Jeffrey Mine ("Johns-Manville Mine"), Asbestos, Les Sources RCM, Estrie, Québec, Canada
|Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):||45° 46' 11'' North , 71° 56' 60'' West|
|Latitude & Longitude (decimal):||45.7697222222, -71.95|
Formerly: Jeffrey mine (Johns-Manville Mine), Asbestos, Asbestos RCM, Estrie, Québec, Canada
Formerly: Jeffrey Mine (Johns-Manville Mine), Asbestos, Shipton Township, Richmond Co., Québec, Canada. "Jeffrey quarry" in earlier locality strings has no trace in the literature and should not be propagated. The "Johns-Manville Mine" is also misused name as it was not officially used, Johns-Manville was the corporate owner and operator of the mine for most of its history.
Mine: Open Pit chrysotile asbestos mine measuring some 2 km in diameter and eventually reaching a depth of 350 m. Mining began in 1879. In 1950 an attempt was made to switch to block caving, but was abandoned after 10 years. In 1969 the pit was expanded, requiring the relocation of the adjacent town. However, world demand for asbestos fell drastically in the 1980s when its carcinogenic properties became known and world-wide bans were implemented on its use as a building material. In 1996, in an attempt to mine a high grade area at the bottom of the pit, another attempt was made to switch to underground methods, but government subsidies were exhausted in 2001, and since then the mine has been inactive.
Regional Geology: While the ultramafics of the Thetford-Ham area are a typical ophiolite complex, their origin remains controversial. "Ophiolite" is a term referring to an assemblage of ultramafic and mafic intrusive and extrusive rocks widely believed to represent oceanic crust. Such complexes are characteristic of many orogenic fold-mountain chains, and are sometimes preserved when an island arc system is scraped off of one tectonic plate as it collides with and is subducted under another plate, creating fold mountains. However, others have concluded that the ultramafic rocks of southern Quebec and Vermont are not oceanic crust remnants because many are intrusive, with peridotite the most cornmon, and that Precambrian outcrops in the area appear to be continental, not oceanic crust. They suggest instead that the ultramafic rocks are from the upper mantle, emplaced as solid intrusions during deformation of the Appalachians. Still others suggest that perhaps the Quebec ultramafic rocks represent gigantic submarine extrusions, or feeder conduits for submarine eruptions.
The geological map is copied from Horváth et al. (2013)
Local Geology: The Serpentine Tectonic Belt of the Lower Ordovician rocks of the Appalachians comprise serpentinized dunlte, chromitite, pyroxenite and peridotite, all intruded by diorite, syenite, granite, gabbro and ultramafic to intermediate volcanic rocks. The dunite and peridotite that are associated with the asbestos deposits were heavily serpentinized in successive stages soon after crystallization, especially where sheared and intruded by granitic to dioritic masses and in a later phase of serpentinization, shears zones and fractures channeled the asbestos-forming solutions. Later dike intrusions into the dunite and peridotite formed irregularly and, as at the diorite contact zone with the serpentenized zones, they tended to facilitate replacement mineralization. Calcium- and aluminum-rich fluids were deposited in joints and shears in the diorites and ultramafigs, and occasionally were intruded as discrete dikes called rodingites.
|Ordovician - Cambrian443.8 - 541 Ma||Cambrian-Ordovician sedimentary|
|Cambrian-Ordovician443.8 - 541 Ma||Cambrian-Ordovician mixed volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks|
Mixed volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks
This designation includes Precambrian iron-formation-bearing sedimentary and volcanic sequences, as well as mixed sedimentary and volcanic or volcaniclastic sequences.
References for regional geology:
Data provided by Macrostrat.org
Garrity, C.P., and Soller, D.R.,. Database of the Geologic Map of North America: adapted from the map by J.C. Reed, Jr. and others (2005). U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 424 .
Geological Survey of Canada. Generalized geological map of the world and linked databases. doi:10.4095/195142. Open File 2915d.
111 valid minerals. 4 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.
AKIZUKI, M. (1989) Growth structure and crystal symmetry of grossular garnets from the Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Quebec, Canada. American Mineralogist, 74, 859-864.
AMABILI, M. (2013) The best vesuvianite specimens from the Jeffrey mine. Mineralogical Record, 44, 423-431.
AMABILI, M. and MIGLIOLI, A. (2000) Granati: nuovi ritrovamenti nelle miniere di Asbestos e Thetford Mines, Quebec, Canada. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 24(2), 80-86.
AMABILI, M., MIGLIOLI, A., and SPERTINI, F. (2004) Recent Discoveries at the Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Quebec, Canada. Mineralogical Record 35,123-135.
AMABILI, M., and SPERTINI, F. (2004) La Miniera Jeffrey, Asbestos, Canada. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 28 (2), 67-76.
AMABILI, M., SPERTINI, F. and AUGUSTE, M.B. (2008) Jeffrey and Lac d’Amiante: Two of Québec’s great garnet-bearing mines. In: Garnet – Great balls of fire. Lithographie, LLC (Extra Lapis) publication, 38-43.
CHAMBERLAIN, J.A. (1966) Heazlewoodite and awaruite in serpentinites of the Easten Townships, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 8, 519-522.
CHAMBERLAIN, S. C. (1980) Wollastonite, vesuvianite, native copper and diopside from Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Quebec, Canada. Rock & Minerals, 55, 188-191.
DUNN, P.J. (1978) On the composition of some Canadian green garnets. Canadian Mineralogist 16, 205-206.
DE, A. (1972) Petrology of dikes emplaced in the ultramafic rocks of southeastern Quebec and origin of the rodingite. Geological Society of America, Memoir 132, 489-501.
FITZGERALD, S., RHEINGOLD, A., and LEAVENS, P.B. (1986) Crystal structure of a non P4/nnc vesuvianite from Asbestos, Quebec. American Mineralogist 71, 1483-1488.
GRICE, J.D., and GASPARRINI, E. (1981) Spertiniite, Cu(OH)2 a new mineral from Jeffrey Mine, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 19, 337-340.
GRICE, J.D., and ROBINSON, G.W. (1984) Jeffreyite, (Ca,Na)2(Be,Al)Si2(O,OH)7, a new mineral species and its relation to the melilite Group. Canadian Mineralogist, 22, 443-446.
GRICE J. D., and WIGHT, W. (1982) Correlation of colour and chemistry in grossular and vesuvianite from the Jeffrey mine, Quebec, Canada. Proceedings IMA XIII General Meeting, Varna, 433-440.
GRICE, J.D., and WILLIAMS, R. (1979) The Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Quebec. Mineralogical Record, 10, 69-80.
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. and SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
HORVÁTH, L. and SPERTINI, F. (2008) Die Jeffrey Mine, in Asbestos, Québec, Kanada. Teil 1. Mineralien Welt, Jg.19(5), 42-67 (in German)
HORVÁTH, L. and SPERTINI, F. (2009) Die Jeffrey Mine, in Asbestos, Québec, Kanada. Teil 2. Mineralien Welt, Jg.20(1) 64-83 (in German)
LALIBERTÉ, R. (1972): The Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Quebec. Association des Mines d’Amiante du Québec. Geol. Guide to the Asbestos mining region of southeastern Quebec, 19-26.
LALIBERTÉ, R., SPERTINI, F. and HÉBERT. R. (1979): Engineering geology at the Jeffrey mine, Canadian Johns Manville, Asbestos. Guidebook, Excursion B-3. GAC/MAC Joint Annual meeting.
NICKEL, E.H. (1959) The occurrence of native nickel-iron in the serpentine rocks of the Eastern Townships of Quebec Province. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 307-319.
NORMAND, C. and WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E. (2007) Phisiochemical conditions and timing of rodingite formation: evidence from rodingite-hosted fluid inclusions in the JM asbestos mine, Asbestos, Quebec. Geochemical Transactions, 8(11), 1-19.
NORMAND, C. (2001) Experimental and field investigations of serpentinization and rodingitization. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montréal, 2 vols. 545 pp.
PAN, Y., MAO, M., and LIN, J. (2009) Single crystal EPR study of Fe3+ and VO2+ in prehnite from the Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 47, 933-945.
RIORDON, P.H. (1975): Geology of the asbestos deposits of southeastern Quebec. Ministère des Richesses Naturelles du Québec, ES-18, 100 p.
RIORDON, P.H. and LALIBERTÉ R. (1972) Asbestos deposits of southern Québec. 24th International Geological Congress, Guidebook, Excursion B-08, 21 pp.
ROSSMAN, G.R. and AINES, R.D. (1986) Spectroscopy of a birefringent grossular from Asbestos, Quebec, Canada. American Mineralogist, 71, 779-780.
ROWE, R., GRICE, J.D., POIRIER, G., STANLEY, C.J. and HORVÁTH, L. (2011) Nisnite, Ni3Sn, a new nickel mineral species from the Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 651-656.
SMITH, V.C. (2010) Relationship of optical anomalies, zoning, and microtopography in vesuvianite from the Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Quebec. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal. 171p.
SMITH, V.C. and PAQUETTE, J. (2010) Relationship between optical anomalies, growth topography, and zoning in vesuvianite from Asbestos, Quebec. Abstract, Interdisciplinary Graduate Student Research Symposium, McGill University March 25-26, 2010.
SPERTINI, F. (2001) La Mine Jeffrey d'Asbestos, Québec. Le Règne Minéral 37, 10-34 (in French).
WARES, R.P., and MARTIN, R.F. (1980): Rodingitization of granite and serpentinite in the Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 231 240.
WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., NORMAND, C., CLARK, J.R., VALI, H., MARTIN, R.F., DUFRESNE, A., and NAYEBZADEH, A. (2001). Controls of amphibole formation in chrysotile deposits: evidence from the Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, Special Publication 5, 89-104.
WIGHT, W., and GRICE J. D. (1983): Canadian vesuvianite gems. Journal of Gemmology 18 (8), 738-744.
WIGHT, W., and GRICE, J.D. (1982): Grossular garnet from Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Quebec, Canada. Journal of Gemmology 18 (2), 126-130.
WIGHT, W., and GRICE, J.D. (1981): Colourless grossular and green vesuvianite gems from the Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Quebec. Canadian Gemmologist (2), 2-6.