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Cassiterite

Posted by Ralph Bottrill  
avatar Cassiterite
May 10, 2009 09:02AM
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Can you help make this a better article? What good localities have we missed? Can you supply pictures of better specimens than those we show here? Can you give us more and better information about the specimens from these localities? Can you supply better geological or historical information on these localities?


Cassiterite
SnO2 Tetragonal

Cassiterite, Aberfoyle Mine, Rossarden district, Tasmania, Australia 4.3cm wide© Andrew Tuma


The mineral name is derived from the term “Cassiterides” which was applied 'islands off the western coast of Europe' in pre-Roman times (the exact location of these 'islands' has been hotly debated over the years, current thought is that the source was probably mainland Spain and that even 2000 years ago, traders had a habit of providing misleading locality information to protect their sources).

The first record of tin mineralisation appears to be by Governor Collins in 1799, when he notes the occurrence of metallic black particles on the beach at Preservation Island in the Furneaux group of islands located between mainland Australia and Tasmania. The host rocks of the Furneaux group of islands are similar to the tin bearing granites of North-eastern Tasmania. The first really economic deposits were those of Mt Bischoff in Northwest Tasmania and New England in NSW, found in the early 1870’s. A number of sub-economic tin deposits have been found throughout Australia that has produced occasional good quality specimens.


Australia
New South Wales, New South Wales, Elsmore

Cassiterite 3.1cm wide© Michael C. Roarke
Cassiterite 5.2cm wide© Rob Lavinsky


Cassiterite 3.9cm wide© Dan Weinrich
Cassiterite v. wood tin 3.9cm, wide© Christian Bracke


Cassiterite xl. 1.5cm© Greg Murray


Elsmore, in the New England area is the home of some of the most spectacular cassiterite specimens in Australia. Tin deposits were first mined in the area around 1871at Elsmore Hill east of Inverell on placer beds. Within 10 years rich lodes were discovered and mining started producing specimens that are so sort after till this day.

Currently occasional small mining operations still produce high quality specimens such as the cassiterite crystals on smokie quartz uncovered in the late 1990s from the Gulf at Emmaville. The Mines and alluvial workings of Emmaville, Elsmore, Torrington and Glen Innes have produced very attractive clusters, single crystals that are much sort after by collectors.


Australia
New South Wales, Bourke Co., Ardlethan


Australia
New South Wales, Gough Co. Emmaville

Cassiterite 1.2cm wide© viccloete
Cassiterite after fossils© J.Ralph 2008


Australia
New South Wales, Gough Co. The Gulf

Cassiterite 4.1cm wide© Keith F Compton



Australia
Kathida Mine (Cathida Mine), Emmaville, Gough Co., New South Wales, Australia

Cassiterite on Quartz 2.5cm wide©
Cassiterite 3.1cm tall© Keith F Compton


Australia
New South Wales, Gough Co., Glen Innes

Cassiterite FOV 1cm© Alan Goldstein



Australia
New South Wales, Torrington district, Gough Co., Dutchman's Mine (Dutchmans & Harts; Dutchman's Lode; Dutchmans' vein; Eclipse vein; Broken Hill lode; Porters & Whip)

Cassiterite & Quartz 3.2cm wide© Keith F Compton


The Dutchman’s Mine or as some texts refer (Dutchman & Harts) operated on and off from around 1875 through to 1953. The mine has been worked to a depth of around 125 metres.

Xl size: I have seen xls from micro to around 20mm.
Colour: Generally black and having a lustre varying from dull to bright.
Associated Minerals: Quartz (massive to clear xls and smoky Quartz; minor Fluorite; Calcite and Galena. Cassiterite was frequently found at or near Quartz-Chlorite veins.

References:
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets Grafton-Maclean, HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes, and WJ Stroud, Geological Survey of New South Wales 2001.
(Info from Keith Compton)


Australia
New South Wales, Farnell Co., Euriowie, Lady Don Mine

Cassiterite & Muscovite ~3.5cm wide© Martins da Pedra


I visited this mine in the 1980's and the miner had a big jar full of good cassiterite crystals, but I need to find one still.


Australia
Queensland, Mt Isa - Cloncurry area, Mount Isa district, Mica Creek, Lithgow tin workings

Cassiterite, Albite & Muscovite 6cm wide© Ryan Eagle



Australia
Tasmania, Waratah district, Waratah, Mt Bischoff

Cassiterite FOV 2.5mm© 2008 Jesse Crawford
Cassiterite xls to 3mm on Quartz© Andrew Tuma


Cassiterite & Quartz 8cm wide© R. Bottrill


The mine that started the whole Tasmanian West Coast mining situation; the deposit was found in 1871 by “Philosopher “Smith as an orebody that covered an area of a kilometre radius around Mt Bischoff. The deposit is a mix of replacement Precambrian dolomite hosting small cassiterite crystals in a sulphide body. Cassiterite also occurs as small crystals in and on altered quartz porphyry dykes and sills and in quartz veins.


Australia
Tasmania, Blue Tier district, Blue Tier tinfield

Cassiterite & Quartz FOV 3cm© R. Bottrill
Cassiterite 2.4cm wide© Keith F Compton


Australia
Tasmania, Blue Tier district, Blue Tier tinfield, Anchor Mine

5mm Cassiterite xl in Quartz & Bornite © Andrew Tuma


This is the centre of a major alluvial tin producing area in north-eastern Tasmania. The vast majority of the cassitierite recovered was from stream beds and deep lead deposits. However small lode deposits were worked providing a limited number of collectable specimens. The largest operation in this area was the Anchor mine, worked spasmodically between the late 1800’s till it was closed around 1990.


Australia
Tasmania, Upper Forth Valley, Oakleigh Creek mine

Cassiterite on Quartz 6cm wide© A.Tuma


Small cassiterite crystals occur mica based host rock, however stunning clusters and single crystals to 100mm occur on large quartz crystals. The mine closed in the late 1970’s and the area was added to an adjacent national park.


Australia
Tasmania, Rosebery district, Renison Mine

Cassiterite xls <1mm in Quartz & Pyrrhotite© Andrew Tuma


This is one of Tasmania’s longest running and most economically important tin mines. Cassiterite specimens are rare, generally forming as large cassiterite pods and nuggets – up to 1 tonne were found in the early years. This mine is better known for Fluorite, Galena and other mineral specimens.


Australia
Tasmania, Moina District (Middlesex District), Shepherd and Murphy Mine

Cassiterite & Quartz FOV 2.8cm© Andrew Tuma


A number of mines worked the tin mineralisation of the Dolcoath Granite of the Moina District. The Shepherd and Murphy Mine was the largest of these mines siting on a vein deposit carrying a number of economic minerals, also well known for the fluorite, bismuthinite specimens.


Australia
Tasmania, (Dolcoath hill Quarry) Moina District, Moina Quarry

6mm Cassiterite xls, Topaz & Quartz© Andrew Tuma


A sandstone quarry located a few Kilometres to the southeast of the Shepard and Murphy mine. Joints and veins carry small topaz, wolframite and quartz crystals with some black, very lustrous cassiterite crystals to 5mm.


Australia
Tasmania, Rossarden district, Aberfoyle Mine (Aberfoyle Tin Mine; Rossarden Tin Mine)

Cassiterite & Quartz 2.5cm wide© Vic Cloete
Cassiterite 5mm wide© Vic Cloete


Cassiterite 3.3cm wide© Keith Compton
Cassiterite & Muscovite 4cm wide© The-Vug.com

Some of the world’s largest single crystals, to 50mm+, and world-class clusters of cassiterite were found in the quartz veins of this mine. The deposit is in a greisenised granite and fracture filling in Mathinna Group host rocks. The mine closed in the 1970’s, though occasional small cassiterite specimens are found on the old dumps currently.


Australia
Tasmania, Rossarden district, Storeys Creek Mine

Cassiterite 4cm wide© Keith F Compton
Cassiterite 3.3cm wide© Keith F Compton

An adjoining mine to the Aberfoyle mine; worked more for the wolframite than tin but still produced stunning single crystals and clusters of cassiterite.

References
1. Australian Journal of Mineralogy Vol. 4 No. 2 1998.
2. A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) Bull. 73. Tasmanian Geological Survey


Afghanistan
Nangarhar (Ningarhar) Province, Darra-i-Pech (Darra-e-Pech) Pegmatite Field

Cassiterite, Columbite & Albite ~3cm tall© 2007, Jesse Fisher



Bolivia
La Paz Department, Loayza Province, Viloco Mine (Araca mine)

Cassiterite 4.3cm tall© Rob Lavinsky
Cassiterite 4.5cm tall© Rob Lavinsky


Cassiterite 3.9cm wide© Rob Lavinsky
Cassiterite 9cm wide© Rob Lavinsky


Various texts refer to the "Viloco" or "Araca" Mine and it would appear that the terms are more-or-less interchangeable names for this locality. This mine is situated in a glacial gorge of the Quimza Cruz range. The village of Araca is located below the mine. It is believed that this is the only tin mine in Bolivia that occasionally produces transparent Cassiterite of cutting quality. The mine is one of the larger currently active tin mines in Bolivia.

Xl size: I have seen Cassiterite xls from here in sizes from micro to 50mm (2"). Sinkankas refers to a specimen of Cassiterite found here “measuring 24” by 12” by 8’and weighing 350 pounds, coated with crystals averaging about 1”.
Form: Common as single xls and cyclic twins.
Colour: Colour is generally lustrous dark brown to black. Gemmier xls are somewhat sherry coloured.
Associations: The most common associations appear to be Quartz (generally small to 15mm and transparent), Siderite (often in the habit of micro discs to 5mm)
Quality: Cassiterite specimens from here can be of world class.
Fakes: I have not seen any fakes from here and given the amount of Cassiterite produced it would probably be uneconomic. I have however seen some specimens that have been oiled and thus a little slippery to the touch. I am not sure whether this is part of a cleaning process employed that hadn't been fully removed, but with suitable washing in soapy water the specimens appear to not suffer from such treatment and continue to display the luster for which they are known.

References:
Mineralogy for Amateurs, John Sinkankas p 335.
The Mineralogical Record: 32: 457-482.
Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): International Strategic Mineral Issues Summary Report - Tungsten. US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
(Info from Keith Compton)


Bolivia
Oruro Department, Dalence Province, Huanuni

Cassiterite, Quartz & Aheylite 2.5cm tall© Rob Lavinsky
Cassiterite 1.7cm wide© Rob Lavinsky



Cassiterite 7.6cm wide© Rob Lavinsky


Huanuni Mine is located about 150 miles south of La Paz. Huanuni is one of the largest and most productive tin mines of the country. The Huanuni mine is primarily a tin mine, unlike many other Bolivian mines.

Xl size: I have seen xls from micro to around 30mm. Xls are frequently elongated.
Colour: Colour is generally lustrous dark brown to black.
Associations: Include Quartz (xls generally small and transparent), Tourmaline, Rutile and Pyrite and more recently Aheylite and Wavellite.
Quality: I would rate Cassiterite specimens from here as fair but the associations can make them unusual.

References:
(i) Mineralogical Record: 26: 489 (with wavelite, variscite).
(ii) Capriles Villazón, Orlando Historia de la Minería Boliviana (History of Bolivian Mining) (Ed Ramin, 1977)


Bolivia
Potosí Department, Bustillo Province (Bustillos Province), Llallagua

Cassiterite 3.6cm wide© John Sobolewski



Brazil
Rio Grande do Norte, Borborema mineral province, Equador, Alto do Giz pegmatite

Cassiterite 2.6cm wide© 1995-2001 Trinity Mineral Co.



Brazil
Minas Gerais, Eastern Brazilian Pegmatite Province, Aimorés Pegmatite District, Divino das Laranjeiras, Linópolis

Cassiterite twin 1.5 cm tall© Martins da Pedra



China
Hunan Province, Chenzhou Prefecture, Yizhang Co., Yaogangxian Mine

Cassiterite & Quartz 6.2 cm wide© Dan Weinrich



China
Jiangxi Province, Ganzhou Prefecture

Cassiterite & Quartz 7.2cm wide© fabreminerals.com



China
Sichuan Province, Mianyang Prefecture, Pingwu Co., Mt Xuebaoding

Cassiterite on Muscovite 13cm wide© Crystal Classics
Cassiterite, Apatite on Muscovite 11cm© Fabre Minerals


Cassiterite, Beryl on Muscovite 10cm© Dr. Lueg 2005
Cassiterite on Muscovite 5cm wide© Jiangbin


Cassiterite & Muscovite 5.7cm tall© Carles Millan


The Xuebaoding mountain locality is primarily a commercial tungsten and tin deposit and comprises numerous mines. It should be noted that the two localities listed within Mindat at this locality – namely 1.Mt Xuebaoding, Pingwu Co., Mianyang Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China
and 2.Beryl-Scheelite deposit, Mt Xuebaoding, Pingwu Co., Mianyang Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China
produce very similar Cassiterite specimens.

While there may be many mines on Xuebaoding mountain, given the general lack of specific locality information and given the language barriers, I doubt if any reliance can be placed on any definite differentiation of mines here. Cassiterite specimens from here possibly should only be classified as being from Mt Xuebaoding unless perhaps they are know to be from the “Beryl-Scheelite deposit” which is on the south-eastern side of the Mountain.

Cassiterite xls: Much of the Cassiterite from here exhibits glassy jet black complex multiple twinned xls, almost concertinaed in appearance. These complex twins (multiple simple contact twins on {101}) may create relatively large xl groups to 10cm. Some individual xls may be up to 6cm.
Associations: Commonly associated with pale cream to tan coloured bladed Muscovite. Other less common associations include: Beryl, Goshenite, Kesterite, Microcline, Fluorapatite, and Scheelite although these are probably from the Beryl-Scheelite deposit located here.
Quality: I would rate the twinned specimens of Cassiterite from here as the equal of any around the world. Their lustre can be unbeatable.
References:
Hedland, A. (2004): Das Scheelit-Beryll-Kassiterit-Fluorit-Vorkommen von Huya-Zibeisha bei Pingwu, Provinz Sichuan, China. Mineralien Welt 15 (6), 46-57
Cao Zhimin, Zheng Jianbin, Li Youguo, Kabayashi, S., Ren Jianguo, Kaneda, H., Xu Shijin, Shoji, T., and Wang Rucheng (2002): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 45(8), 719-729.
Yan Liu, Jun Deng, Dai-Sheng Sun, and Ying-Hua Zhou (2007): Morphology and Gensis Typomorphism of Minerals in W-Sn-Be Deposit of Huya, Sichuan. Journal of the China University of Geosciences 32(1), 75-81
Fine Minerals of China – A guide to mineral localities, Guanghua Liu, AAA Minerals AG2006. p 270
Keith Compton


China
Yunnan Province, Dali Autonomous Prefecture, Yunlong Co., Lancang river (Lancang Jiang; Mekong) valley, Yunlong Sn deposit

Cassiterite 2.7cm tall© fabreminerals.com



China
Yunnan Province, Pu'er Prefecture, Ximeng Co.

Cassiterite 2.6cm wide© John Sobolewski



Czech Republic
Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Karlovy Vary Region, Horní Slavkov (Schlaggenwald)

Cassiterite 2cm wide© 2001 John H. Betts


Beautiful lustrous black metallic cassiterite crystals in unusual peaked formation (result of twinning). Two small white inclusions (albite?) on one face. Ex. A. Stevenson collection #754. Overall size of mineral specimen: 20x15x14 mm. Size of individual crystals: 20 mm.


Czech Republic & Germany
Saxony & Ústí Region (Bohemia; Böhmen; Boehmen), Krusné Hory Mts, Cínovec / Zinnwald (Cinvald), Erzgebirge

Cassiterite 3cm wide© Kristalle and Crys


The Zinnwald-Cínovec mining district at the border between Saxony (Germany) and Bohemia (Czech Republic). From there black and deep brown short prismatic xls upo to 5 cm, commonly twinned are known. Pseudomorphs of cassiterite after feldspar are described from there in older literature. There are quartz veins and greisen zones in granite, bearing quartz, zinnwaldite, fluorite, wolframite (mostly ferberite), cassiterite and scheelite.
[Sebastian Möller 2009]


Czech Republic
Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Ústí Region, Krupka (Graupen), Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)

Cassiterite FOV=1cm© Petr Fuchs


Miscellaneous German locations:
In the Erzgebirge Mts. there have been many tin mines since the 12th century, especially near Geyer (a big "pinge" (a caldera-like collapse of a mountain due to intensive mining activities, at least cavities of 60x20x20 m and old tin washing near the greifenstein rocks), Ehrenfriedersdorf, Seiffen (the name of the town is due washing tin from the rivers, in old-fashioned Germany called seifen), Altenberg (another collapsed mountain, known for its topaz), Eibenstock,Sadisdorf. Nearly all these localities have also provided cassiterite xls. From Altenberg small xls of needle tin are known. From Steinbis Tunnel, Triberg, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, built in the 1980'ies, cassiterite xls up to 1 cm have been reported. They are from miarolitic cavities in coarse-grained red granite, associated with quartz, mica and apatite.
Sebastian Möller


Germany
Saxony, Erzgebirge, Ehrenfriedersdorf, Sauberg Mine

Cassiterite, Quartz & Fluorite 6cm wide© 2001 John H. Betts



Mexico
San Luis Potosí, Santa María del Oro

Cassiterite 2.8cm tall© Rob Lavinsky


An showy and classic thumbnail of light brown, botryoidal, "wood tin" cassiterite from an UNCOMMON Mexico locality, Santa Maria del Oro. Wood tin is an old-time English term for cassiterite in this form and color.


Namibia
Kunene Region, Damaraland District, Omaruru, Krantzberg Mine

Cassiterite 3.1cm wide© Debbie Woolf



Portugal
Castelo Branco District, Covilhã, Panasqueira, Panasqueira Mines

Cassiterite 2.2 cm wide© Rob Lavinsky
Cassiterite 2cm wide© fabreminerals.com


Cassiterite & Quartz 11.4cm© Fabre Minerals
Cassiterite 2.8cm wide© fabreminerals.com

Located in what was known as the Beira Baixa province. Some older texts sometimes refer to this region. According to Wikepedia, in the early 19th century Beira was divided into three provinces: Beira Alta, Beira Baixa, and Beira Litoral, sometimes collectively referred to as "the Beiras". An administrative reform in 1976 abolished these provinces. The mine is regarded as the largest quartz-vein type deposit in the Iberian Peninsula. It is primarily a wolfram mine.

Xl size: I have seen xls from micro to around 40mm.
Colour: Colour is generally lustrous dark brown to black. There is partially translucent piece in the attached photos..
Associations: Commonly include Quartz (I have seen some clear Quartz xls to 6cm in association) and Siderite (often in large tan "discs" to 4cm).
Quality: I would rate Cassiterite from here as generally of average quality. Good quality specimens with both Quartz and large Siderite xls would appear to be relatively rare.
References:
- Mineral. Rec. (1971) 2 (2), 73-78.
- Bull. Minéral., 1988, 111, 251-256
- Bull. Minéral., 1984, 107, 703-713.
Thadeu (D.), 1951. Com. Serv. Geol. Portugal, vol. 32, pp. 1-64.
(from Keith Compton)


Russia
Far-Eastern Region, Khabarovskiy Kray, Burea Massif, Merekski ore District

Cassiterite 4.3cm tall© Collectors Edge



Spain
Galicia, Ourense, Viana do Bollo, Penouta

Cassiterite 2.7cm wide© Joseph A. Freilich



United Kingdom
England, Cornwall, Camborne - Redruth - St Day District, Gwennap area, Clifford Amalgamated Mines, United Mines (Gwennap United Mines), Poldory Mine

5mm Cassiterite crystals on Quartz© Ian Jones


Exceptionally bright casiterite crystals to 5mm, on a bed of small quartz crystals. Ian Jones collection. Collected in 1990 fron the back of a lode on the Poldory section of the mine, when the ground was being cleared for a landfill site.

USA
New Hampshire, Grafton Co., Bethlehem, North Sugarloaf Mt. locality

Cassiterite FOV= ~5mm© Scott Whittemore


[Ralph Bottrill 2009]



Click here to view Best Minerals C and here for Best Minerals A to Z and here for Fast Navigation of completed Best Minerals articles.

Regards,
Ralph



Edited 28 time(s). Last edit at 07/25/2010 12:37PM by Rock Currier.
avatar Re: Cassiterite-Australia
May 10, 2009 10:55AM
au    
Copied to main article



Edited 3 time(s). Last edit at 05/11/2009 02:28PM by Ralph Bottrill.
avatar Re: Cassiterite-Australia
May 10, 2009 12:08PM
Ralph,
It looks like you are having some problems sizing and arranging your images. Do you need some help with this?

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Cassiterite-Australia
May 10, 2009 12:48PM
Thanks Andrew for all the photos and Info. I am gradually adding more, and there are a few gaps needing filling still, but its a great start.

Rock, feel free. Its not easy to get them all consistently sized.

Regards,
Ralph



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/10/2009 01:45PM by Ralph Bottrill.
avatar Re: Cassiterite-Australia
May 10, 2009 02:02PM
Hello,

here is another rather curious cassiterite from Australia ..... Best, Joe

[www.mindat.org]
avatar Re: Cassiterite-Australia
May 10, 2009 08:38PM
You can say that again Ralph. Fiddling with the pictures is probably the most irksome task here in Best Minerals. Harjo has really gotten the hang of it and is probably better at it than I. If I get desperate Ill ask him to help some too. Just keep plugging away at it, I know you will also get the hang of it.
Rock

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Cassiterite-Australia
May 11, 2009 12:23AM
Ralph, I have done a little bit of clean up in the cassiterite article. I noticed you commonly used a width of 320 pixels for the images. Is there a particular reason for this? I have found that 400 pixels is a good average that allows two images to fit on the same line leaving enough room to shrink and expand the images till the are more or less the same height. Did you pick up that bit where Dave also made it possible for us to adjust the height of the images through the height=xxxx. We can choose to use height=xxx or width=xxx to adjust the formatting of the images but it must be one or the other, not both at the same time. When you put another image to right of the one on the left, to get it to look good and leave a spage between pictures you need to change the float=left to float=center. I would also advise that as soon as you place an image into an article by using [ pic id=XXXX width=600 float=left][ /pic] that you immediately put the caption and the size in the caption space rather than wait and do it later. I find that easier to do it that way rather than go back and put the captions later.There is still some cleanup to do on the article plus more construction, but perhaps I have already tinkered with it more than I should have.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Cassiterite-Australia
May 11, 2009 02:24PM
Hi Joe
thanks for that one. I have one of these with no location - so now I know!

Regards,
Ralph
avatar Re: Cassiterite-Australia
May 11, 2009 02:55PM
Rock
Thanks again, its getting there. We could cull it a bit. There are 650 cassiterite photos (maybe >50 good locations) so we thought we would start with Australia and see how it goes. Though half are in England. If you think its not too big we could add other countries to this one - let us know.

Regards,
Ralph
avatar Re: Cassiterite-Australia
May 11, 2009 05:49PM
Ralph,

Yes, by all means, take a whack at all cassiterites. If a locality has produced very good specimens of cassiterite I have no objection to including pictures of lesser specimens if that is all we have, but in that case it should be noted that the locality has produce much better specimens but these are the best we have for now and that we encourage people to upload better ones that we will use. Also if a locality has produced large quantities of specimens that are commonly seen in collections and even though these specimens are not very good or well crystallized we should have a picture of one or several for users to compare their specimens to. A good example of this are actinolite specimens from various localities that produce abundant material that shows up in study collections all over the place. Both are good reasons for having localities here in Best Minerals with images.

Rock Currier
Crystals not pistols.
avatar Re: Cassiterite
May 23, 2009 08:09AM
Hi Ralph

Here is a start for Viloco/Araca

Viloco Mine (Araca mine), Loayza Province, La Paz Department, Bolivia

© Rob Lavinsky
© Rob Lavinsky


© Rob Lavinsky
© 2002 Thames Valley Minerals


Various texts refer to the "Viloco" or "Araca" Mine and it would appear that the terms are more-or-less interchangeable names for this locality.

This mine is situated in a glacial gorge of the Quimza Cruz range.
The village of Araca is located below the mine.

It is believed that this is the only tin mine in Bolivia that occasionally produces transparent Cassiterite of cutting quality.
The mine is one of the larger currently active tin mines in Bolivia.

Xl size: I have seen Cassiterite xls from here in sizes from micro to 50mm (2"). Sinkankas refers to a specimen of Cassiterite found here “measuring 24” by 12” by 8’and weighing 350 pounds, coated with crystals averaging about 1”.
Form: Common as single xls and cyclic twins.
Colour: Colour is generally lustrous dark brown to black. Gemmier xls are somewhat sherry coloured.
Associations: The most common associations appear to be Quartz (generally small to 15mm and transparent), Siderite (often in the habit of micro discs to 5mm)
Quality: Cassiterite specimens from here can be of world class.
Fakes: I have not seen any fakes from here and given the amount of Cassiterite produced it would probably be uneconomic. I have however seen some specimens that have been oiled and thus a little slippery to the touch. I am not sure whether this is part of a cleaning process employed that hadn't been fully removed, but with suitable washing in soapy water the specimens appear to not suffer from such treatment and continue to display the luster for which they are known.



References:
Mineralogy for Amateurs, John Sinkankas p 335.
The Mineralogical Record: 32: 457-482.
Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): International Strategic Mineral Issues Summary Report - Tungsten. US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.

Cheers Keith
avatar Re: Cassiterite
May 23, 2009 09:25AM
Dutchman's Mine (Dutchmans & Harts; Dutchman's Lode; Dutchmans' vein; Eclipse vein; Broken Hill lode; Porters & Whip), Torrington district, Gough Co., New South Wales, Australia
The Dutchman’s Mine or as some texts refer (Dutchman & Harts) operated on and off from around 1875 through to 1953. The mine has been worked to a depth of around 125 metres.

© Keith F Compton


Xl size: I have seen xls from micro to around 20mm.
Colour: Generally black and having a lustre varying from dull to bright.
Associated Minerals: Quartz (massive to clear xls and smoky Quartz; minor Fluorite; Calcite and Galena. Cassiterite was frequently found at or near Quartz-Chlorite veins.

References:
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets Grafton-Maclean, HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes, and WJ Stroud, Geological Survey of New South Wales 2001.
avatar Re: Cassiterite
May 23, 2009 12:12PM
Hi Kieth
this is great info and I have incorporated it all into the article
many thanks,
Ralph

Regards,
Ralph
avatar Re: Cassiterite
May 23, 2009 01:49PM
Huanuni mine, Huanuni, Dalence Province, Oruro Department, Bolivia.

Huanuni Mine is located about 150 miles south of La Paz.
Huanuni is one of the largest and most productive tin mines of the country.

© Rob Lavinsky
© Rob Lavinsky



The Huanuni mine is primarily a tin mine, unlike many other Bolivian mines.

Xl size: I have seen xls from micro to around 30mm. Xls are frequently elongated.

Colour: Colour is generally lustrous dark brown to black.

Associations: Include Quartz (xls generally small and transparent), Tourmaline, Rutile and Pyrite and more recently Aheylite and Wavellite.

Quality: I would rate Cassiterite specimens from here as fair but the associations can make them unusual.

References:
(i) Mineralogical Record: 26: 489 (with wavelite, variscite).
(ii) Capriles Villazón, Orlando Historia de la Minería Boliviana (History of Bolivian Mining) (Ed Ramin, 1977)
avatar Re: Cassiterite
May 24, 2009 01:59PM
Hi Kieth
good work again thanks - I added this to the article too
Ralph

Regards,
Ralph
avatar Re: Cassiterite
May 25, 2009 11:57AM
Panasqueira Mines, Panasqueira, Covilhã, Castelo Branco District, Portugal
(Minas da Panasqueira, Panasqueira, Covilhã, Castelo Branco, Portugal)
Located in what was known as the Beira Baixa province. Some older texts sometimes refer to this region.

According to Wikepedia, in the early 19th century Beira was divided into three provinces: Beira Alta, Beira Baixa, and Beira Litoral, sometimes collectively referred to as "the Beiras". An administrative reform in 1976 abolished these provinces.

The mine is regarded as the largest quartz-vein type deposit in the Iberian Peninsula. It is primarily a wolfram mine.

© Rob Lavinsky
© fabreminerals.com


© Fabre Minerals
© fabreminerals.com


Xl size: I have seen xls from micro to around 40mm.

Colour: Colour is generally lustrous dark brown to black. There is partially translucent piece in the attached photos..

Associations: Commonly include Quartz (I have seen some clear Quartz xls to 6cm in association) and Siderite (often in large tan "discs" to 4cm).

Quality: I would rate Cassiterite from here as generally of average quality. Good quality specimens with both Quartz and large Siderite xls would appear to be relatively rare.

References:
- Mineral. Rec. (1971) 2 (2), 73-78.
- Bull. Minéral., 1988, 111, 251-256
- Bull. Minéral., 1984, 107, 703-713.
Thadeu (D.), 1951. Com. Serv. Geol. Portugal, vol. 32, pp. 1-64.
avatar Re: Cassiterite
May 29, 2009 01:58PM
Mt Xuebaoding, Pingwu Co., Mianyang Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China

The Xuebaoding mountain locality is primarily a commercial tungsten and tin deposit and comprises numerous mines.

It should be noted that the two localities listed within Mindat at this locality – namely:
1.Mt Xuebaoding, Pingwu Co., Mianyang Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China
and
2.Beryl-Scheelite deposit, Mt Xuebaoding, Pingwu Co., Mianyang Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China
produce very similar Cassiterite specimens.

While there may be many mines on Xuebaoding mountain, given the general lack of specific locality information and given the language barriers, I doubt if any reliance can be placed on any definite differentiation of mines here. Cassiterite specimens from here possibly should only be classified as being from Mt Xuebaoding unless perhaps they are know to be from the “Beryl-Scheelite deposit” which is on the south-eastern side of the Mountain.

© Jiangbin
© Carles Millan

Cassiterite xls: Much of the Cassiterite from here exhibits glassy jet black complex multiple twinned xls, almost concertinaed in appearance. These complex twins (multiple simple contact twins on {101}) may create relatively large xl groups to 10cm. Some individual xls may be up to 6cm.

Associations: Commonly associated with pale cream to tan coloured bladed Muscovite. Other less common associations include: Beryl, Goshenite, Kesterite, Microcline, Fluorapatite, and Scheelite although these are probably from the Beryl-Scheelite deposit located here.

Quality: I would rate the twinned specimens of Cassiterite from here as the equal of any around the world. Their lustre can be unbeatable.

References:
Hedland, A. (2004): Das Scheelit-Beryll-Kassiterit-Fluorit-Vorkommen von Huya-Zibeisha bei Pingwu, Provinz Sichuan, China. Mineralien Welt 15 (6), 46-57

Cao Zhimin, Zheng Jianbin, Li Youguo, Kabayashi, S., Ren Jianguo, Kaneda, H., Xu Shijin, Shoji, T., and Wang Rucheng (2002): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 45(8), 719-729.

Yan Liu, Jun Deng, Dai-Sheng Sun, and Ying-Hua Zhou (2007): Morphology and Gensis Typomorphism of Minerals in W-Sn-Be Deposit of Huya, Sichuan. Journal of the China University of Geosciences 32(1), 75-81

Fine Minerals of China – A guide to mineral localities, Guanghua Liu, AAA Minerals AG2006. p 270



Edited 3 time(s). Last edit at 05/30/2009 04:36AM by Keith Compton.
avatar Re: Cassiterite
May 29, 2009 02:22PM
Beryl-Scheelite deposit, Mt Xuebaoding, Pingwu Co., Mianyang Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China

The Xuebaoding mountain locality is primarily a commercial tungsten and tin deposit and comprises numerous mines.

It should be noted that the two localities listed within Mindat at this locality – namely:
1.Beryl-Scheelite deposit, Mt Xuebaoding, Pingwu Co., Mianyang Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China
and
2.Mt Xuebaoding, Pingwu Co., Mianyang Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China
produce very similar Cassiterite specimens

Cassiterite specimens from here possibly should only be classified as being from Mt Xuebaoding unless it is definitely known as being from the “Beryl-Scheelite deposit” which is on the south-eastern side of the Mountain.

© Crystal Classics
© Fabre Minerals

© Dr. Lueg 2005

Cassiterite xls: Much of the Cassiterite from here exhibits glassy jet black complex multiple twinned xls, almost concertinaed in appearance. These twin xl groups (multiple simple contact twins on {101}) may create relatively large xl groups to 8cm.

Associations: Commonly associated with pale cream to tan coloured bladed Muscovite. Other less common associations include: Beryl, Goshenite, Kesterite, Microcline, Fluorapatite, and Scheelite.

Quality: I would rate the Cassiterite twins from here and Mt Xuebaoding as the equal of any around the world. Their lustre can be unbeatable.

References:
Hedland, A. (2004): Das Scheelit-Beryll-Kassiterit-Fluorit-Vorkommen von Huya-Zibeisha bei Pingwu, Provinz Sichuan, China. Mineralien Welt 15 (6), 46-57

Cao Zhimin, Zheng Jianbin, Li Youguo, Kabayashi, S., Ren Jianguo, Kaneda, H., Xu Shijin, Shoji, T., and Wang Rucheng (2002): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 45(8), 719-729.

Yan Liu, Jun Deng, Dai-Sheng Sun, and Ying-Hua Zhou (2007): Morphology and Gensis Typomorphism of Minerals in W-Sn-Be Deposit of Huya, Sichuan. Journal of the China University of Geosciences 32(1), 75-81

Fine Minerals of China – A guide to mineral localities, Guanghua Liu, AAA Minerals AG2006. p 270



Edited 2 time(s). Last edit at 05/30/2009 04:38AM by Keith Compton.
avatar Re: Cassiterite
May 29, 2009 03:13PM
de    
Hello,

You can add the Zinnwald-Cínovec mining district at the border between Saxony (Germany) and Bohemia (Czech Republic). From there black and deep brown short prismatic xls upo to 5 cm, commonly twinned are known. Pseudomorphs of cassiterite after feldspar are described from there in older literature. There are quartz veins and greisen zones in granite, bearing quartz, zinnwaldite, fluorite, wolframite (mostly ferberite), cassiterite and scheelite.

Another famous liocality in that area, only about 15 km SE of Cínovec in northern bohemia is Krupka (Graupen).

In the Erzgebirge Mts. there have been many tin mines since the 12th century, especially near Geyer (a big "pinge" (a caldera-like collapse of a mountain due to intensive mining activities, at least cavities of 60x20x20 m and old tin washing near the greifenstein rocks), Ehrenfriedersdorf, Seiffen (the name of the town is due washing tin from the rivers, in old-fashioned Germany called seifen), Altenberg (another collapsed mountain, known for its topaz), Eibenstock,Sadisdorf. Nearly all these localities have also provided cassiterite xls. From Altenberg small xls of needle tin are known.

From Steinbis Tunnel, Triberg, Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, built in the 1980'ies, cassiterite xls up to 1 cm have been reported. They are from miarolitic cavities in coarse-grained red granite, associated with quartz, mica and apatite.

Regards,
Sebastian Möller
avatar Re: Cassiterite
May 29, 2009 04:52PM
de    
"While there may be many mines on Xuebaoding mountain, given the general lack of specific locality information and given the language barriers, I doubt if any reliance can be placed on any definite differentiation of mines here. I would suggest that any Cassiterite specimens from here should only be classified as being from Mt Xuebaoding.

I suggest that the only reason that a separate locality of “Beryl-Scheelite deposit” is due to a few publications that have referred generally to the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit which is on the south-eastern side of the Mountain."


No.

One reason for listing the beryl-scheelite deposit separately is that there is a manganese deposit nearby (more precisely, near Huya village, which also gives its name to the beryl-scheelite deposit) which is well documented in several papers. That is, we have two localities with very different mineralization to list for Mount Xuebaoding. It would not make much sense to lump them.
Second, you really should read the papers you refer to. These papers do not "generally refer to a beryl-scheelite vein deposit on the south-eastern side of the mountain" (what is referred to as a mountain here is actually a massif with a diameter of more than 60 kms which occupies a major part of two counties), but they specifically refer to the same beryl-scheelite vein deposit near Huya village. There are either maps or detailed locality descriptions given in the respective papers. The authors of the article from Science in China also cite other papers and clearly state that it is the same deposit they're dealing with. Thus, we have one well-documented deposit which deserves an individual appearance in the database. Moreover, the Mineralienwelt article (and also one of the Ottens articles for the Mineralogical Record) confirm that most of the material on the mineral market comes from this particular deposit (compare the locality descriptions with the scientific papers !). Ottens has visited many Chinese localities himself and usually gives useful descriptions of the minerals found there.

I agree that we can't know for sure whether there are other localities around, but for this case we still have Mount Xuebaoding a as a generic loclity.


------------------------------------------------------------------


"Quality: I would rate the complex twin specimens of Cassiterite from Mt Xuebaoding as the equal of any around the world. Their lustre can be unbeatable."

Actually, the twins from Mount Xuebaoding are typically simple contact twins on {101}. The deposits on the Czech and German sides of the Erzgebirge have produced comparable specimens, among them crystals with really complex twins in a large variety of habits, and this also holds for Slavkov (lustrous twins to over 4 cms !) and many Cornish localities. For instance, Wheal Kitty and other mines in the St Agnes district produced specimens with lustrous, brown-red twins that could be fully transparent (depending on the size). Of course, all these specimens are old-timers; they were never produced in large quantities (old mines worked centuries ago being much smaller than the operations of today), are rarely seen on the market, and often are exceedingly expensive. In this respect, I agree that Mount Xuebaoding is presently the most important locality to produce fairly large numbers of high-quality specimens at affordable prices. In quality, however, there are many others to compete with.
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