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Lavrion District slag localities, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece
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Name(s) in local language(s): Σκωριές Περιοχής Λαυρίου, Αττική, Ελλάδα
 
This general "header" covers the minerals found at the ancient slag localities of the Lavrion District in the Attiki ("Attika," "Attica") Prefecture of Greece, which are noted for the rare minerals which were created by sea water chemically reacting with the coastal slag heaps produced by processing ores mined inland from the slag sites during ancient times (mainly 500-200 B.C., but as early as 3000 B.C. at Thorikos). (There is a separate list for minerals found in the mines - see Lavrion District Mines: http://www.mindat.org/loc-1942.html.)

From north-northeast to south-southwest along the coast, the slags heaps were located on the shores and in the sea at the areas of Tourkolimanon, Vrissaki, St. Nikolas, Thorikos, Port of Lavrion (the only actual town), Oxygon, Panormos, Passa Limani, and Sounion. Nearly all of the slags are now gone from these sites; collecting them today requires scouring beaches and inter-tidal areas for materials that were not recovered from the sea. Most of the slags were actually dumped into the sea, and they still wash up from time to time. Slags can also be retrieved by diving.

(NOTE: The editors of these pages could not ascertain the actual Type Localities for fiedlerite, laurionite, nealite, paralaurionite, and penfieldite. The samples from which these species were described were obtained from stockpiles at a smelter site, the materials gathered in from a number of different slag localites. They are therefore noted as "TL" species in this list, rather than in specific locality lists. It should be understood, though, that this is a unique situation, and that usually Type Localities are specific sites, NOT the District in general.)

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities
Acanthite
Akaganeite
Albite
var: High Albite

Amesite
Anglesite
Annabergite
Anthonyite
Antlerite
Aragonite
var: Plumboan Aragonite
Atacamite
Aurichalcite
Barnesite
Barstowite
Beudantite
Bismoclite
Blixite
Boleite
Botallackite
Brochantite
Calcite
Caledonite
Calumetite
Cerussite
Chlorargyrite
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite

'Chlorite Group' ?
Chlorophoenicite
Chloroxiphite
Clinoatacamite
Connellite
Copper
Cotunnite
Covellite
Creedite
Cumengeite
Cuprite
Cuspidine
Cyanochroite
Cyanotrichite
Damaraite
Diaboleite
Ecdemite
Elyite
Ettringite
Feroxyhyte
Ferrihydrite
Fiedlerite (TL)
Fluorite
Fougèrite
Freedite
'Friedel's Salt'
Galena
Gearksutite
Gehlenite
Georgiadèsite (TL)
Gibbsite ?
Gilalite
Goethite
Grantsite
Gypsum
var: Selenite
Halite
Hedenbergite
'Heliophyllite'
Hematite
Hemimorphite
Hidalgoite
Hörnesite
Huemulite
Hydrocalumite
Hydrocerussite
Iodargyrite
Ktenasite
Lanarkite
Laurionite
Lavendulan
Lead
Leadhillite
Legrandite
Lepidocrocite
Liebenbergite
'Limonite'
Linarite
Litharge
'Lorettoite'
Ludlockite
Macphersonite
Malachite
Mammothite
Massicot
Matlockite
Mendipite
Mimetite
Minium
Namuwite
Nealite (TL)
Nosean
Olivenite
Paralaurionite (TL)
Parasymplesite
Paratacamite
'Pascoite Group'
Paulmooreite
Penfieldite (TL)
Perite
Pharmacosiderite
Phosgenite
Plumbojarosite
Posnjakite
Pseudoboleite
Quartz
Schäferite
Schulenbergite
Scorodite
Serpierite
Shakhovite
Silver
Smithsonite
Spangolite
Sphalerite
Strontianite
Sulphur
Susannite
Thomsenolite
Thorikosite (TL)
Tooeleite
Trevorite
'UM1992-30-SO:CCuHZn'
'Unnamed (Hydrocerussite- and Plumbonacrite-related phase)'
'Unnamed (Na-Pb Carbonate-Hydroxide)'
'Unnamed (Na-V Oxide)'
'Unnamed (Ni Vanadate)'
'Unnamed (Orthorhombic dimorph of Barstowite)'
'Unnamed (Pb Arsenite Chloride)'
'Unnamed (Pb-Cu Arsenite-Chloride)'
'Unnamed (Pb-Cu Chloride-Hydroxide)'
'Unnamed (Pb Diarsenite-Chloride-Hydrate)'
'Unnamed (Pb-Fe-As-Cl-O-H)'
'Unnamed (Pb Hydrogen Arsenite Chloride)'
'Unnamed (Pb Oxide-Chloride)'
Valentinite
Veszelyite
Volborthite
'Whitlockite Group'
Willemite
Zincite


217 entries listed. 122 valid minerals. 6 type localities (valid minerals).

Localities in this Region

Greece
Greece

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Zboinski, C.H.T. (1889): L’Attique décrite au point de vue géologique, métallifère, minier et métallurgique. Mémoires de la Société Belge de Géologie, III, 137-148.

Binder, J. (1895): Laurion. Die attischen Bergwerke im Alterthum. Jahresbericht der k.u.k. Staatsoberrealschule Laibach, Laibach, 54 pp. [https://archive.org/details/lauriondieattisc00bind]

Lacroix, A. (1896): Les minéraux néogènes des scories plombeuses athéniennes du Laurium (Grèce). Compte Rendu de l'Académie des Sciences, 123, no. 22, 955-958.

Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineral. Mag., 12, 102-110.

Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1907): On a new mineral species from the Athenian lead slags at Laurium. Compt. rend. 145, 783-785 (in French).

Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French). [mineralogy of Vrissaki point slags]

Guillaume, L. (1910): Smelting Refractory Lead Ores at Laurium. Engineering and Mining Journal 88, 446-467.

Palache, C. (1934). The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 573-586.

Conophagos, C. E. (1960): A forgotten method of cupellation of argentiferous lead employed by the ancient Greeks. Annales Géologiques des Pays Helléniques 11, 137-149 (in French).

Conophagos, C. (1975): Smelting furnaces and the technique of smelting argentiferous lead ores of Laurium in ancient Greece. Annales Géologiques des Pays Helléniques 26, 338-366 (in Greek).

Hanauer, A. & Heinrich, G. (1977): Schätze unter Schlacken - Mineralien aus Laurium. Mineralien-Magazin 1 (4), 184-188.

Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1981): Neufunde von Mineralen aus den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss, 32, 165-169.

Pernicka, E. (1981): Archäometallurgische Untersuchungen zur antiken Silbergewinnung in Laurion. I. Chemische Analyse griechischer Blei-Silber-Erze. Erzmetall 34, 396-400.

Bachmann, H. G. (1982): Archäometallurgische Untersuchungen zur antiken Silbergewinnung in Laurion. II. Charakterisierung von Bleiverhüttungsschlacken aus Laurion. Erzmetall 35(5), 246-251 (in German).

Hochleitner, R. (1982): Pharmakosiderit in den antiken Bleischlacken von Lavrion. Lapis 7 (10), 23.

Rewitzer, C. and Hochleitner, R. (1982): Neue and alte Schlackenmineralien. Lapis 7 (6), 17. [a find of connellite and strontianite].

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982): Connellit, Botallackit, Paratacamit und Leadhillit in den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss 33, 3-6.

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982): Neue Schlackenminerale aus Laurion. Der Aufschluss, 33 (12), 459-462.

Pernicka, E. & Bachmann, H. G. (1983): Archäometallurgische Untersuchungen zur antiken Silbergewinnung in Laurion. III. Das Verhalten einiger Spurenelemente beim Abtreiben des Bleis. Erzmetall 36(12), 592-597 (in German).

Jones, J.E. (1984): Ancient Athenian silver mines, dressing floors and smelting sites. Historical Metallurgy, 18, 65-81.

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1985): Neue Schlackenmineralien von Lavrion. Lapis, 10 (5), 13-16; 50.

Hochleitner, R. (1986): Ludlockit aus den Schlacken von Lavrion. Lapis 11 (6), 30.

Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1986): Neufunde in den Schlacken von Laurion. Lapis, 11 (6), 25-29; 42.

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C. & Standfuß, K.L. (1988): Weitere Neufunde in Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis, 13 (2), 11-14; 42.

Rewitzer, C. & Hochleitner, R. (1989): I minerali delle antiche scorie di Laurion, Grecis. Revista Mineral. Ital., 21-38, 83-100 (in Italian).

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuß, K. & Standfuß, L. (1991): Neue Funde aus den antiken Schlacken von Lavrion, Griechenland. Lapis, 16 (6), 21-23.

Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1992): Damarait - ein Mineralneufund aus den antiken Schlacken von Lavrion/Griechenland. Der Aufschluss, 43, 245-246.

Hanke, H. (1994) Die Fundstellen mit Lageskizen. Emser Hefte, Nr. 2, 58-xx.

Gelaude, P., van Kalmthout, P. and Rewitzer, C. (1996): Laurion – the minerals in the ancient slags. Authors publishing, The Netherlands, 195 pp. [http://pietvankalmthout.ruhosting.nl/laurion/]

Rüsenberg, K. A. (2001): Mineralparagenesen in den Schlacken von Lavrion und ihre Entstehung. Aufschluss 52, 25-44 (in German).

van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).

Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt 25 (2), 82-95 (in German).

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Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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