Hardshell Mine (Manto Mine; Eagle-Picher properties), Hardshell Gulch, Harshaw, Harshaw District, Patagonia Mts, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona, USA
‡Ref.: The Resources of Arizona - A Manual of Reliable Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Scottsdale, Arizona: 42.
Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 265-271.
Schrader, F.C. (1917), The geologic distribution and genesis of the metals in the Santa Rita-Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, Economic Geology: 12: 237-269.
Jones, E.L., Jr. & F.L. Ransome (1920), Deposits of manganese ore in Arizona, USGS Bull. 710-D: 114-120, 174-177.
Wilson, E.D. & G.M. Butler (1930), Manganese ore deposits in Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 127: 91-94.
Elsing, M.J. and Heineman, E.S. (1936) Arizona Metal Production, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 140.
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 31.
Farnham, L.L., Stewart, L.A., and Delong, C.W. (1961), Manganese Deposits of Eastern Arizona, US Bureau of Mines Information Circular 7990: 170-171.
Von Fay (1965) ASARCO Report
Moores, R.C., III (1972) The geology and ore deposits of a portion of the Harshaw district, Santa Cruz County, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 98 p.
Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 58 (Table 4).
Koutz, F.R. (1977) Silver, base-metal, manganese oxides and fluid inclusion geothermometry, Hardshell Manto, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona [abs.]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs: 9(7): 1056-1057.
Koutz, F.R. (1984) The Hardshell silver, base-metal, manganese oxide deposit, Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona; a field trip guide, in Wilkins, J., Jr., ed., Gold and silver deposits of the Basin and Range Province, western U.S.A.: Arizona Geological Society Digest: 15: 199-217.
Niemuth, N.J. (1987), Arizona Mineral Development 1984-1986, Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Directory 29, 46 pp.
Rocks & Minerals (1989): 64: 145.
Sawyer, M.B., Gurmendi, A.C., Daley, M.R., and Howell, S.B. (1992) Principal Deposits of Strategic and Critical Minerals in Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication, 334 pp.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 137-138, 244, 299, 315, 343.
U.S. Bureau of Mines - Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology file data.
U.S. Bureau of Mines Coronado National Forest Study.
Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103551, MRDS ID #M030387; and, Dep. ID #10210798, MAS ID #0040230003.
A former small surface and underground Pb-Ag-Mn-Cu-Zn-Au mine located in the center of sec. 4, T.23S. R.16E. (protracted) on 42 claims, in Hardshell Gulch, at the foot of the steep southerly slope from Table Mountain, about 1 mile SW of Harshaw, a short distance West of Hermosa, on the easterly slope of the Patagonia Mountains, at 5,150 feet of altitude, on private (patented) land. Discovered in by David Harshaw and José Andrade 1879. Produced 1896-1964. Owned at times, or in part, by Mr. R.R. Richardson (1880-1890; 1895-1896; 1897-1901); Mr. Heney of Tucson (1905- ); the Empire Mining & Milling Co. (Mr. Fitzgerald; Columbia Co.)(1896- ); Hardshell Mining Co.; Gardner & Young; Bender; Big Jim Mines, Inc.; Valenzuela; McFarland; and, the American Smelting & Refining Corp. (ASARCO).
Mineralization is irregular, lensing orebodies and ore shoots of ferruginous and manganiferous, argentiferous cerussite, complex lead and zinc oxidation products, chlorargyrite and other silver halides, and spotty copper and gold as replacement of fault gouge and silicified fault breccia in a strong fault zone. The ore zone is 460 meters long, 275 meters wide and 18 meters thick, strikes E-W and dips 35N. The shear zone is about 300 feet long and 30 feet wide. Wall rocks are Jurassic-Triassic volcanics and Cretaceous andesite with thin interbedded limestone, shale, and conglomerate. Some spotty, high-grade manganese oxide areas. Cretaceous dioritic and andesitic dikes are present. Generally weak base metal sulfides found in depth.
Rocks which underlie the Hardshell group of claims are limestone, quartzite, conglomerate and intrusive rhyolite and felsite. In the mine the rhyolite and felsite are the dominant rocks, but there are also beds of quartzite and limestone.
The Hardshell Mine explores a shear zone that strikes NE and dips NW at angles varying from a few degrees to 35º. The shear zone ranges from a few feet to 60 feet or more in width and the ore deposits occur rather irregularly in it but with a persistent vein along its footwall.
The material of the shear zone is greatly crushed quartzite, rhyolite, felsite, a persistent band of kaolinized material and the ore, consisting of lead carbonate and subordinate galena associated with iron and manganese oxides. The iron and manganese oxides are generally separate. In some places the manganous ore is 6 feet wide and fairly persistent but elsewhere it occurs as bunches and stringers and in nodular masses disseminated in kaolinized material. Oxidized lead ore is intimately associated with the manganese deposits.
Local structures include the Corral Canyon FAult Block with downthrow to the SW. Located on the N-S-trending American Fault.
Workings include a 600 foot deep inclined shaft on the dip and drifts on several levels which extend about 200 feet East of the incline and about 75 feet West of it. Workings attain a vertical depth of 250 feet. Workings aggregate some 3,000 feet of openings. Worked from about 1896 through 1964. Produced some 35,000 tons of ore averaging about 6% Pb, 8 oz. Ag/T, 0.5% Cu and minor Zn and Au; and about 1,000 tons of Mn ore and concentrate averaging about 40% Mn. Reserve has a refractory metallurgical problem due to Mn.
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Locality Updated: Osterberg district, Gernrode, Harz, Saxony-Anhalt, GermanyFrom Thomas Lühr, 23rd May 2013 20:53:42