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Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik), Maramureș Co., Romania

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Ancient and historic mining town, known since 1336 and in modern times extended up to its maximum by Ceausescu's mining policies.
Located 30 km east of Baia Mare and famous for its deposits of lead, zinc, manganese, as well as small quantities of gold, silver, barium and antimony.
From the mines of this locality have been extracted samples of exceptional beauty and value worldwide, in major collections.
In particular, the mines have produced the world's most beautiful tetrahedrites, by size, arrangement and lustre.

Current situation: since 2008 all the mines are closed; adits are sealed, water pumps are off and the external structures demolished or about to be demolished.

For several years rumours persist about foreign investors, but now are slow to manifest themselves in reality.

Formerly known as Kapnik, Hungary (during the Austro-Hungarian empire).

Smoky quartz specimen showing split growth ("artichoke quartz") like the one on the photo are artificially irradiated. Photos of such specimens should be labeled "quartz", not "smoky quartz".

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

78 entries listed. 55 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Localities in this Region

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 963, 1101.

Huber, P. & Muresan, I. (1996): Mineralienübersicht der wichtigsten Bergbaue des Bezirkes Maramures. Lapis, 21 (7), 60. (in German).

Huber, P. and Muresan, I. (1996). Farbenprächtige Mineralien aus Cavnic: Vererzung und Mineralien von Cavnic (Kapnikbanya, Kapnik). Lapis, 21(7/8), 45-55. (in German).

Szakáll, S., Ed. (2002): Minerals of the Carpathians. Christian Weise Verlag, Munich, Germany, 480 pp.

Hîrtopanu, P., Andersen, J., Hârtopanu, I., & Udubaşa, S. Ilvaite From The Cavnic Deposit, Romania. pp62-65.

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