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Bolton Lime Quarries (Bolton Quarry; Whitcomb Quarry; Hildreth Quarry), Bolton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts, USA
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Detailed Mineral List:
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{(Mg,Fe2+)5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
Albite var: Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
'Allanite'
Description: "The first discovery of this rare mineral in the United States was by Dr. Jackson, in the limestone at Bolton, Mass., accompanying petalite. It has since been found by Prof. Hitchcock at Athol, Mass., occurring in gneiss. The prisms are rarely two inches long and a quarter of an inch thick, truncated upon the lateral edges, so as in fact to become six-sided prisms; but they present no distinct terminations. The fracture is resinous, and all the external characters of the mineral correspond with Allanite from Greenland." - William Phillips, Robert Allan, Francis Alger (1844). An Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy, p.418.
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597);Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
'Apatite'
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Augite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Reference: Silliman, Benjamin (1849). Descriptions and Analysis of Several American Minerals (Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 35:450-465.)
'Biotite'
Reference: Emerson, B.K. (1917). Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island (USGS Bulletin 597)
'Brodrickite'
Habit: micaceous
Colour: gray
Description: Originally and informally introduced as a new mineral name later identified as vermiculite-related phyllosilicate. See Clark (1993), Hey's Mineral Index, third edition, p. 92.
Reference: Dake, H. C., 1941, [Brodrickite], The Mineralogist, v. 9, p. 443.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Chondrodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Clinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Reference: Harvard Mineralogical Museum no.130909.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
Photo: © 2004 Peter Cristofono. Diopside from Bolton Lime Quarries, Bolton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts, USA
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fluorite ?
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Emerson, B.K. (1917). Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island (USGS Bulletin 597)
Fluorite var: Yttrocerite
Formula: (Ca,Y,Ce)F2+x
Description: Properly identified yttrocerite contains some yttria. However, a common practice in the nineteenth century was to call all dark purple fluorite by the name "yttrocerite". No chemical analyses of this mineral are known from Bolton and it is uncertain if it were found in the marble or in pegmatite float boulders and the name seems to be incorrectly used.
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward (1835). Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts, pp. 308-311.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Description: Boltonite was once thought to be a new mineral but it was later proven to be forsterite. Hitchock (1835), p.309: "At Bolton, also, a new mineral has been discovered, which Dr. Thomson has denominated from its chemical composition, Bilsilicate of Magnesia; and Mr. Shephard, with reference to its locality, calls it Boltonite. It occurs in foliated masses in the limestone."
Reference: Yale Peabody Museum #580, #677, #3263
'Gadolinite'
Description: Gadolinite is a mineral characteristic of rare-earth rich granite pegmatites or alpine veins. No data have been published on the identification and efforts to locate any example, verified or not have been fruitless. The mineral may have been found in erratic pegmatite boulders, but certainly not in the marble.
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward (1835). Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts, p.309: "Tremolite, also, is said to occur there in fibrous masses: also gadolinite, according to Professor Webster."
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
Photo: © 2010 Peter Cristofono. Graphite from Bolton Lime Quarries, Bolton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts, USA
Grossular ?
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Habit: crystals
Colour: brown
Reference: P Cristofono collection
Photo: © 2006 Peter Cristofono. Magnesio-hornblende from Bolton Lime Quarries, Bolton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts, USA
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Habit: Dana (1854), p. 441: "indistinctly fibrous masses, traversing the limestone."
Reference: Dana, James D., 1854. A System of Mineralogy, 4th edition, pp. 441, 480.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Meionite
Formula: Ca4Al6Si6O24CO3
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Sherriff, Barbara et al. (2000). Meionite: Rietveld Structure-Refinement 29Si MAS AND 27Al SATRAS NMR Spectroscopy, and Comments on the Marialite-Meionite Series. (Canadian Mineralogist 38:1201-1213.
Photo: © Rob Lavinsky. Meionite from Bolton Lime Quarries, Bolton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts, USA
Meionite var: Nuttallite
Reference: Brooke, H. J. (1824): On the Nuttallite, a new Mineral from Bolton, in Massachusetts (Annals of Philosophy 7:366).
Microcline
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Sherriff, Barbara et al. (2000). Meionite: Rietveld Structure-Refinement 29Si MAS AND 27Al SATRAS NMR Spectroscopy, and Comments on the Marialite-Meionite Series. (Canadian Mineralogist 38:1201-1213.
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Habit: coatings
Reference: Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
Pargasite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
Petalite
Formula: LiAl(Si4O10)
Fluorescence: blue
Description: Palache (1923) says that it is probable that the petalite reported by Dana was found in an erratic boulder, and not the quarry proper. Petalite was commonly reported in New England in the nineteenth century and into the twentieth. An unverified petalite specimen from this locality (YPM 6887) is in the Yale Peabody Museum. This locality is an unbelievable report from a marble! See Bolton Pegmatite Float Boulder Occurrence. Records for Yale Peabody Museum specimen YPM MIN026887 only specify Bolton, Mass. for the locality; no reference is made to "Bolton Limestone quarry." The specimen is labeled as an A. E. Foote specimen, and was donated to the museum in 1957.
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597; Yale Peabody Museum specimen # 6887.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Photo: © 2011 Peter Cristofono. Phlogopite from Bolton Lime Quarries, Bolton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts, USA
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS (x = 0 to 0.17)
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Habit: small prisms
Description: Dana, J. D. (1839): " The scapolite...contains, also, exceedingly minute zircons, scarcely 1/40 inch long, and also very small prisms of rutile."
Reference: Palache, 1923. The Scapolite Deposit of Bolton Massachusetts (AmMin 8:153-157)
'Scapolite'
Description: "C.T. Jackson found 1.58 pr. cnt. lithia and 2 pr. cnt. oxides of cerium and lanthanum in the pink skapolite [sic], from Bolton, Massachusetts; but C. Hartshorne found neiher of these constituents in that mineral from the same locality." -- Booth, James C. (1862). The Enclopedia of Chemistry, Practical and Theoretical, 2nd ed.
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
'Scapolite var: Wernerite'
Fluorescence: pink
Description: A "pink cut stone, one polished specimen" listed in Kunz (1889).
Reference: Kunz, G. F. (1889). A Catalogue of a Collection of Precious and Ornamental Stones of North America Exhibited at the Paris Exhibtion, 1889 (Tiffany & Co., New York)p.26.
'Serpentine Group'
Formula: D2[Si2O5](OH)4 + or - nH2O
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
Photo: © 2005 Peter Cristofono. Spinel from Bolton Lime Quarries, Bolton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts, USA
Talc
Formula: Mg3(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
Photo: © 2005 Peter Cristofono. Titanite from Bolton Lime Quarries, Bolton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts, USA
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Emerson, B.K. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1917. (USGS Bulletin 597)
Zircon
Formula: ZrSiO4
Habit: Dana, J. D. (1839): The zircons are square prisms, having the lateral edges truncated, and pyramidally terminated at each extremity..."
Description: Dana, J. D. (1839): " The scapolite...contains, also, exceedingly minute zircons, scarcely 1/40 inch long, and also very small prisms of rutile."
Reference: Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)


47 entries listed. 34 valid minerals. 2 erroneous literature entries.

References

Morse, Jedidiah (1797): The American Gazetteer (Boston: Hall, Thomas, and Andrews).

De Alcedo, Antonio; George Alexander Thompson, Aaron Arrowsmith (1812): The Geographical and Historical Dictionary of America and the West Indies (London: James Carpenter), p. 173.

Meade, William (1823). Localities of minerals (American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. 7, pp. 49-54).

Brooke, H. J. (1824): On the Nuttallite, a new Mineral from Bolton, in Massachusetts (Annals of Philosophy 7:366). [Nuttallite was named for T. Nuttall, who brought the mineral to England.]

Robinson, Samuel (1825). A Catalogue of American Minerals, With Their Localities, pp. 37-38.

Thomson, Thomas (1827). Chemical Examination of Some Minerals, Chiefly from America (in Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History, Vol. 3, 1837)

Shepard, C. U. (1832). Boltonite. Treatise on Mineralogy, Part 2, Volume 1, pp 78-79.

Hitchcock, Edward (1835). Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts, pp. 308-311.

Dana, James Dwight (1839). Supposed new mineral at Bolton, Mass. (American Journal of Science and Arts 35:178-179.)

Jackson, Charles T. (1844). Analysis of Pink Scapolite and Cerium Ochre, from Bolton, Massachusetts. (Boston Journal of Natural History 4:504.)

Jackson, Charles T. (1844). Description and analysis of the pink Scapolite of Bolton, Massachusetts(Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 19:167-168).

Phillips, William; Allan, Robert; Alger, Francis (1844). An Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy, p.418.

Silliman, Benjamin (1849). Descriptions and Analysis of Several American Minerals (Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 35:450-465.)

Brush, George J. (1858). On Boltonite (American Journal of Science 27:395-398.)

Emerson, B.K. (1917). Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island (USGS Bulletin 597)

Palache, C. and Pinger, A. W. (1923). The scapolite deposit of Bolton, Massachusetts (American Mineralogist 8:153-157)

Heinrich, E. W., and Levinson, A. A. (1953). Studies in the mica group; Mineralogy of the rose muscovites (Am. Mineralogist 38:25-49).

Hansen, Wallace R. (1956). Geology and mineral resources of the Hudson and Maynard quadrangles, Massachusetts (USGS Bulletin 1038)

Bjareby, Gunnar (1962): Fifty Years of Mineral Collecting, Part V. (Rocks & Minerals 37:565-568)

Cook, L. P. (1974). Metamorphic Rocks of the Nashoba Formation, Eastern Massachusetts.(PhD Thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge MA)

Whitcomb, Esther Kimmon (1988). About Bolton. (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc.)

Sherriff, Barbara et al. (2000). Meionite: Rietveld Structure-Refinement 29Si MAS AND 27Al SATRAS NMR Spectroscopy, and Comments on the Marialite-Meionite Series. (Canadian Mineralogist 38:1201-1213).

External Links

http://www.townofbolton.com/pages/BoltonMA_HistComm/surveys/quarry Bolton Historical Commission (1998): Whitcomb Lime Quarry

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