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Lavrion District slag localities, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece

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Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° North , 24° East (est.)
Margin of Error:~5km
Name(s) in local language(s):Σκωριές Περιοχής Λαυρίου, Αττική, Ελλάδα


This general "header" covers the minerals found at the ancient slag localities of the Lavrion District in the Attiki ("Attika," "Attica") Prefecture of Greece, which are noted for the rare minerals which were created by sea water chemically reacting with the coastal slag heaps produced by processing ores mined inland from the slag sites during ancient times (mainly 500-200 B.C., but as early as 3000 B.C. at Thorikos). (There is a separate list for minerals found in the mines - see Lavrion District Mines: http://www.mindat.org/loc-1942.html.)

From north-northeast to south-southwest along the coast, the slags heaps were located on the shores and in the sea at the areas of Tourkolimanon, Vrissaki, St. Nikolas, Thorikos, Port of Lavrion (the only actual town), Oxygon, Panormos, Passa Limani, and Sounion. Nearly all of the slags are now gone from these sites; collecting them today requires scouring beaches and inter-tidal areas for materials that were not recovered from the sea. Most of the slags were actually dumped into the sea, and they still wash up from time to time. Slags can also be retrieved by diving.

(NOTE: The editors of these pages could not ascertain the actual Type Localities for fiedlerite, laurionite, nealite, paralaurionite, and penfieldite. The samples from which these species were described were obtained from stockpiles at a smelter site, the materials gathered in from a number of different slag localites. They are therefore noted as "TL" species in this list, rather than in specific locality lists. It should be understood, though, that this is a unique situation, and that usually Type Localities are specific sites, NOT the District in general.)

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Acanthite

Akaganeite

Albite

var: High Albite

Amesite

Anglesite

Annabergite

Anthonyite

Antlerite

Aragonite

var: Plumboan Aragonite

Atacamite

Aurichalcite

Bannermanite

Barnesite

Barstowite

Beudantite

Bismoclite

Blixite

Boleite

Botallackite

Brochantite

Calcite

Caledonite

Calumetite

Cerussite

Chlorargyrite

var: Bromian Chlorargyrite

'Chlorite Group' ?

Chlorophoenicite

Chloroxiphite

Clinoatacamite

Connellite

Copper

Cotunnite

Covellite

Creedite

Cumengeite

Cuprite

Cuspidine

Cyanochroite

Cyanotrichite

Damaraite

Diaboleite

Ecdemite

Elyite

Ettringite

Feroxyhyte

Ferrihydrite

Fiedlerite (TL)

Fluorite

Fougèrite

Freedite

'Friedel's Salt'

Galena

Gearksutite

Gehlenite

Georgiadèsite (TL)

Gibbsite ?

Gilalite

Goethite

Grantsite

Gypsum

var: Selenite

Halite

Haüyne

Hedenbergite

Heliophyllite

Hematite

Hemimorphite

Hidalgoite

Hörnesite

Huemulite

Hydrocalumite

Hydrocerussite

Iodargyrite

Ktenasite

Lanarkite

Laurionite

Lavendulan

Lead

Leadhillite

Legrandite

Lepidocrocite

Liebenbergite

'Limonite'

Linarite

Litharge

'Lorettoite'

Ludlockite

Macphersonite

Malachite

Mammothite

Massicot

Matlockite

Mendipite

Metamunirite

Mimetite

Minium

Namuwite

Nealite (TL)

Nosean

Olivenite

Paralaurionite (TL)

Parasymplesite

Paratacamite

Pascoite

'Pascoite Group'

Paulmooreite

Penfieldite (TL)

Perite

Pharmacosiderite

Phosgenite

Plattnerite

Plumbojarosite

Posnjakite

Pseudoboleite

Quartz

Schäferite

Schulenbergite

Scorodite

Serpierite

Shakhovite

Silver

Smithsonite

Spangolite

Sphalerite

Strontianite

Sulphur

Susannite

Symplesite

Thomsenolite

Thorikosite (TL)

Tooeleite

Trevorite

'UM1992-30-SO:CCuHZn'

'Unnamed (Hydrocerussite- and Plumbonacrite-related phase)'

'Unnamed (Na-Pb Carbonate-Hydroxide)'

'Unnamed (Na-V Oxide)'

'Unnamed (Ni-Mg-analogue of lyonsite)'

'Unnamed (Ni Vanadate)'

'Unnamed (Orthorhombic dimorph of Barstowite)'

'Unnamed (Pb Arsenite Chloride)'

'Unnamed (Pb-Cu Arsenite-Chloride)'

'Unnamed (Pb-Cu Chloride-Hydroxide)'

'Unnamed (Pb Diarsenite-Chloride-Hydrate)'

'Unnamed (Pb-Fe-As-Cl-O-H)'

'Unnamed (Pb Hydrogen Arsenite Chloride)'

'Unnamed (Pb Oxide Chloride)'

Valentinite

Veszelyite

Volborthite

'Whitlockite Group'

Willemite

Wüstite

Zincite


132 valid minerals. 6 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Localities in this Region


The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Cordella, A. (1864): Ueber eine neue Gesteinbildung oder alluviales Schlackenconglomerat. Berg- und Hüttenmännische Zeitung 26 (Nr. 35), 285-286. [http://reader.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/fs1/object/display/bsb10228259_00293.html]

Zboinski, C.H.T. (1889): L’Attique décrite au point de vue géologique, métallifère, minier et métallurgique. Mémoires de la Société Belge de Géologie, III, 137-148.

Binder, J. (1895): Laurion. Die attischen Bergwerke im Alterthum. Jahresbericht der k.u.k. Staatsoberrealschule Laibach, Laibach, 54 pp. [https://archive.org/details/lauriondieattisc00bind]

Lacroix, A. (1896): Les minéraux néogènes des scories plombeuses athéniennes du Laurium (Grèce). Compte Rendu de l'Académie des Sciences, 123, no. 22, 955-958.

Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 102-110.

Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1907): On a new mineral species from the Athenian lead slags at Laurium. Compt. rend. 145, 783-785 (in French).

Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French). [mineralogy of Vrissaki point slags]

Guillaume, L. (1910): Smelting Refractory Lead Ores at Laurium. Engineering and Mining Journal 88, 446-467.

Palache, C. (1934). The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 573-586.

Conophagos, C. E. (1960): A forgotten method of cupellation of argentiferous lead employed by the ancient Greeks. Annales Géologiques des Pays Helléniques 11, 137-149 (in French).

Conophagos, C. (1975): Smelting furnaces and the technique of smelting argentiferous lead ores of Laurium in ancient Greece. Annales Géologiques des Pays Helléniques 26, 338-366 (in Greek).

Hanauer, A. & Heinrich, G. (1977): Schätze unter Schlacken - Mineralien aus Laurium. Mineralien-Magazin 1 (4), 184-188.

Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1981): Neufunde von Mineralen aus den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss, 32, 165-169.

Pernicka, E. (1981): Archäometallurgische Untersuchungen zur antiken Silbergewinnung in Laurion. I. Chemische Analyse griechischer Blei-Silber-Erze. Erzmetall 34, 396-400.

Bachmann, H. G. (1982): Archäometallurgische Untersuchungen zur antiken Silbergewinnung in Laurion. II. Charakterisierung von Bleiverhüttungsschlacken aus Laurion. Erzmetall 35(5), 246-251 (in German).

Hochleitner, R. (1982): Pharmakosiderit in den antiken Bleischlacken von Lavrion. Lapis 7 (10), 23.

Rewitzer, C. and Hochleitner, R. (1982): Neue and alte Schlackenmineralien. Lapis 7 (6), 17. [a find of connellite and strontianite].

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982): Connellit, Botallackit, Paratacamit und Leadhillit in den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss 33, 3-6.

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982): Neue Schlackenminerale aus Laurion. Der Aufschluss, 33 (12), 459-462.

Pernicka, E. & Bachmann, H. G. (1983): Archäometallurgische Untersuchungen zur antiken Silbergewinnung in Laurion. III. Das Verhalten einiger Spurenelemente beim Abtreiben des Bleis. Erzmetall 36(12), 592-597 (in German).

Jones, J.E. (1984): Ancient Athenian silver mines, dressing floors and smelting sites. Historical Metallurgy, 18, 65-81.

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1985): Neue Schlackenmineralien von Lavrion. Lapis, 10 (5), 13-16; 50.

Hochleitner, R. (1986): Ludlockit aus den Schlacken von Lavrion. Lapis 11 (6), 30.

Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1986): Neufunde in den Schlacken von Laurion. Lapis, 11 (6), 25-29; 42.

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C. & Standfuß, K.L. (1988): Weitere Neufunde in Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis, 13 (2), 11-14; 42.

Rewitzer, C. & Hochleitner, R. (1989): I minerali delle antiche scorie di Laurion, Grecis. Revista Mineral. Ital., 21-38, 83-100 (in Italian).

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuß, K. & Standfuß, L. (1991): Neue Funde aus den antiken Schlacken von Lavrion, Griechenland. Lapis, 16 (6), 21-23.

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1992): Damarait - ein Mineralneufund aus den antiken Schlacken von Lavrion/Griechenland. Der Aufschluss, 43, 245-246.

Hanke, H. (1994) Die Fundstellen mit Lageskizen. Emser Hefte, Nr. 2, 58-xx.

Gelaude, P., van Kalmthout, P. and Rewitzer, C. (1996): Laurion – the minerals in the ancient slags. Authors publishing, The Netherlands, 195 pp. [http://pietvankalmthout.ruhosting.nl/laurion/]

Rüsenberg, K. A. (2001): Mineralparagenesen in den Schlacken von Lavrion und ihre Entstehung. Aufschluss 52, 25-44 (in German).

van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch). [http://natuurtijdschriften.nl/download?type=document&docid=568560 (free PDF version)]

Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt 25 (2), 82-95 (in German).

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