Jurassic granitic porphyry stock; (3) Manganese oxide pods and lenses along fractures and fault zones in Paleozoic limestones; and (4) Spotty base metal and gold-silver mineralization in quartz veins in Jurassic granitic porphyry stock.
This district, which is famous for its copper mines, minerals and production also produced considerable quantities of lead and zinc. Prior to 1880, lead carbonate ore was mined from the Hendricks claim, about ¼ mile south of Bisbee, and smelted in a primitive furnace at a spring near the present main street of town Some oxidized lead ore from the Hendricks claim was used for flux at Charleston during the early 1880's.
The Copper Queen company granted leases on lead areas in the Uncle Sam mine durng 1908, and in the Gardner and Southwest mines during 1910. Subsequently the company carried on successful development of lead ore in the Gardner and Southwest mines.
During 1911-17 notable bodies of oxidized siliceous lead ore were discovered and worked in upper levels of the Shattuck mine.
The first zinc production of the district was in 1917-18; during those years Calumet and Arizona Mining Co. shipped lead-zinc sulfide ore t paint manufacturers in Kansas. Shipment of zinc ore to smelters began in 1922. In 1925 the Shattuck mill, which was built in 1918, was converted entirely to flotation.
In 1927 Phelps Dodge Corp. built a flotation plant of 150 tons daily capacity for treatment of low-grade lead ore, and installed at Douglas a lead smelter of 200 tons daily capacity. Owing to low metal prices and resultant curtailment by custom ore shippers, the concentrator operated for only five months, and the lead smelter closed in April, 1930.
In 1939 the district produced zinc for the first time since 1927. Subsequently zinc-lead ore bodies were mined in the eastern part of the district. PArt of the ore was sent to the Shattuck-Denn custom mill a Bisbee, and some to the Eagle-Picher mill at Sahuarita, until November 1945, when Phelps Dodge Corp. completed its zinc-lead concentrator.
The district yielded record amounts of zinc each year during 1944-1947 and 1949, and of lead during 1945-47 and 1949.
Lead and zinc have been found in various places in the western portion of the district as well, but details regarding the occurrences throughout much of this ground are unavailable.
The presence of sphalerite in rather large bodies with pyrite and chalcopyrite in the area between the Southwest and Czar Mines, in the Gardner Mine, and in the Briggs area has been noted. Lead ore has been mined from the Hendricks, Southwest Uncle Sam, Gardner, and Shattuck areas.
Lead carbonate in Hendricks Gulch constituted the first body of ore to be worked n the Warren District. According to Ransome it formed very irregular bunches in the limestone in the vicinity of a fault fissure. Trischka (1938, pp.37) wrote:
The ore is mostly in the Martin (Devonian)imestone and clusters about a siliceous core which crops out as silica breccia and manganese on the surface. This siliceus core which is orous due toleaching, contained most of the lead carbonate ores that were mined from the district. The iron, and posibly some copper were leached out of tis silica core, which ater collapsed. The lead, altering in place, remained in the silica. In this silica also the gold was both mechanically and chemically concentrated during leaching. Where shelves of contact material occurred between the silica and the limestone, variable thicknessesof silica resting on this conact were mineable fr gold.
The silica core may have resulted from complete leaching of siliceous pyrite which is commonly associated withorebodies all partsof the district. The oxidation slumping above the orebody as well as around its sides suggests this possibility.
Workings include shafts, tunnels and open pit workings. More than 150 million tons of base metal ore, and approximately 35,000 tons of manganese ore were mined sine the late 1870's. This production has yielded some 3.8 million tons of copper, 154.9 thousand tons of lead, 189 thousand tons of zinc, over 2.6 million ounces of gold and 100.3 million ounces of silver.
Mineral ListMineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities
399 entries listed. 287 valid minerals. 6 type localities (valid minerals).
Localities in this Region
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