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Old Mine Park (Lane’s Mine of Trumbull; Hubbard Mine; Long Hill Mine; Old Tungsten Mine), Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
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Detailed Mineral List:
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{(Mg,Fe2+)5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Description: Included in a list of minerals by Januzzi only, no details, but plausible given the marble present at this locality.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Albite
Formula: NaAlSi3O8
Description: Rock forming mineral primarily in the amphibolite as variety oligoclase.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Habit: anhedral grains
Description: A rock forming component of the amphibolite.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.
Almandine ?
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Description: Included in a list of minerals by Januzzi only, no details. Not mentioned as an accessory in the amphibolite, marble or pegmatite by Hobbs or Gurlt.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Analcime
Formula: Na2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Description: Gurlt (1894) appears to be the only one to report this mineral, which is very unlikely and never found since. Schairer (1931) included it with other minerals reported by Hobbs (1901) in a very generalized paraphrased summary taken as fact by Schooner (1961) and Januzzi (1976) but never substantiated.
Reference: Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242; Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Description: Speculation by Januzzi about garnet reported in the marble by Hobbs and others. These have been shown to be grossular.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Aragonite ?
Formula: CaCO3
Description: Included in a list by Januzzi, no details provided.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Habit: massive, columnar
Description: Massive material in the amphibolite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Augite ?
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Description: Included in a list of minerals by Januzzi with no details.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: blades, tabular micro-crystal
Colour: white to gray
Description: Few details provided by Januzzi and Sullivan, but a photo included in Januzzi (1994). One 3.5 mm, tabular, translucent, gray crystal in a void in marialite/albite/clinchlore matrix.
Reference: Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut. Dave Bodnar collection.
Photo: © 2014 Harold Moritz. Baryte from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Description: Small crystals found in the pegmatite.
Reference: Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
'Biotite'
Description: As a rock forming component of the amphibolite and as an accessory in the pegmatites.
Reference: Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Description: Januzzi reports it from the quartz-rich contact of the amphibolite with the marble at the tungsten mine.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Description: Januzzi found it with native copper and other copper minerals in small quantities in the dump for the tungsten mine.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Description: Micro crystal from the upper mine shaft coated with rutile.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: cleavable masses to granular
Colour: white to gray
Description: A major component of the marble, also an accessory in the quartz-rich contact zone between the marble and amphibolite.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: An accessory in the tungsten ore zone, Januzzi found it with small amounts of native copper and other copper minerals, and in the topaz veins.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
'Chlorite Group'
Habit: curved vermicular form
Colour: black to green
Description: A common accessory in the marble, reported in early publications as prochlorite.
Reference: Van King; Shannon, Earl V. (1921): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Clinochlore
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Habit: curved to spherical aggregates of radiating plates
Colour: dark green to black
Description: Accessory in the marble or along contacts of cross-cutting veins with country rock, especially veins rich in calcite, albite and scapolite. Spherical aggregates are euhedral in areas of calcite and can reach 2 cm in diameter. "in joints in marble in the bottom of the main pit, some narrow veins filled with a greenish black chlorite, which formed fine granular friable aggregates of small variously oriented crystals. Where free surfaces are present the chlorite exhibits the vermiform curved prismatic crystals commonly called helminthe forms. These free surfaces are usually coated with manganese oxide." (Shannon, 1921b).
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Photo: © 2014 Harold Moritz. Clinochlore from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Habit: acicular to massive
Colour: gray to gray-brown, brownish-green
Description: The "epidote" and "zoisite" reported by Gurlt, Hobbs, Shannon, Schairer and Sullivan in the amphibolite is actually clinozoisite. It is abundant in the altered amphibolite and at the quartz-rich contact with the marble associated with the scheelite and ferberite. Non-terminated acicular crystals typically found in small vugs. Shannon's (1921b) wet chemical analyses and RI values fall into the clinozoisite range, even though he called the mineral epidote. Otherwsie he described then thus: "columnar ash gray to brownish gray or nearly white mineral in prismatic crystals imbedded in glassy quartz. There is a small amount of green hornblende in the quartz and patches of calcite occur as the last deposit in cavities. By dissolving out the calcite, clear brown to gray crystals of the prismatic mineral are obtained." (Shannon, 1921b).
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Photo: © 2012 Harold Moritz. Clinozoisite from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Copper
Formula: Cu
Habit: thin lenses, masses, arborescent
Colour: copper
Description: From Januzzi (1994): "Native copper was originally found by the author at the upper working of the old tungsten mine where it occurs in exceedingly thin lenses and masses, at times distinctly arborescent in habit. Further research indicates that a series of copper minerals occur, in small amounts, as a component of the tailings, these species include: native copper, malachite, cuprite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite(?), and covellite(?). The latter two species have been reported but not confirmed. Native copper has been observed as inclusions in massive, iron stained, quartz. The most interesting occurrence takes the form of dendritic overgrowths on crystal faces of wolframite pseudomorphs after scheelite. This native element has also been observed in a matrix containing quartz, clinozoisite, pyrrhotite, and limonite." A photo is included in this reference.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Cronstedtite ?
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Habit: rhombohedral hemimorphic, with the forms c (0001) and x (bar2021)
Colour: black
Description: This is all the information provided by Hoadley on the purported cronstedtite: "On a recent trip of the New York Mineralogical Club, under the guidance of the writer, to the Hubbard tungsten mine at Long Hill (Trumbull Township), Connecticut, Mr. George E. Ashby found a specimen of a chlorite, determined by Mr. Lazard Cahn as cronstedtite, 4FeO.2Fe2O3.3SiO2.4H2O. The specimen shows a group of black crystals 1/8 inch in diameter with perfect basal cleavage, hardness = 3.5, and rhombohedral hemimorphic, with the forms c (0001) and x (bar2021). This is believed to be the first occurrence of the mineral in the United States..." Identity questioned by Manchester (1931), p. 38.
Reference: Hoadley, Charles W. (1918): An American Occurrence of Cronstedtite. American Mineralogist: 3:6.; Manchester, James G. (1931): The Minerals of New York City and Its Environs. Afferton Press. 168 p.
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Habit: thin or 6-sided tables flattened parallel to the shorter diagonal
Colour: yellowish-white
Description: First reported by Shepard (1842) as euclase forming "thin, transparent, yellowish-white tabular crystals, lining cavities in a silvery white mica, and sometimes imbedded in a dark purple fluor" in the topaz veins. Later retracted and confirmed to be diaspore by Shepard (1851) and Dana (1851): H=7-7.5, SG=3.29, alumina 84.9%, water 15.1% and described as "thin or 6-sided tables flattened parallel to the shorter diagonal".
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1842): On Washingtonite (a New Mineral), the Discovery of Euclase in Connecticut, and Additional Notices of the Supposed Phenakite of Goshen, and Calstron-baryte of Schoharie, N. Y. American Journal of Science: 43: 364.; Dana, James D. (1851): Mineralogical Notices: Diaspore. American Journal of Science: s. 2: 12: 215.; Shepard, Charles U. (1851): Title unknown. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science: 319.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Habit: granular to prismatic
Colour: pale green
Description: Reported as "coccolite" by Shannon (1921a, 1921b) and repeated by Januzzi, Schooner, Sullivan, etc. Found as an accessory in the marble, generally fine-grained.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Habit: massive
Colour: pistachio green
Description: The "epidote" and "zoisite" reported by Gurlt, Hobbs, Schairer and Sullivan in the amphibolite and quart-rich contact zone with the marble, associated with the scheelite and ferberite, is actually clinozoisite. However, pistachio green, fine-grained masses that are likely epidote from retrograde metamorphism (common in most Connecticut metamorphic rocks) do occur in the amphibolite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Euclase
Formula: BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Description: First reported by Shepard (1842), later retracted and confirmed to be diaspore by Shepard (1851) and Dana (1851).
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1842): On Washingtonite (a New Mineral), the Discovery of Euclase in Connecticut, and Additional Notices of the Supposed Phenakite of Goshen, and Calstron-baryte of Schoharie, N. Y. American Journal of Science: 43: 364.; Dana, James D. (1851): Mineralogical Notices: Diaspore. American Journal of Science: s. 2: 12: 215.; Shepard, Charles U. (1851): Title unknown. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science: 319.
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Habit: pseudomorphs after bipyramidal scheelite
Colour: black to dark brown
Description: First described by Silliman (1819-1822) but not recognized as pseudomorphic after scheeelite for a few decades. Typically called "wolframite" in most reports. Occurs as anhedral lumps to euhedral crystals <1 to >10 cm, the latter size usually aggregates, in the amphibolite. Best crystals found in the quartz-rich contact between the amphibolite and marble, sometimes in small open spaces formed from the dissolution of calcite in that zone. Intermixed scheelite/ferberite partial replacement crystals are common. Some crystals reported with "spongy" texture, probably where tungstite formed and was weathered out. Pseudomorph occurrence is restricted to the Old Mine Park, and a nearby locality called the "Burnett place" by Hobbs (1901).
Reference: Silliman, Benjamin. (1819c): Additional notice of the tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 405-10.; Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Photo: © . Ferberite from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Ferricopiapite ?
Formula: Fe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
Description: Details of the find needed.
Reference: Jeremy Zolan
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Habit: granular
Description: An accessory in the amphibolite and probably in the marble.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Habit: cubic with tetrahexahedral modifications
Colour: colorless with purple zones
Description: "Fluorite, varying abruptly from rose pink to deep purple in color, occurs at the upper mine opening intimately intergrown with fibrous scapolite. At the Limekiln Vein fluorite of a purple color occurs in granular masses of considerable size. Veinlets of coarse foliated margarodite, made up of interlocking crystals, have the crystals separated by thin layers of fluorite, and deep purple fluorite forms thin plates between the plates of mica." (Shannon, 1921b). Besides the abundant, massive chlorophane variety found in the topaz veins, micro-crystals of cubic fluorite have been found in cracks and seams in other rocks. As thin purple coatings on topaz. These occurrences do not fluoresce.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Fluorite var: Chlorophane
Habit: cleavable masses
Colour: purplish-red to red-brown, salmon, colorless to grey, pale green, blue
Fluorescence: blue-green
Description: In cleavable masses up to 15 cm or more in the topaz veins. Daylight color may fade to colorless on exposure to light with loss of fluorescence, though colorless material may still fluoresce. Keep this material in light-proof containers or wrapped in foil. Fluoresces blue-green under SW UV, with purer emerald green phosphorescence. Purple fluorescence under LW UV. Also thermoluminescent with emerald green color, but this will destroy any further fluorescence or thermoluminescence once cooled.
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward and Benjamin Silliman. (1826): Topaz. American Journal of Science: series 1: 10: 352-358.; Shepard, Charles U. (1835). Treatise on Mineralogy, Second Part, vol. 2, p. 237.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Description: Minor accessory in the rocks and/or veins.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Description: Included in a list by Januzzi with no details, apparently based on early reports by Silliman of minerals actually from Lane's mine of Monroe.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Habit: massive, pseudomorphous after rhombic siderite
Colour: dark brown
Description: Chunks of goethite after siderite, showing the rhombohedral form or the latter, found in the dumps at the upper mine shaft. Also from the weathering of pyrite, marcasite and/or pyrrhotite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Photo: © 2013 Harold Moritz. Goethite from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Gold ?
Formula: Au
Description: Included in a list by Januzzi with no details.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Graphite
Formula: C
Description: Included in a list by Januzzi, no details provided but a common accessory in marble.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: dodecahedral
Colour: cinnamon to clove brown
Description: Accessory in calc-silicate layers in the marble. Well-formed, gemmy crystals to 1.5 cm or so. Reported by Shannon (1921b) as "garnet" thus: "Brownish red granular garnet occurs both in the main pit and in the lime-kiln opening in nodular or lenticular masses in marble which may reach a foot in greatest diameter. Where such masses have had the surrounding calcite dissolved away small dodecahedral crystals are revealed."
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Dave Bodnar collection.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Habit: prismatic
Colour: colorless to white, grey
Description: Forming drusy crusts of radiating aggregates in sheltered ledges at the upper mine shaft. Formed from the reaction of weathered sulfides in the amphibolite with the marble.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Ronald Januzzi collection
Photo: © Scott Whittemore. Gypsum from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Description: Minor accessory in the veins.
Reference: Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
'Hornblende'
Habit: anhedral grains
Description: A rock-forming component of the amphibolite, exact species not characterized. Near the quartz-rich contact with the marble, Hobbs (1901) noted the following changes: "The hornblende, instead of being in large single individuals, is frayed at the edges, in radial bundles of fibrous crystals, or, what seems more commonly to be the case, in a closely matted web of long columnar to acicular crystals."
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Description: Reported by Sullivan and Januzzi, but details of occurrence lacking.
Reference: Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Description: Reported by Hobbs (1901) in the amphibolite as included cores in accessory titanite grains.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.
Photo: © Mike Polletta. Ilmenite from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Jarosite ?
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Details of the find are needed.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut, 224-6.; Specimens collected by Jeremy Zolan 4/28/2006
'Limonite'
Formula: FeO(OH) · nH2O
Habit: massive, ocherous
Colour: brown
Description: Stains and alterations from various iron-rich sulfides and partial pseudomorphs after ferberite.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Colour: green
Description: Trace occurrence. Alteration of copper minerals.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: botryoidal, mammillary, granular
Description: "Large nodules of botryoidal marcasite, small vein fillings of the same material" (Hobbs, 1901), "Marcasite, more or less weathered, is abundant in the upper mine opening and in the north end of the lower opening. Here it occurs in granular masses and also as internally fibrous mammillary crusts a half inch in thickness on the walls of narrow open cracks in the lower limestone bed. It is very prone to oxidize under the action of the weather, and most of the abundant ocherous limonite stains present have come from its alteration." (Shannon, 1921b).
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.
Margarite
Formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Habit: micaceous-fibrous
Description: "Associated with the margarodite [muscovite] and topaz of the limekiln vein were blocks of a micaceous fibrous mineral which in the field was supposed to represent a fibrous phase of the margarodite. This material which apparently came from the wall of the vein, next the marble, forms veinlets from 2 to 4 inches thick. The mineral extends out from either side of the veinlet for an inch or more as a compact layer of straight or very slightly curved fibers perpendicular to the wall. These fibers do not meet in the centers of the veinlets which contain a confused granular aggregate of the same substance in which masses of colorless to pale salmon fluorite and clear large plates of margarodite are scattered. There is interposed between the layers of this fibrous material and the adjacent limestone a band from 2 to 10 inches thick, largely composed of granular fluorite which varies in color from brownish salmon adjacent to the fibrous vein to purple next the marble. The mass of fibers is compact and tough in the aggregate but is readily pulverized in a mortar wherein it differs from margarodite...Similar fibrous material occurs elsewhere in the quartz veins, typical though iron stained blocks of some size being seen along the borders of the quartz veins in the main pit."
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.
Photo: © Martins da Pedra. Margarite from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Marialite
Formula: Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Habit: radiating bundles of columnar, acicular to fibrous crystals
Colour: white, grey, pale green
Fluorescence: lavender to pink
Description: Radiating bundles of columnar, acicular to fibrous crystals found in the amphibolite and along the contact with the topaz-quartz-fluorite veins associated with phologpite. Some veins contain mostly albite, marialite, quartz, calcite, and clinochlore with minor fluorite. "Radiated scapolite occurs in quartz, intimately associated with pink to purple fluorite, in blocks of material in the dump of the upper mine. The scapolite is faintly brownish-white in color and has a somewhat wax-like luster. The aggregates are coarse to fine columnar and are made up of elongated prismatic crystals from 1 to 5 millimeters in diameter, which sometimes reach 6 centimeters in length. These prisms only rarely exhibit well-defined prismatic planes and are never terminated in the specimens collected. The fluorite, which is intimately intergrown with the scapolite, is in part rose pink and in part deep purple, the colors varying abruptly." (Shannon, 1921b).
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Harold Moritz collection.
Photo: © 2013 Harold Moritz. Marialite from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Melanterite
Formula: FeSO4 · 7H2O
Habit: coatings
Colour: greenish-yellow
Description: coatings under ledges of gneiss and in protected places
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.
Microcline
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Habit: anhedral to subhedral prismatic
Colour: white to tan
Description: A major component of the pegmatite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: anhedral tabular, fine-grained replacements of topaz
Colour: silvery
Description: Abundant as a pure micaceous layer along the contacts of the topaz-fluorite-quartz veins with the amphibolite, reported as the hydrous variety "margarodite" by Shannon (1921b). However, this mica matches the physical properties of muscovite and was also identified by Raman spectroscopy. As flakes in the veins, and as coatings and replacement of topaz, also reported by Shannon (1921b) as "margarodite", but which is a mixture of muscovite and paragonite. Also an accessory in the pegmatites. "A foliated and radiated pearly mica from this locality has been widely distributed in old collections, labeled margarodite. This mica is very abundant in the limekiln vein, where it occurs as an alteration product of the topaz as aggregates of scales often grouped in spherical or fan-shaped bunches. In color the margarodite ranges from pale yellow to smoky brownish gray. The yellowish variety occurs replacing the large crystals of topaz. The grayish type is coarser and occurs in open spaces lined by topaz crystals and as narrow veins in which the crystals grow from either wall and inter¬lock loosely in the center of the vein, the space of which are filled with colorless to purple fluorite. Some of the coarsest of the mica is deep blue, apparently from thin layers of deep blue fluorite inserted between the laminae. The margarodite is in plates which uniformly show the structure found in commercial mica deposits and known as feathering evidently due to twinning. In appearance this twinning is more pearly than ordinary muscovite and laminae are more brittle...Mica of this foliated type occurs in practically all of the quartz veins of this vicinity, as seen especially in the main pit and in small openings along the tramway." (Shannon, 1921b).
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Description: Included in a list of minerals by Januzzi, details lacking but plausible as it is very common in Connecticut.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Pargasite ?
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Colour: bright green
Description: Included in lists, with no details. Probably confusion with diopside.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1961): The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
Habit: granular flakes
Colour: brown
Description: An accessory in the marble. Also metasomatically formed in the amphibolite in contact with the topaz-quartz-fluorite veins.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Habit: coatings, druses
Colour: colorless to pale yellow
Description: found under overhanging ledges or other protected places, from the alteration of sulfides.
Reference: Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
'Prochlorite'
Description: Synonym of clinochlore.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: massive, granular, cubo-octahedral
Colour: pale brassy
Description: Common accessory in the amphibolite, quartz-rich contact zone with the marble, associated with ferberite and scheelite, and marble.
Reference: Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Photo: © 2013 Harold Moritz. Pyrite from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Pyrolusite
Formula: MnO2
Description: A black earthy mineral which has never been submitted for technical identification.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS (x = 0 to 0.17)
Habit: massive
Colour: reddish-bronze
Description: Common accessory in the amphibolite, quartz-rich contact zone with the marble, associated with ferberite and scheelite, and minor amounts in the topaz-quartz-fluorite veins.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: massive, drusy crystals rare
Colour: colorless to white, smoky
Description: As a major, but massive, component of the cross-cutting topaz-quartz-fluorite veins. One nearly pure quartz veins was mined as the "Champion Lode" around 1900. An accessory component of the amphibolite, particularly where altered and along the contact with the marble, where it hosts scheelite and ferberite. Component of the pegmatites.
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward and Benjamin Silliman. (1826): Topaz. American Journal of Science: series 1: 10: 352-358.; Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.
Photo: Quartz from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Habit: capillary micro-crystals on brookite
Description: Januzzi (1994) includes a photo, found at the upper mine shaft pit.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
'Scapolite'
Habit: radiating bundles of columnar, acicular to fibrous crystals
Colour: white, grey, pale green
Description: Radiating bundles of columnar, acicular to fibrous crystals found in the amphibolite and along the contact with the topaz-quartz-fluorite veins associated with phologpite. Species determined to be marialite via Raman spectroscopy.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Habit: anhedral to bipyramidal, often modified by prism and pinacoid faces
Colour: colorelss, white, pale yellow, pale grey
Fluorescence: blue-white
Description: An accessory in the amphibolite (3 to 5%), small grains to crystals up to a several cm. Commonly pseudomorphed, partly or completely, by ferberite. Best crystals found in the quartz-rich contact with the marble. Hobbs gives this crystal description: "second order pyramid, e (101), alone or this form giving the habit to the crystal but modified by combination with one or more of the first order pyramids and the third order pyramid, s (311). Inasmuch as the wolframite of the locality always occurs in the form of scheelite and is clearly pseudomorphic after it, the forms are better studied on wolframite crystals. These show several types of which the most common is probably the unmodified pyramid e. Next in order of frequency is the combination of the forms e (101) with c (001), o (102), p (111), and s (311), to which the forms e and o give, the habit. Warren [1901] has recently figured one of these crystals".
Reference: Silliman, Benjamin. (1819c): Additional notice of the tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 405-10.; Bowen, George T. (1822): Analysis of the calcareous oxide of tungsten from Huntington. American Journal of Science: series 1: 5: 118-21.; Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Photo: © 2009 Kevin M. Czaja. Scheelite from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Habit: anhedral, massive, hemispherical individuals and aggregates, curved rhombic
Colour: brown
Description: Januzzi (1994) reports: "in hemispherical individuals and aggregates associated with quartz, fluorite, galena, and sphalerite as well as curved rhombic crystals of the same species associated with crystals of quartz". Much of this material is actually altered to goethite.
Reference: Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Description: Included in lists by Januzzi, but without details and never substantiated. Confusion with purported silver or silver minerals at Lane's mine in Monroe, which was confused with this locality in very early reports.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Habit: massive
Colour: black
Description: Minor accessory in the topaz-quartz-fluorite veins. Identified as brilliant, black cleavages to 5 cm in the lower pit. "A brilliant coarse granular and very black sphalerite occurs in aggregates up to 3 inches in diameter in the narrow quartz-topaz veins in the main pit, especially where these veins cut the marcasite layer at the north end of the pit. The sphalerite, which upon weathering assumes an iridescent tarnish, occurs in vitreous grayish quartz associated with margarodite, margarite, and topaz." (Shannon, 1921b)
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Szomolnokite ?
Formula: FeSO4 · H2O
Description: Januzzi includes it in a list with this footnote: "Recent (1994) confirmation of the following mineral species, either by x-ray and or chemical analyses."
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Talc
Formula: Mg3(Si4O10)(OH)2
Description: A minor accessory.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Photo: © 2013 Anthony Albini. Talc from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Habit: anhedral grains, prismatic
Colour: brown
Description: As a minor accessory in the amphibolite and marble.
Reference: Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Habit: prismatic with square to rhombic section
Colour: colorless, white, grey, green, yellow-brown, blue
Description: A common, but locally variable component of the cross-cutting veins with quartz, fluorite, and muscovite, the latter commonly coating the crystals, even replacing them. Rarely gemmy. Crystals usually anhedral to subhedral prisms rarely terminated, up to 6 to 8 inches in diameter, with a length of 3 to 7 inches; micro crystals can be found that are transparent and show a great perfection of form and beauty. "Topaz is present in the quartz veins in quite unusual amount. The best locality is that described as the Limekiln Vein. This vein, which has been opened for a distance of some 75 feet, is from 1 to 5 feet wide. The vein originally consisted almost entirely of quartz and topaz, the quartz being considerably more abundant than the topaz...The topaz occurs in coarse crystalline masses of gray to pale yellow or white color, with well-defined cleavage, some of the cleavage surfaces being a foot in diameter. Most of the topaz contains veins and disseminated scales of margarodite, and large masses of margarodite contain cores of corroded and embayed topaz. Where the topaz abuts against small open cavities in the center of the vein it is bounded by rough crystal planes. Many of these cavities have been filled with coarse foliated margarodite not derived from the adjacent topaz crystals, as the surfaces of these crystals corroded." (Shannon, 1921b)
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward and Benjamin Silliman. (1826): Topaz. American Journal of Science: series 1: 10: 352-358.; Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.; Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Photo: Topaz from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Habit: acicular
Colour: black
Description: "Large blocks of a rock consisting of quartz and acicular black tourmaline occur in the dump but these were not seen in place." (Shannon, 1921a). "Some large blocks on the dump of the main pit are composed of fine acicular black tourmaline embedded in vitreous grayish quartz." (Shannon, 1921b). Sullivan (1985) reports it in the pegmatite.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.; Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Tungstenite
Formula: WS2
Description: The original report is from Schairer (1931), who included it in a list of minerals, without including tungstite, which is long well-known from here. Probably confusion or misspelling. Others simply repeat this report, no finds have been confirmed.
Reference: Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Tungstite
Formula: WO3 · H2O
Habit: massive
Colour: orange-yellow, chrome yellow, yellowish gray
Description: An alteration of ferberite pseudomorphs after sheelite, coating and occupying cavities in these crystals. Looks like "broken sulfur". Very little of this material has been found since the mid-19th century as the highly weathered portion of the outcrop worked then by Charles Lane has long been removed by subsequent mining. Originally and incorrectly attributed to Lane's mine in Monroe, neither ferberite pseudomorphs after scheelite, nor scheelite occur there and so the type locality for this mineral is really here.
Reference: Silliman, Benjamin. (1822a): Native yellow oxide of tungsten. American Journal of Science: series 1: 4: 52.; Silliman, Benjamin. (1822b): Massive yellow oxide of tungsten. American Journal of Science: series 1: 4: 187-88.
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Habit: cubo-octahedral
Colour: black
Description: Januzzi (1994): "This micro-uraninite crystal (B14) was found embedded in dark purple fluorite occurring in the country rock zone (pegmatite) at the upper working of the old tungsten mine at Trumbull." Photos included in the reference.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Habit: bipyramidal pseudomorphs after scheelite
Colour: dark brown to black
Description: Actually long known to be the iron-rich end-member species ferberite, but casually referred to as "wolframite", which is now used as a synonym for the ferberite-heubnerite series.
Reference: Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.
Photo: © Christopher O'Neill. Wolframite from Old Mine Park, Long Hill, Trumbull, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USA
Zoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: The "epidote" and "zoisite" in the amphibolite and its quartz-rich contact with the marble mentioned in many reports is actually clinozoisite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.


76 entries listed. 56 valid minerals. 8 erroneous literature entries.

References

Silliman, Benjamin. (1819a): Discovery of American tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 312.

Silliman, Benjamin. (1819b): Additional note concerning the tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 316.

Silliman, Benjamin. (1819c): Additional notice of the tungsten and tellurium. American Journal of Science: series 1: 1: 405-10.

Silliman, Benjamin. (1821): Notice of an argentiferous galena from Huntington and another lead ore from Bethlehem. American Journal of Science: series 1: 3: 173-76.

Bowen, George T. (1822): Analysis of the calcareous oxide of tungsten from Huntington. American Journal of Science: series 1: 5: 118-21.

Silliman, Benjamin. (1822a): Native yellow oxide of tungsten. American Journal of Science: series 1: 4: 52.

Silliman, Benjamin. (1822b): Massive yellow oxide of tungsten. American Journal of Science: series 1: 4: 187-88.

Robinson, Samuel. (1825): A Catalogue of American Minerals, With Their Localities; Including All Which Are Known to Exist in the United States and British Provinces, And Having the Towns, Counties, and Districts in Each State and Province Arranged Alphabetically. With an Appendix, Containing Additional Localities and a Tabular View. Cummings, Hilliard, & Co., Boston.

Hitchcock, Edward and Benjamin Silliman. (1826): Topaz. American Journal of Science: series 1: 10: 352-358.

Hitchcock, Edward. (1828): Miscellaneous notice of mineral localities. American Journal of Science: series 1: 14: 215-30.

Shepard, Charles U. (1835). Treatise on Mineralogy, Second Part, vol. 2, p. 237.

Shepard, Charles U. (1837): A Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut.

Shepard, Charles U. (1842): On Washingtonite (a New Mineral), the Discovery of Euclase in Connecticut, and Additional Notices of the Supposed Phenakite of Goshen [MA], and Calstron-baryte of Schoharie, N. Y. American Journal of Science: 43: 364.

Dana, James D. (1851): Mineralogical Notices: Diaspore. American Journal of Science: s. 2: 12: 215.

Shepard, Charles U. (1851): Title unknown. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science: 319.

Gurlt, Adolf. (1894): On a remarkable deposit of wolfram-ore in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers: 22: 236-242.

Hobbs, W. H. (1901): The old tungsten mine in Trumbull, Conn. USGS Annual Report 22:7-22.

Warren, C. H. (1901): Mineralogical notes. American Journal of Science: 4th series: 11: 373.

Hoadley, Charles W. (1918): An American Occurrence of Cronstedtite. American Mineralogist 3:6.

Shannon, Earl V. (1921a): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut. American Mineralogist 6:126-128.

Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.

Manchester, James G. (1931): The Minerals of New York City and Its Environs. Afferton Press. 168 p.

Schairer, John. (1931): Minerals of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.

Blatz, Paul T. (1938): The Old Tungsten Mine in Trumbull, Connecticut (Rocks & Minerals 13(8):236-237).

Schooner, Richard. (1961): The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.

Trumbull Historical Society. (1966): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park.

Shelton, William. (1967), Notes on Trumbull, Connecticut. Rocks and Minerals: 42(10): 768-9.

Ryerson, Kathleen. (1972): Rock Hound's Guide to Connecticut. Pequot Press.

Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.

Webster, Bud. (1978): Mineral Collector's Field Guide Connecticut. Privately published.

Webster, Bud and Bill Shelton. (1979): Mineral Collector's Field Guide The Northeast. Mineralogy, Wallingford, Conn.

Sullivan, Earle C. (1985): History and Minerals of Old Mine Park. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded. Trumbull Historical Society, Inc.

Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.

Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995) Connecticut Mineral Locality Index, Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6).

External Links

http://diva.library.cmu.edu/ajs/search.jsp - 19th century American Journal of Science search page:
http://www.mindat.org/photo-443497.html - Topaz crystal illustrations in: Shepard, Charles U. (1835). Treatise on Mineralogy, Second Part, vol. 2, p. 237.
http://www.mindat.org/photo-443142.html - Topaz crystal illustration by James D. Dana in American Journal of Science 18:419-420, November, 1854.

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