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Exile and King claims (King-Exile group; King-Exile Mine group; Exile King Mine; King in Exile Mine), Helvetia, Helvetia-Rosemont District, Santa Rita Mts, Pima Co., Arizona, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 31° 51' 18'' North , 110° 45' 26'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 31.855, -110.757222222
Other regions containing this locality:Sonoran Desert, North America

‡Ref.: Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 92, 119-120.

Creasey, S.C. & G.L. Quick (1955), Copper deposits of part of Helvetia mining district, Pima County, Arizona, USGS Bull. 1027-F: (312 ?) 320.

Miller (1955) US Atomic Energy Commission Preliminary Reconnaissance Report A-37.

Michel, F.A., Jr. (1959) Geology of the King mine, Helvetia, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 59 p.

Warner, L.A., Holser, W.T., Wilmarth, V.R., and Cameron, E.N. (1959) Occurrence of nonpegmatitic beryllium in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 318, 198 p., 5 sheets, scales 1:480, 1:960, 1:4,800, 1:500,000: 103.

Arizona Bureau of Mines field notes (1971), vol. 1, no. 2.

Drewes, H.D. (1971) Geologic map of the Sahuarita quadrangle, southeast of Tucson, Pima County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-613, 1 sheet, scale 1:48,000.

Keith, Stanton B. (1974), Arizona Bureau of Geology & Mineral Technology, Geological Survey Branch Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, Arizona: 124 (Table 4).

Niemuth, N.J. & K.A. Phillips (1992), Copper Oxide Resources, Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Open File Report 92-10: 12 (Table 1).

Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 12.

USGS Sahuarita Quadrangle topo map.

MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039414, MRDS ID #M050049; and, Dep. ID #10283221, MAS ID #0040190276.

A former small surface and underground Cu-Ag-Zn-Pb-Au-W-Mo-U-Be mine located in East-central sec. 24, T.18S., R.15E. (Sahuarita 15 minute topo map), 1¾ miles east of Helvetia, near the crest of the range, at about 5,400 feet of altitude, and about 28 miles SE of Tucson. The north end of the Exile claim overlaps the King claim. Adjoins the Broad Top Mine and connects to it with tunnels. Discovered 1899. Owned at times, or in part, by the Rosemont Copper Co.; Rosemont Development Co.; Lewisohn Copper Corp.; Lewisohn Estate; Daylight Mining Co.; Maffeo; the Allison Steel Co.; Alma Greenhalgh; and, Chilson.

This group includes the patented Malachite and Broad Top claims; and, the Cuprite, Vulture, Bonnie Blue, Exile, Blue Point, Aceola, Amole and King unpatented claims.

Mineralization is copper carbonates, oxides, and sulfides with some minor zinc and lead minerals in irregular lenticular zones, stringers and pockets in bedded, pyrometasomatic orebodies and in massive fracture fillings in silicated Permian limestone along the contact with Laramide quartz latite porphyry stock. Sparsely disseminated scheelite, pods of molybdenite occur in late quartz stringers and small pockets of pitchblende. Ore control was NE-striking fractures along the contact of limestone and quartz latite porphyry. Alteration was silicification of limestone; secondary chloritization, argillization, sericitization, and tremolitization. Host rock units are the Concha Limestone and the Scherrer Formation.

A 12 foot ledge of altered, sheared, silicified, epidotized, mineralized limestone next to the contact with the intrusive alaskite-granite porphyry (?), dipping steeply to the north is exposed by the southern working (King claim). The ledge contains stringers and pockets of oxidized iron and copper ores.

A similar 10 foot wide orebodyn is exposed north of the first. This orebody dips to the south in an opposite direction to the dip of the adjoining, un-mineralized crystalline limestone. Here the ore consists of malachite, azurite, cuprite, limonite, and a little pyrite and chalcopyrite in a gangue of altered limestone.

About 200 feet farther north again there is a large open cut (100 feet long, 30 feet wide and 20 feet deep) that exposed a 10 foot wide bed of highly altered, very siliceous epidotized and mineralized limestone. The ore consists principally of limonite, malachite, azurite, and cuprite scattered throughout the bed. On some of the joints occurs later quartz which carries pyrite and chalcopyrite.

Local structures include thrust and normal faulting, fracture zones, homoclinal. Regional trends include tilting and broad open folds in the south and extensive faulting in the north.

Workings include several short tunnels, the longest about 150 feet in length, with winzes and stopes and open cut operations. Over 55,000 tons of ore averaging about 6% Cu, 1 oz. Ag/T, and minor Zn and Pb were perduced between the early 1900's and 1959.

Mineral List

15 valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This data will improve over time as more accurate maps and data sets are added.

Late Cretaceous - Late Jurassic66 - 163.5 MaCretaceous to Late Jurassic sedimentary rocks with minor volcanic rocks

Major:: {conglomerate},Minor:: {sandstone},Incidental:: {arenite, argillite, limestone, mudstone, sedimentary breccia, shale, siltstone, wacke, andesite, dacite, intermediate metavolcanic rock, meta-conglomerate, metarhyolite, phyllite, quartz-feldspar schist, rhyolite, schist, landslide, calcarenite, evaporite}

Sandstone and conglomerate, rarely forms prominent outcrops; massive conglomerate is typical near base of unit and locally in upper part. These deposits are nonmarine except in southeastern Arizona, where prominent gray marine limestone (Mural Limestone) forms the middle of the Bisbee Group. Sandstones are typically medium-bedded, drab brown, lithic-feldspathic arenites. Includes Bisbee Group (largely Early Cretaceous) and related rocks, Temporal, Bathtub, and Sand Wells formations, rocks of Gu Achi, McCoy Mountains Formation, and Upper Cretaceous Fort Crittenden Formation and equivalent rocks. (80-160 Ma)

Cretaceous - Jurassic66 - 201.3 MaJurassic-Cretaceous volcanic: interlayered sedimentary and volcanic rocks

Volcanic: interlayered sedimentary and volcanic rocks

Cretaceous66 - 145 MaCretaceous plutonic rocks

Plutonic rocks

Deep-seated to high-level intrusions are included. Many charnockites, anorthosites, and large ophiolites, classified as plutons, are distinguished in the database using the SIGNIF item. Ophiolites were classified as plutons, even where remnants may be extrusive and/or sedimentary.

References for regional geology:

Data provided by

Garrity, C.P., and Soller, D.R.,. Database of the Geologic Map of North America: adapted from the map by J.C. Reed, Jr. and others (2005). U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 424 .

USGS compilers. State geologic map data. State Maps.

Geological Survey of Canada. Generalized geological map of the world and linked databases. doi:10.4095/195142. Open File 2915d.

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