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Caledonia Mine, Mass City, Ontonagon Co., Michigan, USA
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An underground copper mine consisting of two shafts and four adits located approx. 40 miles SW of Houghton, MI. The Caledonia Mining Co. was organized in 1863 after purchasing the Nebraska and Kansas Mining Co. properties. Operations continued until 1871, when Caledonia and the Flinsteel Copper Co. merged together. In 1872, the mine closed having produced approx. 903,000 lbs. of refined copper. From 1873 to 1881, the mine was tributed and another 330,000 lbs. of copper was produced, including one mass weighing 40 tons. The mine was dormant until 1937, when Calumet & Hecla reopened the #4 adit for exploration, but stopped the project due to World War 2. In 1950, C&H returned to continue exploration, drifting, and stoping. Between 1951 and 1958, C&H removed approx. 5.5 million lbs. of refined copper from the #4 adit. In 1985, Red Metal Explorations acquired the Caledonia Mine and conducted exploration of the property until 2013, when Evergreen Explorations purchased the property. The mine is the centerpiece for a week long series of mineral collecting field trips in August put on by local organizations. The mine is exceptional for copper, silver, and datolite, as well as a range of microminerals.

Mineral List

Brochantite
Calcite
Clinochlore
var: Pennine

Copper
Cuprite
Datolite
Epidote
Gerhardtite
Goethite
Hematite
'K Feldspar
var: Adularia'

Likasite
Microcline
Prehnite
'Pumpellyite'
Pumpellyite-(Mg)
Quartz
Saponite
Silver


19 entries listed. 16 valid minerals.

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References

Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243

Butler, B.S., and Burbank, W.S., 1929, The Copper Deposits of Michigan. U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper 144. 238 pp.

The Copper Country Rock & Mineral Club, 2001, Red Gold and Tarnished Silver, 2nd Ed., 44 pp.

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Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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