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Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel

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Approaching the Hatrurim Formation

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Hilltop With Contrasting Hatrurim Rock

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Hilltop of Hatrurim Formation Rock

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Approaching the Hatrurim Formation

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Hilltop With Contrasting Hatrurim Rock

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Hilltop of Hatrurim Formation Rock

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Approaching the Hatrurim Formation

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
Hilltop With Contrasting Hatrurim Rock

Hatrurim Formation, Negev, Israel
 


"Hatrurim Formation" is often used as a locality name, but it is really a geological unit, outcropping at many localities, spread over three countries.

The Hatrurim Formation is largely composed of an unusual rock type, a type of natural portland cement formed by high-temperature alteration of late Cretaceous to lower Eocene bituminous chalk, marl and impure limestone. Several of the type locality mineral species here had previously been intensively studied as anthropogenic phases in portland cement. Unlike calc-silicate rocks in other parts of the world, which were normally created by contact metamorphism (heating by an igneous intrusion), the Hatrurim Formation is underlain by unaltered sedimentary rocks with no igneous intrusion. The origin of the heat which metamorphosed these rocks was long a mystery, but is now thought to be due to oxidation of bituminous compounds (in simple english, it "burned"). Intensity of metamorphism correlates to access to oxygen. Hydrocarbons are widespread in surrounding rocks but are absent in the metamorphosed beds (the "Mottled Zone", an old name for the Hatrurim Formation). The late Gary Weinberger, who first found bentorite and sent it to a mineralogist for characterization, said that his discovery was made a short hike from the road "near" Arad.

The Hatrurim Formation was named for the locality Hatrurim, its largest area of exposure, but it also outcrops in several other parts of Israel and Palestine and Jordan too, so not all of the listed minerals may really be from Hatrurim, and many samples loosely labeled "Hatrurim" ought really to have been labelled "Hatrurim Formation" from other localities. See under: Har Ye'elim, Hatrurim, Kefar Uriyya, Malhata, and Nahal Ayalon in Israel; and Beit Sahur, Jebel Harmun, Ma'ale Adumim, Nabi Musa, and Tarqumiya in Palestine; and Daba Siwaqa, Seweilih and Maqarin in Jordan.

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Aegirine-augite

Afwillite

Åkermanite

Albite

Allophane

Analcime

Andradite

'Andradite-Schorlomite Series'

Anhydrite

Anorthite

'Apophyllite'

Aragonite

Augite

var: Fassaite

Barringerite

Baryte

Bayerite (TL)

Bayleyite

Bentorite (TL)

'Biotite'

Böhmite

Bredigite

Brownmillerite

Brucite

Bultfonteinite

Calcite

Carnotite

'Chabazite'

Chalcopyrite

Chamosite

var: Thuringite

'Chlorite Group'

'Chlormayenite'

Chromatite

Clintonite

Copper

Cordierite

Corundum

Cristobalite

Cuspidine

Diopside

Dolomite

'Ellestadite'

Enstatite

Epistilbite

Esseneite

Ettringite

Fayalite

Fluorapatite

var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

Fluorellestadite

Foshagite

Gehlenite

Gibbsite

'Gismondine'

Glauconite

'Gmelinite'

Goethite

Greenalite

Greigite

Grossite (TL)

Grossular

var: Hibschite

Gypsum

Gyrolite

Halamishite (TL)

Halite

'Halloysite'

Harmotome

Hashemite

Hatrurite (TL)

Hedenbergite

Hematite

Hercynite

'Heulandite'

Hibonite

Hillebrandite

Hisingerite

Hyalophane

Hydrocalumite

Hydromagnesite

Hydrotalcite

Ilmenite

Iron

Jennite

Kalsilite

Kaolinite

Katoite

Kilchoanite

Larnite

Lepidocrocite

'Lévyne'

Linnaeite

Lizardite

Maghemite

Magnesioferrite

Magnetite

'Melilite Group'

Merwinite

Mesolite

Meta-autunite

Metatyuyamunite

Microcline

Monticellite

Montmorillonite

Murashkoite (TL)

Muscovite

var: Illite

Nagelschmidtite (TL)

Negevite (TL)

Nontronite

Okenite

Opal

Orthoclase

Oyelite

Periclase

Perovskite

'Phillipsite'

Plombièrite

Portlandite

Prehnite

'Pseudowollastonite'

'Pumpellyite'

Pyrolusite

Pyrophyllite

Pyrrhotite

Quartz

Rankinite

Reinhardbraunsite

Riebeckite

Riversideite

Rutile

Saponite

Schorlomite

Schreibersite

Scolecite

Sepiolite

'Serpentine Subgroup'

Siderite

Spinel

Spurrite

Stichtite

Sulphur

Tacharanite

Thaumasite

Thomsonite-Ca

Titanite

Tobermorite

Transjordanite (TL)

Trevorite

Tridymite

Truscottite

Ulvöspinel

'UM1977-02-CO:AlCaH' (FRL)

'UM1977-07-O:AlCaFeH'

'UM1977-08-O:AlCaH'

'UM1977-09-O:AlCaH'

'UM1977-14-SiO:CaH'

'Uvite'

Vaterite

Vesuvianite

Volkonskoite

Whitlockite

Wollastonite

Xonotlite

Ye'elimite

Zircon

Zuktamrurite (TL)


140 valid minerals. 10 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc.

Localities in this Region

Israel

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

- Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.

- Burg, A., Starinsky, A., Bartov, Y. & Kolodny, Y. (1991): Geology of the Hatrurim Formation (`Mottled Zone') in the Hatrurim Basin. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 40, 107-124.

- Gur, D. et al. (1995): 40Ar/39Ar dating of combustion metamorphism ("Mottled Zone", Israel). Chem. Geol. 122, 71-184.

- Burg, A., Kolodny, Y. & Lyakhovsky, V. (1999): Hatrurim-2000: The "Mottled Zone" revisited, forty years later. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 48, 209-223.

- Vapnik, Y., Sokol, E., Murashko, M., Sharygin, V. (2006): The enigma of Hatrurim. Mineralogical Almanac, 10, 69-77.

- Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. & Vapnik, Ye. (2008): Minerals of the pseudobinary perovskite-brownmillerite series from combustion metamorphic larnite rocks of the Hatrurim Formation (Israel). Russian Geology and Geophysics 49, 709-726.

- Sokol, E. V.; Novikov, I. S.; Zateeva, S. N.; Sharygin, V. V.; Vapnik, Ye. (2008): Pyrometamorphic rocks of the spurrite-merwinite facies as indicators of hydrocarbon discharge zones (the Hatrurim formation, Israel). Doklady Earth Sciences 420, 608-614.

Mineral and/or Locality  
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