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Heftetjern pegmatite, Tørdal, Drangedal, Telemark, Norway
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Latitude: 59°8'36"N
Longitude: 8°45'24"E
Name(s) in local language(s): Heftetjern pegmatitten, Tørdal, Drangedal kommune, Telemark fylke, Norge
A Sc-bearing granite pegmatite of amazonite-cleavelandite type. The pegmatite is about 200-250 m long and 3-4 m wide.
Located about 4.3 km NW of the small parish of Tørdal.
Collecting is only allowed with permission of the land owner.

Mineral List

Agakhanovite-(Y) (TL)
var: Cleavelandite
var: Oligoclase-Albite
Anatase ?
Heftetjernite (TL)
var: Manganoan Ilmenite

var: Scandian Ixiolite (of Bergstøl)

Kamphaugite-(Y) ?
Kristiansenite (TL)
var: Amazonite
Microlite Group
var: Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
Oftedalite (TL)
Pyrochlore Group
var: Yttropyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
'Pyrochlore Supergroup
var: Yttrobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)'

var: Ilmenorutile

Tantite ?
Xenotime-(Y) ?

73 entries listed. 57 valid minerals. 4 type localities (valid minerals). 2 erroneous literature entries.

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


[Note: This is a complete list of references on this pegmatite]

Bergstøl, S. & Juve, G. (1988): Scandian ixiolite, pyrochlore and bazzite in granite pegmatite in Tørdal, Telemark, Norway. Mineralogy and Petrology, 38, 229-243.

Juve, G. & Bergstøl, S. (1990): Caesian bazzite in granite pegmatite in Tørdal, Telemark, Norway. Mineralogy & Petrology, 43, 131-136.

Jambor, J. (1991): Scandium microlite. American Mineralogist, 76, 668.

Werner, R. (1993): Bazzitt fra pegmatitt nær Tørdal. STEIN 20, 184-187.

Juve, G. & Bergstøl, S. (1997): Granittpegmatittene i Tørdal, Telemark. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter, 12, 56-57.

Kristiansen, R. (1998): Høydalen litium-pegmatitt, Tørdal i Telemark. STEIN, 25, 21-30.

Wise, M.A., Cerny, P. & Falster, A.U. (1998): Scandium substitution in columbite-groupminerals and ixiolite. Canadian Mineralogist. 36, 673-680.

Raade, G. & Erambert, M. (1999): An intergrowth of scandiobabingtonite and cascandite from the Heftetjern granite pegmatite, Norway. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte 1999, 545-550.

Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M. & Pilati, T. (2000): Structure refinement of bazzite from pegmatitic and miarolitic occurrences. Canadian Mineralogist, 38, 1419-1424.

Ferraris, G. et al. (2000): Solving the structure of a new Ca-Sc-Sn disilicate twinnned by metric merohedry. International Union of Crystallography Congress, Nancy.

Kristiansen, R. (2000): Mer om rynersonitt. STEIN 27 (1), 12-14.

Raade, G. & Kristiansen, R. (2000a): Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Heftetjern granite pegmatite, Tørdal: a progress report. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 17, 19-25.

Raade, G. & Kristiansen, R. (2000b): Scandium enrichment in the Heftetjern granite pegmatite, Telemark, Norway. 4th International Mineralogy in Museums Conference, Melbourne, Australia, p. 83.

Ferraris, G., Gula, A., Ivaldi, G., Nespolo, M. & Raade, G. (2001): Crystal structure of kristiansenite: a case of class IIB twinning by metric merohedry. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie. 216, 442-448.

Nespolo, M., Ferraris, G., Gula, A., Ivaldi, G. & Raade, G. (2001): Unusual merohedrictwinning in kristiansenite. Progr. and Abstr., Ann. meeting, Miner. Soc. Japan, Akita, p. 154 (in Japanese with English abstr.).

Raade, G., Ferraris, G., Gula, A., Ivaldi, G. & Bernhard, F. (2002): Kristiansenite, a new calcium-scandium-tin sorosilicate from granite pegmatite in Tørdal, Telemark, Norway. Mineralogy and Petrology, 75, 89-99.

Eldjarn, K. (2002): Seltene Scandium-mineralien von Tørdal, Telemark, Norwegen. Mineralien-Welt, 13 (2), 14-22 (in German)

Ellingsen, H.V. & Haugen, A. (2002): Kristiansenitt – et nytt mineral fra Tørdal. STEIN, 29 (1), 32-34.

Grew, E.S. (2002): Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of Beryllium: an introduction and list of Beryllium minerals. In “Beryllium: mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry” in: E.S. Grew (editor). Miner. Soc. Amer. Reviews in mineralogy and geochemistry, Vol. 50, 1-76.

Hawthorne, F. (2002): The use of end-member charge-arrangements in defining new mineral species and heterovalent substitutions in complex minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 699-710.

Kristiansen, R. (2003): Scandium-mineraler i Norge. STEIN, 30, 14-23.

Raade, G. & Segalstad, T.V. (2003): International symposium on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Scandium. Geological museum, Natural History museum, University of Oslo, Abstracts and Proceedings no. 91

Ferraris, G., Raade, G., Gula, A. & Ivaldi, G. (2003): Incorporation of scandium and other structural aspects in kristiansenite. International symposium on the mineralogy and geochemistry of Scandium, University of Oslo, Abstracts and Proceedings no. 2, 16-17.

Raade, G. (2003): An introduction to scandium: mineralogy and crystal chemistry. International symposium on the mineralogy and geochemistry of Scandium, University of Oslo, Abstracts and Proceedings no. 2, 31-33.

Raade, G. & Bernhard, F. (2003): Coexisting scandium minerals in the Heftetjern granite pegmatite. International symposium on the mineralogy and geochemistry of Scandium, University of Oslo, Abstracts and Proceedings no. 2, 34-35.

Raade, G. & Kristiansen, R. (2003): Scandium as a trace element in the Heftetjern pegmatite minerals. International symposium on the mineralogy and geochemistry of Scandium, University of Oslo, Abstracts and Proceedings no. 2, 36-37.

Ferraris, G., Makovicky, E. & Merlino. S. (2004): Crystallography of modular materials. Oxford University Press. 370 pp. (kristiansenite on p. 299).

Nespolo, M. (2004): Twin point groups and the polychromatic symmetry of twins. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 219, 57-71.

Raade, G., Bernhard, F. & Ottolini, L. (2004): Replacement textures involving four scandium silicate minerals in the Heftetjern granitic pegmatite, Norway. European Journal of Mineralogy, 16, 945-950.

Kristiansen, R. (2005): Milarittgruppens mineraler i Norge. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter, 30, 21-29.

Cooper, M.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Ball, N.A., Černý, P., Kristiansen, R. (2006): Oftedalite, (ScCa)KBe3Si12O30, a new mineral species of the milarite group from the Heftetjern pegmatite, Tørdal, Norway: description and crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 943-949.

Kristiansen, R. (2008): Nye mineralfunn i Norge. STEIN 35 (1), 17-21. [analysis of rynersonite and find of bismoclite]

Laukert, G. (2008): Mineralien von Seltenerd-pegmatiten aus Norwegen und Schweden. Bachelor-Arbeit Geowissenschaften. Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg, 67 pp.

Kristiansen, R. (2009): A unique assemblage of Scandium-bearing minerals from the Heftetjern-pegmatite, Tørdal, south Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter, 41, 75-104.

Lussier, A. J.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C. and Kristiansen, R. (2009): Triclinic titanite from the Heftetjern granitic pegmatite, Tørdal, southern Norway. Mineralogical Magazine 73, 709-722.

Kolitsch, U., Kristiansen, R., Raade, G. & Tillmanns, E. (2010): Heftetjernite, a new scandium mineral from the Heftetjern pegmatite, Tørdal, Norway. European Journal of Mineralogy. 22, 309-316.

Raade, G. (2010): Plumbomicrolite from the Heftetjern granitic pegmatite, Tørdal, Telemark, south Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 43: 21-28

Kristiansen, R. (2010): Heftetjernitt og triklin titanitt fra Heftetjern i Tørdal. STEIN. 37 (4): 20-22

Miyawaki,R., Momma,K.,Yokoyama,K., Shigeoka, M.,Matsubara,S.,Ito, M. , Nakai,I. & Kristiansen, R. (2012): Mn-bearing hellandite-(Y) from Telemark, Norway. Abstracts for Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences 2011,R-1P20

Hawthorne, F. C., Abdu, Y.A., Ball, N.A., Černý, P. & Kristiansen, R. (2014): Agakhanovite-(Y), ideally (YCa)□2KBe3Si12O30, a new milarite-group mineral from the Heftetjern pegmatite, Tørdal, Southern Norway: Description and crystal structure. American Mineralogist. 99, 2084-2088.

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