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Candle Creek Mine (ARDF - CA040), Fairhaven District, Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska, USA

Latitude: 65°54'36"N
Longitude: 161°55'12"W
All gravels are frozen and require stripping and thawing.
Location: The active mining area along Candle Creek extends from its confluence with the Kiwalik River at the Candle townsite upstream approximately 7 miles to the boundary of the Bendeleben quadrangle and then 9 miles to Potato Creek. The reference point is the center of the Candle airstrip, in section 24, T. 6 N., R. 16 W., of the Kateel River Meridian. Cobb, 1972 (MF 389), locations 1 and 18.
Geology: Placer gold was discovered on Candle Creek in 1901 and the deposit has been mined almost continuously since that time. The geology of the area is not well understood due to extensive ground cover. In general the area is underlain by late Precambrian to early Paleozoic quartz mica schists which are cut by small quartz stringers and granitic dikes. The schists are overlain unconformably by metamorphosed early to mid-Paleozoic limestones. Igneous rocks of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age intrude the older metamorphics. The dominant igneous lithology in the Candle area is medium-grained, quartz monzonite which is exposed in placer workings at Camp 19 in the Bendeleben quadrangle. Quartz float is very common in stream beds and tailings. The age of the quartz is unknown. The source of the placer gold is thought to be from quartz veins crosscutting the schist bedrock. A general cross section of the placer ground on Candle Creek is schist bedrock overlain by 12 to 18 feet of gold-bearing creek gravels. The gravels in turn are covered by 10 to 20 feet of ice, muck, slide rock, and tundra. The placer gold is generally flattened, coarse and coated with a dark, organic iron oxide. The gold fineness is 857. Gold is often found in and associated with ironstone concretions commonly found in the gravels. All of the ground is frozen and some areas contain large ice wedges. Placer concentrates contain arsenopyrite, abundant pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, ilmenite, rutile, garnet, cerusite and occasional magnetite (Cobb, 1976, OFR 76-866).
Workings: Placer gold was discovered on Candle Creek in 1901 and the deposit has been mined almost continuously since that time. The creek gravels were first mined by hand methods. Hydraulicking and drift mining was used on bench deposits. A small dredge was brought to the creek in 1914. In the early 1920's, two larger dredges were brought to the creek. To define the reserves for the dredges, shafts were sunk and several lines of drill holes were drilled. The dredging continued on Candle Creek until the early 1950's; it extended from above Camp 19 in the Bendeleben quadrangle to the confluence with the Kiwalik River. Small-scale placer activities continue on the creek. BHP Utah conducted a soil sampling and mapping program in 1990 for lode gold.
Age: Quaternary.
Production: Harrington (1919) estimates that by 1917 $325,000 of gold (at $20.67/ounce) had been taken from Candle Creek. It is estimated that production from Candle Creek has exceeded 600,000 ounces of gold since 1901 (Williams, 1998).

Commodities (Major) - Ag, Au
Development Status: Yes; medium
Deposit Model: Placer Au-PGE (Cox and Singer, 1986; model 39a).

References

Anderson, E., 1947, Mineral occurrences other than gold deposits in northwestern Alaska: Alaska Department of Mines Pamphlet 5-R, 48 p. Berg, H.C. and Cobb, E.H., 1967, Metalliferous lode deposits of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1246, 254 p. Brooks, A.H., 1907, The Alaskan mining industry in 1906: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 314, p. 19-39. Brooks, A.H., 1922, The Alaskan mining industry in 1920: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 722, p. 7-67. Brooks, A.H., 1925, Alaska's mineral resources and production, 1923: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 773, p. 3-52. Cass, J.T., 1959, Reconnaissance geologic map of the Candle quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-287, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. Cathcart, S.H., 1920, Mining in northwestern Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 712, p. 185-198. Chapin, T., 1914, Placer mining on Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 592, p. 385-395. Cobb, E.H., 1972, Metallic mineral resources of the Candle Quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map 389, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. Cobb, E.H., 1973, Placer deposits of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1374, 213 p. Cobb, E.H., 1976, Summary of references to mineral occurrences (other than mineral fuels and construction materials) in the Candle, Holy Cross, Norton Bay, Nulato, and Unalakleet quadrangles, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-866, 102 p. Eakin, H.M., 1915, Placer mining in Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 622, p. 366-373. Gault, H.R., Killeen, P.L., West, W.S. and others, 1953, Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in the northwestern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska 1945-47 and 1951: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 250, 31 p. Harrington, G.L., 1919, The gold and platinum placers of the Kiwalik-Koyuk region: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 692, p. 369-400. Harrington, G.L., 1921, Mining on the Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 714, p. 229-237. Henshaw, F.F., 1909, Mining in the Fairhaven precinct: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 379, p. 355-369. Henshaw, F.F., 1910, Mining in Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 442, p. 353-371. Herreid, G., 1965, Geology of the Bear Creek area, Seward Peninsula, Candle quadrangle, Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Geological Report 12, 16 p. Koschmann, A.H. and Bergendahl, M.H., 1968, Principal gold producing districts of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 610, 283 p. Mendenhall, W.C., 1902, Reconnaissance from Fort Hamlin to Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, by way of Dall, Kanuti, Allen and Kowak Rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 10, 68 p. Mertie, J.B., Jr., 1918, Placer mining on Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 662, 120 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:63,360. Miller, T. P., and Elliott, R. L., 1969, Metalliferous deposits near Granite Mountain, eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 614, 19 p. Moffit, F.H., 1904, The Kotzebue placer gold fields of Seward Peninsula, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 225, p. 74-80. Moffit, F.H., 1905, The Fairhaven gold placers, Seward Peninsula, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 247, 85 p. Moffit, F.H., 1927, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1925: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 792, p. 1-39. Purington, C.W., 1905, Methods and costs of gravel and placer mining in Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 263, 273 p. Smith, P.S., 1908, Investigations of mineral deposits of Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 345, p. 206-250. Smith, P.S., 1926, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1924: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 783, p. 1-30. Smith, P.S., 1929, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1926: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 797, p. 1-50. Smith, P.S., 1930, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1927: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 810, p. 1-64. Smith, P.S., 1930, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1928: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 813, p. 1-72. Smith, P.S., 1932, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1929: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 824, p. 1-81. Smith, P.S., 1933, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1930: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 836, p. 1-83. Smith, P.S., 1933, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1931: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 844 A, p. 1-82. Smith, P.S., 1934, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1932: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 857 A, p. 1-91. Smith, P.S., 1934, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1933: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 864 A, p. 1-94. Smith, P.S., 1936, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1934: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 868 A, p. 1-91. Smith, P.S., 1937, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1935: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 880 A, p. 1-95. Smith, P.S., 1938, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1936: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 897 A, p. 1-107. Smith, P.S., 1939, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1937: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 910 A, p. 1-113. Smith, P.S., 1939, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1938: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 917 A, p. 1-113. Smith, P.S., 1941, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1939: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 926 A, p. 1-106. Smith, P.S., 1942, Mineral Industry of Alaska in 1940: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 933 A, p. 1-102. Smith, P.S. and Eakin, H.M., 1910, Mineral resources of the Nulato-Council region: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 442, 432 p. Smith, S.S., 1917, The mining industry in the Territory of Alaska during the calendar year 1915: U.S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 142, 65 p. Williams, Anita, 1998, A summary report on the mineral resources of Candle Creek and adjacent areas in Candle, Alaska: unpublished industry report prepared for Berg and Wetlesen, Gulph Mills, Pennsylvania, 18 p.

Mineral List

Gold
Silver


2 entries listed. 2 valid minerals.

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