Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
 
Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 20° South , 43° West (est.)
Margin of Error:~59km
Name(s) in local language(s):Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brasil


General: The Iron Quadrangle (Quadrilátero Ferrífero) is roughly between latitude 19-20°S and longitude 43-44°W. The district is a major iron, gold and gem producer. It was the principal source of bedrock gold mining until 1983 and accounts for about 40% of Brazil's total gold production from the 15th century until 2000. Two of the eight major new gold mines put into production between 1983 and 1990 are located in the Iron Quadrangle. The area between Itabira and Nova Era is an important gem mining district, and Itabira is also the most important iron mining district in the area.

Iron Deposits: The iron ore deposits are hosted within the Cauê Formation, a typical Banded Iron Formation (BIF) of the Lake Superior Type, which constitutes the intermediate chemical member of the Minas Supergroup, a Paleoproterozoic meta-sedimentary sequence. The BIFs, locally known as itabirites, are metamorphosed and strongly oxidised. On the western border of the Iron Quadrangle, the Minas Supergroup is less deformed and preserves some original sedimentary structures. The metamorphism at this region reached the greenschist facies. The iron ore bodies occur as discontinuous lenses of varied sizes and shapes within the itabirites. Two main types of iron ores are recognized: high-grade ore (Fe > 64%), called hematite ore and intermediate-grade ore (64% < Fe < 52%), called itabiritic ore. The intermediate-grade itabiritic ore is typically friable and generally grades to hard itabirite with low iron content. At the Águas Claras and Capão Xavier Deposits, the host itabirite was dolomitic and the ore associated is very friable, of very high-grade and low lump yield. At the Tamaduá, Capitão do Mato and Pico Deposits the host itabirite is siliceous.

The genesis of these ores is considered as due to a residual concentration of the iron oxides after leaching of the gangue minerals during the Cenozoic weathering. The genesis of the hard high-grade ore is more complex and not well understood. This ore type generally preserves the original banding of the host itabirite and shows hematite re-crystallization. Its origin is considered as hypogenic.

Gold Deposits: Gold is produced from numerous mines, mostly in the northern and southeastern parts of the district. The deposits are hosted in Archean or Paleoproterozoic carbonate and oxide facies BIFs and iron-rich cherts in supracrustal sequences. Consequently, some of the iron ore deposits are also worked for gold.

Gem Mines: The area between Itabira and Nova Era is the largest emerald mining district in Brazil, producing ca. 200 kg per month of facetable rough. Aquamarine and morganite have also been found at Capoeirana. The Piteiras mine is in a western outlier of the Eastern Brazilian Pegmatite Province, although the emeralds formed in metamorphosed Archean and Paleoproterozoic ultramafic rocks by Be-rich hydrothermal fluids associated with pegmatite intrusions at ca. 500 Ma.

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Actinolite

Albite

var: Andesine

'Albite-Anorthite Series'

Almandine

'Amphibole Supergroup'

Anatase

Ankerite

'Anthosiderite'

Antimony

'Apatite'

Aragonite

Arsenopalladinite (TL)

Arsenopyrite

Atheneite (TL)

Aurostibite

Azurite

Baryte

Benjaminite

Berthierite

Beryl

var: Aquamarine

var: Emerald

var: Morganite

Bindheimite

'Biotite'

Bismuth

Bismuthinite

Bornite

Bournonite

Calcite

Cassiterite

Chalcocite

Chalcophyllite

Chalcopyrite

Chalcosiderite

Chamosite

'Chlorite Group'

Chloritoid

Chromite

Chrysoberyl

Chrysotile

Cinnabar

'Clays'

Clinochlore

Clinozoisite

'Columbite'

'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'

Copper

Cordierite

var: Iolite

Cosalite

Covellite

Crandallite

Cubanite

Derbylite (TL)

Descloizite

Diopside

Dolomite

var: Ferroan Dolomite

Dravite

Epidote

Epsomite

Euclase (TL)

Euxenite-(Y)

Ferrihydrite

'Florencite'

Florencite-(Ce)

Fluocerite-(Ce)

Fluorite

Galena

'Garnet'

Gersdorffite

Gibbsite

Goethite

Gold

var: Electrum

var: Palladian Gold

var: Porpezite

Gorceixite (TL)

Greifensteinite

Gypsum

var: Selenite

Hausmannite

Hedleyite

Hematite

var: Iron Rose

var: Martite

var: Specularite

Hentschelite

Hongshiite

Hydroxycalcioroméite

Hydroxylapatite

Ilmenite

Isomertieite (TL)

Jacutingaite (TL)

Jamesonite

'Joséite'

Joséite-B (TL)

Kaolinite

'K Feldspar'

Kyanite

Leucoxene

'Limonite'

Löllingite

Magnesite

var: Breunnerite

Magnetite

Malachite

Maldonite

'Manganese Oxides'

Manganite

Marcasite

Mertieite-II

Molybdenite

'Monazite'

Monazite-(Ce)

Muscovite

var: Fuchsite

var: Sericite

Nsutite

Palladinite

Palladium

Palladseite (TL)

Paragonite

Phlogopite

Platinum

Pyrite

var: Arsenian Pyrite

Pyrolusite

Pyrophyllite

Pyrrhotite

Quartz

var: Eisenkiesel

var: Rock Crystal

var: Rutilated Quartz

var: Smoky Quartz

Raspite

Rhodochrosite

'Roméite Group'

Rutile

Scheelite

Schorl

Scorodite

Siderite

Sillimanite

Sperrylite

Sphalerite

Staurolite

'Stibiconite'

Stibiopalladinite

Stibnite

Stilpnomelane

Stolzite

Sudovikovite

Talc

var: Steatite

'Tantalite'

Tellurium

Tellurobismuthite

Tennantite

Tetra-auricupride

Tetradymite

Tetrahedrite

Titanite

Topaz

var: Imperial Topaz

'Tourmaline'

Tripuhyite (TL)

Turquoise

Ullmannite

'Unnamed (Bi Telluride Sulphide I)'

Valentinite

Variscite

Vermiculite

'Wad'

Weishanite

'Wolframite'

Xenotime-(Y)

Zircon


134 valid minerals. 10 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Entries shown in red are rocks recorded for this region.

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities


Localities in this Region


The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Henwood, W.J. (1871): Observations on Metalliferous Deposits: On the Gold Mines of Minas Geraes, in Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 168-370.

Klein, C., Ladeira, E.A. (2000): Geochemistry and petrology of some Proterocoic banded iron-formations of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Economic Geology 95, 405-428.

Morteani, G., Preinfalk, C., and Horn, A.H. (2000): Classification and mineralization potential of the pegmatites of the Eastern Brazilian Pegmatite Province. Mineralium Deposita 35, 638-655.

Thorman, C.H., DeWitt, E., Maron, M.A.C., and Ladeira, E.A. (2001): Major Brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999. Mineralium Deposita 36, 218-227.

Lobato, L.M., Ribeiro-Rodrigues, L.C., and Reis Vieira, F.W. (2001): Brazil's premier gold province. Part II: Geology and genesis of gold deposits in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrifero. Mineralium Deposita 36, 249-277.

Lynch, E. P., Costanzo, A., Feely, M. Blamey, N. J. F., Pironon, J., and Lavin, P., 2014, The Piteiras emerald mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil: fluid-inclusion and gemmological perspectives: Mineralogical Magazine, V. 78, p. 1571-1587.

Rosière, C. A., Chemale Jr, F. (2013): Itabiritos e minérios de ferro de alto teor do Quadrilátero Ferrífero–uma visão geral e discussão. Revista Geonomos, 8(2), 27-43.

External Links

Macado, G. A. A., 1994. Geologia da região e aspectos genéticos das jazidas de esmeraldas de Capoeirana e Belmont, Nova Era-Itabira, MG: www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/44/44135/tde-28092015-155303/pt-br.php

- http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/mineral/tcm-71140-2.html

Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2016, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: December 10, 2016 02:59:48 Page generated: December 9, 2016 03:53:05
Go to top of page