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Elba Island, Livorno Province, Tuscany, Italy

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Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 42° North , 10° East (est.)
Margin of Error:~12km
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Isola d'Elba, Provincia di Livorno, Toscana, Italia


Elba, located 10 kilometres from the coastal town of Piombino, is the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. The island is part of the province of Livorno and is divided into eight municipalities: Campo nell'Elba, Capoliveri, Marciana, Marciana Marina, Porto Azzurro, Portoferraio, Rio Marina, and Rio nell'Elba.

The geology of the Elba Island is very interesting for the structural complexity. The first organic geological map and related monograph of the Elba Island were performed by Lotti (1884, 1886). A model which divides the nappe pile into five complexes was proposed in the 1950s by Trevisan (1950, 1951) and successively slightly modified by Barberi et al. (1967, 1969). According to Trevisan’s model, the Tuscany units (Complexes I, II and III) are overlain by Ligurian units (Complexes IV and V): the lower three complexes have continental features, while the upper two are oceanic in character. Two Late Miocene monzogranitic plutonic masses crop out in the western (Monte Capanne, 6.9 Ma) and eastern (La Serra-Porto Azzurro, 5.9 Ma) sectors of the Elba Island, along with their microgranite, aplite, and pegmatite dyke swarms.

Iron ores from Elba Island are one of the most important iron sources in the Mediterranean area since the first millennium BC. The iron deposits of Elba Island are restricted to a relatively narrow belt extending north–south along the eastern coast of Elba Island, from Monte Calendozio (Rio Albano mine) to the Calamita promontory. Stratiform to pod-like to vein-type ore bodies have long been mined in the Rio Albano – Rio Marina area of north-eastern Elba. The ore bodies are preferentially located within quartz–phyllite formations of the Tuscan Nappe, Carboniferous to Triassic in age, at or close to the contact with overlying carbonates. They are mainly comprised of fine- to coarse-grained lamellar/micaceous hematite, commonly associated with pyrite and gangue quartz, adularia, and chlorite. Pb–Zn–Bi sulphides may be locally abundant. Ore bodies located at the contact between phyllites and carbonate formations may contain large amounts of pyrite, often converted by exogenous oxidation to masses of vuggy, black-brownish to red–yellowish limonites.
Hematite-rich ores from Elba Island iron mines are characterized by a marked and very distinctive geochemical signature, a co-enrichment in W and Sn, which allows to distinguish them from other European iron ores. Unlike hematite-rich ores, the goethite-rich ores from eastern Elba Island do not show anomalous contents of either W or Sn. This is not surprising, because these ores formed by supergenic alteration of pyrite lenses/masses; thus iron hydroxides did not precipitate from the same hydrothermal fluids responsible for the hematite ores.
The concentrations of Sn and W in hematite-rich ores from Elba Island locally reach ore-grade levels and it is quite surprising that this geochemical anomaly has been detected only in very recent times. These iron ores have been exploited and processed since at least the first millennium BC, but even the most recent mining reports do not make any reference to such high W and Sn contents (up to 4950 μg g-1 and 8400 μg g-1, respectively). These two elements are hosted by tiny grains of W–Sn mineral phases (ferberite, scheelite, and cassiterite) that are disseminated throughout the hematite matrix, as detected by the SEM–EDX analyses. In principle, however, the possibility that the two elements are at least partially incorporated in the crystal lattice of hematite itself cannot be excluded (Benvenuti et al., 2013).


Iron ores from eastern Elba Island have been used for iron production by direct methods and traded along the coasts of the entire Mediterranean Sea since Etruscan times at least. Iron from Elba was surely smelted by the Etruscan inhabitants of Populonia, the seaside town on the coast of Etruria that was one of the most important iron-working sites in the Mediterranean region. As evidence of the iron production, huge heaps of iron slag were discharged for centuries over the Gulf of Baratti (see Baratti slag locality). Ilva (Elba’s Latin name) was thus celebrated in ancient times by many authors for the unfailing abundance of its iron mines. The mining operations reached their peak in the 19th and 20th centuries AD: annual production rose from about 7000 tons in the middle of the 19th century to 800 000 tons immediately after the First World War; it was maintained at between 400 000 and 600 000 tons in the decades that followed, up to the known closure of the last iron mine (Ginevro) in 1981. An overall estimate of some 60 million tons of iron ore has been exploited on Elba Island over about 3000 years of mining activity (Tanelli et al., 2001).





Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Actinolite

'Actinolite-Ferro-actinolite Series'

'Actinolite-Tremolite Series'

Adamite

Albite

var: Pericline

'Albite-Anorthite Series'

Allanite-(Ce)

Allophane

Aluminocopiapite

Alunite

Alunogen

Amarantite

Amblygonite

Analcime

Anatase

Andalusite

Andradite

Anglesite

Anthophyllite

Antlerite

'Apatite'

Aragonite

Arsenopyrite

Atacamite

Aubertite

Aurichalcite

Azurite

Baryte

Bassanite

Beraunite

Bertrandite

Beryl

var: Alkali-beryl

var: Aquamarine

var: Emerald

var: Goshenite

var: Morganite

var: Rosterite (FRL)

Bieberite

'Biotite'

Bismoclite

Bismuth

Bismuthinite

Bismutite

Bonattite (TL)

Bornite

Botryogen

Brochantite

Brookite

Calcite

var: Cobaltoan Calcite

Cannizzarite

Cannonite

Cassiterite

Cerussite

'Chabazite'

Chalcanthite

Chalcocite

Chalcopyrite

'Chlorite Group'

Chrysocolla

Clinoatacamite

Clinochlore

var: Pennine

Clinozoisite

Cobaltite

Columbite-(Fe)

Columbite-(Mg)

Columbite-(Mn)

Connellite

Cookeite

Copiapite

Copper

Coquimbite

Cordierite

Cosalite

Covellite

Cryptomelane

Cuprite

var: Chalcotrichite

Cyanotrichite

Dachiardite-Ca (TL)

Daubréeite

Diopside

var: Diallage

Dioptase

Dolomite

Dundasite

Elbaite (TL)

'Elbaite-Schorl Series'

Epidote

Epistilbite

Epsomite

Erythrite

Euxenite-(Y)

Ferberite

Ferro-pargasite

Fibroferrite

Fluorapatite

Fluor-elbaite

Fluorite

Fluor-tsilaisite (TL)

Foitite

Gadolinite-(Y)

Galena

'Garnet'

Goethite

Graphite

Grossular

var: Hessonite

Gypsum

Gyrolite

'Halloysite'

Halotrichite

Hambergite

Hastingsite

Hedenbergite

Helvine

Hematite

var: Red Ochre

'Heulandite'

Hexahydrite

'Hornblende'

Hübnerite

Humboldtine

Hydroniumjarosite

Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)

Hydrozincite

Ilmenite

Ilvaite (TL)

Iron

Ixiolite

var: Wolframoixiolite

Jarosite

Kaolinite

'K Feldspar'

'var: Adularia'

Kröhnkite

Laumontite

'Lepidolite'

Lillianite

'Limonite'

Linnaeite

Löllingite

Magnesite

Magnetite

Malachite

'Manganese Oxides'

Manganite

Marcasite

Marialite

Melanterite

var: Cuprian Melanterite

Metatorbernite

Microcline

var: Amazonite

Microlite Group

var: Uranmicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)

Minguzzite (TL)

'Monazite'

Monazite-(Ce)

Mordenite

Muscovite

Natrochalcite

Natrojarosite

Natrolite

Nontronite

Opal

var: Opal-AN

Orthoclase

Paratacamite

Petalite

Pharmacosiderite

Phenakite

Phlogopite

Pickeringite

Plancheite

Plumbojarosite

Pollucite (TL)

Polycrase-(Y)

Prehnite

Pyrite

Pyrolusite

Pyrophanite

Pyrrhotite

Quartz

var: Amethyst

var: Chalcedony

var: Prase

var: Sceptre Quartz

var: Smoky Quartz

Ramanite-(Cs) (TL)

Ramanite-(Rb) (TL)

Rhodochrosite

Rhomboclase

Riomarinaite (TL)

Rosasite

Rossmanite

'Rubellite'

Rubicline (TL)

Rutile

var: Ilmenorutile

var: Niobian Rutile

var: Strüverite

Sanidine

Scheelite

Schorl

Scolecite

Scorodite

Sekaninaite

Senarmontite

'Serpentine Subgroup'

Siderite

Skutterudite

Smithsonite

Spessartine

Sphalerite

Starkeyite

Stellerite

'Stilbite'

Stilpnomelane

Sulphur

'Synchysite'

Synchysite-(Ce)

Talc

Tantalite-(Mn)

Titanite

Titanowodginite

Todorokite

Topaz

'Tourmaline'

Tremolite

Triplite

Tschermigite

Tsilaisite (TL)

Tyrolite

Uranopolycrase (TL)

Vesuvianite

Voltaite

'Wad'

Wollastonite

Woodwardite

Xenotime-(Y)

Zeunerite

Zircon


196 valid minerals. 13 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc.

Rock Types Recorded

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Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Localities in this Region


This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

(In alphabetical order.)

Abrate, M. (1858) Miniere dell'Isola d'Elba ed opifizi metallurgici della Toscana nel 1836. Econ. e Storia, 14: 275-286.

Aloisi, P. (1912) Cerussite e anglesite di Rosseto (Elba). Atti Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Processi Verbali, 26, 43-48.

Aurisicchio C., Ottolini L., & Pezzotta F. (1998) A complete chemical characterization of foitite minerals from Elba Island by means EPMA and SIMS. Plinius, 20: 37-38.

Barberi, F., Innocenti, F., & Ricci, C. A. (1967) Il complesso scistoso di Capo Calamita. Atti Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 74, 579-617.

Barberi F., Dallan L., Franzini M., Giglia G., Innocenti F., Marinelli G., Raggi R., Ricci C.A., Squarci P., Taffi L. & Trevisan L. (1967) Carta geologica dell’Isola d’Elba alla scala 1:25.000. CNR, Roma.

Barberi F., Dallan L., Franzini M., Giglia G., Innocenti F., Marinelli G., Raggi R., Ricci C.A., Squarci P., Taffi L., Trevisan L. (1969) Note illustrative della Carta Geologica d’ Italia alla scala 1:100.000, Foglio 126 (Isola d’Elba). Serv. Geol. d’Italia, 32 pp.

Barberi, F., Innocenti, F., & Ricci, C. A. (1972) Il magmatismo dell'Appennino Centro-Settentrionale. Estratto da "La Toscana Meridionale", Fascicolo Speciale del vol. 27 dei Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrologia.

Becke (1887) Aetzversuche am pyrit. Tscherm. Mitt., VIII.

Beneo, E. (1952) Sulle ricerche minerarie nella costa orientale dell'Isola d'Elba. Bollettino Servizio Geologico Italiano, 74, 9-24.

Benvenuti, N., Dini, A., D’Orazio, M., Chiarantini, L., Corretti, A., Costagliola, P. (2013): The tungsten and tin signature of iron ores from Elba Island (Italy): a tool for provenance studies of iron production in the Mediterranean Region. Archaeometry, 55, 3, 479–506.

Bodechtel, J. (1964) Die Hematit-Magnetit Paragenese in den Eisenerzen der Toskana un der Insel Elba und ihre genetische Deutung. Fortschr. Mineral., 41, 168-169.

Bodechtel, J. (1965) Zur Genese der Eisenerze der Toskana un der Insel Elba. Neues Jahrbuch Min. Abhanndl., 103 (2), 147-162.

Bonatti, S. (1964) Guida mineralogica e petrografica dell'isola d'Elba. Tip. Editrice Giardini, Pisa.

Busatti, L. (1879) Alcuni minerali dell'Elba (Arsenopirite, farmacosiderite, dufrenite). Atti Società Toscana Scienze Naturali, Processi Verbali, 1-2, 243-245.

Calanchi, N., Dal Rio, G., Prati, A. (1976) Miniere e minerali dell'Elba orientale - Tip. Cacciari, Bologna.

Cipriani, C., Tanelli, G. (1983): Le risorse minerarie della Toscana: note storiche ed economiche. Accademia Toscana di Scienze e Lettere ‘La Colombaria’, 48, 241–283.

Dini, A., Innocenti, F., Rocchi, S., Tonarini, S., & Westerman, D.S. (2002a) The magmatic evolution of the late Miocene laccolith-pluton-dyke granitic complex of Elba Island, Italy. Geol. Mag.: 139: 257-279.

Dünkel, I. (2002): The genesis of East Elba iron ore deposits and their interrelation with Messinian tectonics. Tübinger Geowissenschaftliche Arbeiten, Reihe A: Geologie, Paläontologie, Stratigraphie, 65, 1–143.

ExtraLapis No. 20 "Elba", Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich.

Frisch, W., Meschede, M. & Kuhlemann, J. (2008) Elba. Sammlung Geologischer Führer, 98, Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 216 pp.

Hanauer, A. (1973) ELBA - Eine Übersicht. Der Aufschluss, 24, 71-85.

Lotti B. (1884) Carta geologica dell’Isola d’Elba alla scala 1:25.000. R. Uff. Geol. d’Italia.

Lotti B. (1886) Descrizione geologica dell’isola d’Elba. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. d’ Italia, 2, 254 pp.

Minelli, G. & Keller, J.V.A. (2003) The Island of Elba: tectonic setting and geological evolution. Periodico di Mineralogia, Roma,pp. 65-72.

Minguzzi, C. (1952) Ricerche sulle "limoniti" dell'Isola d'Elba. Rendiconti della Società Mineralogica Italiana, 8, 58.

Nannoni, R. (1998) Isola d'Elba: i minerali dei porfidi. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 22 (3), 19-21.

Orlandi, P. & Scortecci, P.B. (1985) Minerals of the Elba pegmatites. Mineralogical Record: 16: 353-363.

Orlandi P., Pasero M., Perchiazzi N. (1990) Nb-Ta oxides from Elba Island pegmatites. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie Serie A, 97, 161-173.

Orlandi, P. and Pezzotta, F. (1997) Minerali dell'isola D'Elba. Edizioni Novecento Grafico, Bergamo, Italy (in Italian), 245 pp.

Pezzotta, F. (2000) Internal structures, parageneses and classification of the miarolitic (Li-bearing) complex pegmatites of Elba Island (Italy). In: Mineralogy and Petrology of Shallow Depth Pegmatites (F. Pezzotta, ed.) Memorie della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano: XXX(I): 29-43.

Rocchi S., Dini A., Innocenti F., Tonarini S. & Westerman D.S. (2003) Elba Island: intrusive magmatism. Periodico di Mineralogia, Roma, pp. 73-104.

Strohschneider, W. (1973) Mineralverzeichnis der Insel Elba.- Der Aufschluss, 24, 491-494.

Tanelli, G., Benvenuti, M., Costagliola, P., Dini, A., Lattanzi, P., Manieri, C., Mascaro, I., Ruggieri, G. (2001): The iron mineral deposits of Elba Island: state of the art. Ofioliti, 26, 239–48.

Trevisan L. (1950) L’Elba orientale e la sua tettonica di scivolamento per gravità. Mem. Ist. Geol. Univ. Padova., 16, 5-39.

Trevisan L. (1951) La 55a Riunione Estiva della Società Geologica Italiana. Isola d’ Elba, 18-23 Settembre 1951. Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., 70, 435-472.

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