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Sturbridge Graphite Mine (Tantiusques Mine; Winthrop Lead Mine), Sturbridge, Worcester Co., Massachusetts, USA

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Graphite ("black lead") was mined here by the Nipmuc to make ceremonial paints. John Winthrop the Younger (1606-1676) purchased the mine in 1644. Actual work did not begin until April 1658, and the mine seems to have been soon abandoned. Another John Winthrop, nephew of the original owner, started mining again in 1738 but ceased operations after a couple of years. There is no record of mining again until 1828-29 when Frederick Tudor (1783-1864) of Boston reopened the mine and operated it until his death in 1864. Purchased by the Massachusetts Graphite Company in 1902, it was operated occasionally until at least 1911.

Mineral List

11 entries listed. 6 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Hitchcock, Edward (1835): Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts, pp. 57-58.

Haynes, George H. (1901): The Tale of Tantiusques (Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, Volume 14, p. 471.)

Bastin, Edson S. (1912): Graphite (USGS: Mineral Resources of the United States, Part II Nonmetals, Calendar Year 1911)

Apfel, Earl T. (1944): Graphite Deposits Near Sturbridge, Massachusetts (USGS Open File Report)

Palache, Charles (1947): The Sturbridge, Mass., Graphite Mine. (Rocks & Minerals 22:502).

Skehan, James. (2001): Roadside Geology of Massachusetts (Mountain Press Publishing Co., Missoula MT), p. 238.

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