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Gem Star Mine (Gem Lepidolite mine; Labaugh mine; Loughbaugh mine), Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn), Pala, Pala District, San Diego Co., California, USA

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Detailed Mineral List:
Albite
Formula: NaAlSi3O8
Colour: Apple-green
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
'Clay'
Colour: Pale-pink to light-gray
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Helvine
Formula: Mn2+4(Be3Si3O12)S
Habit: Tetrahedra
Colour: Honey-colored
Description: An exceedingly rare constituent of the pegmatite in the Gem Star mine. It forms small honey-colored tetrahedral crystals that are less than 1 millimeter in diameter. They occur on the surfaces of cleavelandite and spodumene crystals, and in general are typical of the pocket-bearing parts of the dike.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 31, 38; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 215; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 368.
'Lepidolite'
Colour: Pink to lavender
Reference: Merrill, F. J. H. 1914. Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office, December. Chapter 1, p. 67.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Fine to medium grained plumose muscovite forms with albite-quartz-perthite footwall unit of the pegmatite that contains local concentrations of schorl.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
'Perthite'
Description: Perthite forms giant euhedral crystals associated with massive quartz.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Colour: Colorless
Description: Fragments of clear, colorless spodumene associated with gem-quality tourmaline.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Swinefordite
Formula: Li(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
Reference: Harvard Museum of Natural History specimen no. 108086
Photo: © 2007 Peter Cristofono. Swinefordite from Gem Star Mine, Tourmaline Queen Mountain, Pala, Pala District, San Diego Co., California, USA
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Merrill, F. J. H. 1914. Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office, December. Chapter 1, p. 67.
'Tourmaline var: Rubellite'
Colour: Pink
Description: Many clear fragments of small crystals are present in the dumps, and some clear, gem-quality crystals as much as 4 inches in diameter and 15 inches long were recovered.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
'Tourmaline var: Verdelite'
Reference: Merrill, F. J. H. 1914. Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office, December. Chapter 1, p. 67.


14 entries listed. 7 valid minerals.

References

Merrill, F. J. H. (1914), Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office, December. Chapter 1, p. 67, 77-78.

Jahns, Richard Henry & Wright, Lauren A. (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: pages 14, 17, 57-59; plate 2.

Weber, F. H. (1963), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 103.

Murdoch, Joseph & Webb, Robert W. (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 215.

Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 368.

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