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Panasqueira Mine (Couto Mineiro da Panasqueira), Panasqueira, Covilhã, Castelo Branco District, Portugal
This page kindly sponsored by Knut Eldjarn

Latitude: 40°9'N
Longitude: 7°45'W
 
Name(s) in local language(s): Mina da Panasqueira (Couto Mineiro da Panasqueira), Panasqueira, Covilhã, Distrito de Castelo Branco, Portugal
 
Mine Information: A large tin-tungsten mine that started production in 1898. Mining is in gently dipping stacked quartz veins that lead into mineralized wolfram-bearing schist. The mineralized zone has dimensions of approximately 2,500 m in length, varying in width from 400 m to 2,200 m, and continues to at least 500 m in depth.

Originally the longwall method or a varient with partial filling was used, but in 1986 it was changed to room-and-pillar based on an analysis of geological and geomechanical characteristics of the rock mass.

Access to the mine’s main levels is by a 2.5 m x 2.8 m decline from surface at a 14% grade. The main levels consist of a series of parallel drives that are spaced 100 m apart and which provide access to the ore passes for rail transport, and connect with ramps for movement of drilling and loading equipment.

Blocks of ore are laid out initially in 100 m x 80 m sections by driving 5 m wide tunnels, 2.2 m high. Similar cross cuts are then set off at right angles to create roughly 11 m by 11m pillars, which are ultimately trimmed to 3 m by 3 m, providing an extraction rate of 84%. Blasted ore is loaded from the stopes by a fleet of LHDs (rubber tired low profile loaders), tipping into 1.8 m-diameter bored raises connecting to the main level boxes. Rail haulage with trolley locomotives is used to transport the ore to the shaft on Level 3, and to the 900 t-capacity main orepass on Level 2 that provides storage for the 190 metric ton/hour jaw crusher located at the 530 m-level.

Geology: Panasqueira granite intrudes Precambrian marine shales, greywackes and sandstones. Shales are converted into biotite cordierite andalusite hornfelses near the granite contact. Irregular barren quartz masses were formed in shales (quartz segregation lenses) during Hercynian (geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea) regional metamorphism. Panasqueira muscovite-albite leucogranite batholith evolves upwards into a quartz-greisen cupola overlain by a quartz cap, from which related quartz veins (stockscheider) penetrate into the shales. Later subhorizontal mineralized veins follow these quartz veins.

Four stages of mineralization are known:
1) Oxide-silicate stage (280-320°C): wolframite, cassiterite in quartz veins, arsenopyrite, topaz, muscovite and tourmaline
2) Sulfide stage: arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, stannite, etc.
3) Pyrrhotite alteration stage
4) Carbonate stage: calcite and dolomite, minor sulfides


Mineral List

Acanthite
Althausite
Amblygonite
Andalusite
Ankerite
Antimony
Arsenic
Arseniosiderite
Arsenopyrite
Baryte
Berndtite
Bertrandite
Beryl
'Biotite'
Bismuth
Bismuthinite
Calcite
Canfieldite
Cassiterite
Chalcanthite
Chalcocite
Chalcopyrite
Clinochlore
Cordierite
Covellite
Cubanite
Dolomite
'Dravite-Schorl Series'
'Eta-bronze'
Ferberite
Fluorapatite
Fluorite
Freibergite
Galena
Goethite
Gold
Gudmundite
Gypsum
var: Selenite
Hematite
Hydrotungstite
Isokite
Löllingite
Mackinawite
Magnetite
Marcasite
Matildite
Melanterite
Molybdenite
Muscovite
Panasqueiraite (TL)
Pavonite
Pentlandite
Pharmacosiderite
Pyrargyrite ?
Pyrite
Pyrrhotite
Quartz
var: Rock Crystal
Rutile
Scheelite
Scorodite
Siderite
Silver
Sphalerite
Stannite
Stephanite ?
Stibnite
Tetrahedrite
Thadeuite (TL)
Topaz
'Tourmaline'
Triplite
Tungstite
Vivianite
Wagnerite
Wolfeite
'Wolframite' ?


78 entries listed. 70 valid minerals. 2 type localities (valid minerals). 1 erroneous literature entry.

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Clark, A.H. (1965). Notes on the mineralogy of Panasqueira tin-tungsten deposit, Portugal. Comunicacaoes dos Servicos Geologicos de Portugal 48, 201-12.

Gaines, R.W. & Thadeu, D. (1971). The minerals of Panasqueira, Portugal. Mineralical Record, 2(2), 73-78.

Dunn, P. J. (1977): Apatite. A guide to species nomenclature. Mineralogical Record 8 (2): 78-82 [with analysis of green and violet apatite-(CaF) from Panasqueira]

Thadeu, D. (1979): Le gisement stanno-wolframifère de Panasqueira (Portugal). Chronique de la Recherche Minière 450, 35-42.

Bull. Minéral., (1984), 107, 703-713.

D. Wimmers (1985) Silver Minerals of Panasqueira, Portugal: A New Occurrence of Te-Bearing Canfieldite. Mineralogical Magazine 49:745-748.

Bull. Minéral., (1988), 111, 251-256.

Foxford, K.A. , Nicholson, R. and Polya, D.A. (1991): Textural evolution of W-Cu-Sn bearing hydrothermal veins at Minas da Panasqueira, Portugal. Mineralogical Magazine, 55, 435-445.

Azevedo Da Silva, R.P. and Calvo, M. (1997): Minéralogie (Panasqueira). Bocamina, 12-27.

Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): International Strategic Mineral Issues Summary Report - Tungsten. US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.

De Ascencao Guedes, R. (2002): Le coteau minier de Panasqueira, Beira Baixa (Portugal). Le Règne Minéral(43), 6-32.

USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10055806 & 10304117.

Keeping a low profile at Panasqueira, Mining Methods in Underground Mining (2007) Atlas Copco, 135-140

Carlos Curto Milà and Jordi Fabre (2014): ... The Mineralogical Record, 45 (1), 11-55.

Weiß, S., Fabre, J. & Mila, C. C. (2014): Panasqueira, Portugal: Wolframit, Zinnstein und prächtige Apatite. Lapis, 39 (7/8), 16-29 (in German).

Weiß, S. & Fabre, J. (2014): Panasqueira: Mineralien für Kenner - von A bis Z. Lapis, 39 (7/8), 30-53.

Mila, C.C., Salvan, C.M. & Fabre, J. (2014): Panasqueira: Neufunde und Neubestimmungen. Lapis, 39 (7/8), 54-63. [mineral list on p. 63]


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Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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