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Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel

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Approaching the Hatrurim Formation

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Hilltop With Contrasting Hatrurim Rock

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Hilltop of Hatrurim Formation Rock

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Approaching the Hatrurim Formation

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Hilltop With Contrasting Hatrurim Rock

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Hilltop of Hatrurim Formation Rock

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Approaching the Hatrurim Formation

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Hilltop With Contrasting Hatrurim Rock

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
 
 
"Hatrurim Formation" is often used as a locality name, but it is really a geological unit, outcropping at many localities, spread over three countries.

The Hatrurim Formation is largely composed of an unusual rock type, a type of natural portland cement formed by high-temperature alteration of late Cretaceous to lower Eocene bituminous chalk, marl and impure limestone. Several of the type locality mineral species here had previously been intensively studied as anthropogenic phases in portland cement. Unlike calc-silicate rocks in other parts of the world, which were normally created by contact metamorphism (heating by an igneous intrusion), the Hatrurim Formation is underlain by unaltered sedimentary rocks with no igneous intrusion. The origin of the heat which metamorphosed these rocks was long a mystery, but is now thought to be due to oxidation of bituminous compounds (in simple english, it "burned"). Intensity of metamorphism correlates to access to oxygen. Hydrocarbons are widespread in surrounding rocks but are absent in the metamorphosed beds (the "Mottled Zone", an old name for the Hatrurim Formation). The late Gary Weinberger, who first found bentorite and sent it to a mineralogist for characterization, said that his discovery was made a short hike from the road "near" Arad.

The Hatrurim Formation was named for the locality Hatrurim, its largest area of exposure, but it also outcrops in several other parts of Israel and Palestine and Jordan too, so not all of the listed minerals may really be from Hatrurim, and many samples loosely labeled "Hatrurim" ought really to have been labelled "Hatrurim Formation" from other localities. See under: Har Ye'elim, Hatrurim, Kefar Uriyya, Malhata, and Nahal Ayalon in Israel; and Beit Sahur, Jebel Harmun, Ma'ale Adumim, Nabi Musa, and Tarqumiya in Palestine; and Daba Siwaqa, Seweilih and Maqarin in Jordan.

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities
Aegirine-augite
Afwillite
Åkermanite
Albite
Allophane
Analcime
Andradite
'Andradite-Schorlomite Series'
Anhydrite
Anorthite
'Apophyllite'
Aragonite
Augite
var: Fassaite

Barringerite
Baryte
Bayerite (TL)
Bentorite (TL)
'Biotite'
Böhmite
Bredigite
Brownmillerite
Brucite
Bultfonteinite
Calcite
Carnotite
'Chabazite'
Chalcopyrite
Chamosite
var: Thuringite
'Chlorite Group'
Chlormayenite
Chromatite
Clintonite
Copper
Cordierite
Corundum
Cristobalite
Cuspidine
Diopside
Dolomite
'Ellestadite'
Enstatite
Epistilbite
Esseneite
Ettringite
Fayalite
Fluorapatite
var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Fluorellestadite
Foshagite
Gehlenite
Gibbsite
'Gismondine'
Glauconite
'Gmelinite'
Goethite
Greenalite
Greigite
Grossite (TL)
Grossular
var: Hibschite
Gypsum
Gyrolite
Halamishite (TL)
Halite
'Halloysite'
Harmotome
Hashemite
Hatrurite (TL)
Hedenbergite
Hematite
Hercynite
'Heulandite'
Hibonite
Hillebrandite
Hisingerite
'Hyalophane'
Hydrocalumite
Hydromagnesite
Hydrotalcite
Ilmenite
Iron
Jennite
Kalsilite
Kaolinite
Katoite
Kilchoanite
Larnite
Lepidocrocite
'Lévyne'
Lizardite
Maghemite
Magnesioferrite
Magnetite
'Melilite'
Merwinite
Mesolite
Meta-autunite
Metatyuyamunite
Microcline
Monticellite
Montmorillonite
Murashkoite (TL)
Muscovite
var: Illite

Nagelschmidtite (TL)
Negevite (TL)
Nontronite
Okenite
Opal
Orthoclase
Oyelite
Periclase
Perovskite
'Phillipsite'
Plombièrite
Portlandite
Prehnite
'Pseudowollastonite'
'Pumpellyite'
Pyrolusite
Pyrophyllite
Pyrrhotite
Quartz
Rankinite
Reinhardbraunsite
Riebeckite
Riversideite
Rutile
Saponite
Schorlomite
Schreibersite
Scolecite
Sepiolite
'Serpentine Group'
Siderite
Spinel
Spurrite
Stichtite
Sulphur
Tacharanite
Thaumasite
Thomsonite-Ca
Titanite
Tobermorite
Transjordanite (TL)
Trevorite
Tridymite
Truscottite
Ulvöspinel
'UM1977-02-CO:AlCaH' (FRL)
'Uvite'
Vaterite
Vesuvianite
Volkonskoite
Whitlockite
Wollastonite
Xonotlite
Ye'elimite
Zircon
Zuktamrurite (TL)


160 entries listed. 136 valid minerals. 10 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc.

Localities in this Region

Israel

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

- Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.

- Burg, A., Starinsky, A., Bartov, Y. & Kolodny, Y. (1991): Geology of the Hatrurim Formation (`Mottled Zone') in the Hatrurim Basin. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 40, 107-124.

- Gur, D. et al. (1995): 40Ar/39Ar dating of combustion metamorphism ("Mottled Zone", Israel). Chem. Geol. 122, 71-184.

- Burg, A., Kolodny, Y. & Lyakhovsky, V. (1999): Hatrurim-2000: The "Mottled Zone" revisited, forty years later. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 48, 209-223.

- Vapnik, Y., Sokol, E., Murashko, M., Sharygin, V. (2006): The enigma of Hatrurim. Mineralogical Almanac, 10, 69-77.

- Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. & Vapnik, Ye. (2008): Minerals of the pseudobinary perovskite-brownmillerite series from combustion metamorphic larnite rocks of the Hatrurim Formation (Israel). Russian Geology and Geophysics 49, 709-726.

- Sokol, E. V.; Novikov, I. S.; Zateeva, S. N.; Sharygin, V. V.; Vapnik, Ye. (2008): Pyrometamorphic rocks of the spurrite-merwinite facies as indicators of hydrocarbon discharge zones (the Hatrurim formation, Israel). Doklady Earth Sciences 420, 608-614.

Mineral and/or Locality  
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