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Chlorapatite

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Formula:
Ca5(PO4)3Cl
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
White
Hardness:
5
Name:
Named in 1860 by Carl F. Rammelsberg from the Greek απατείν ("apatein"), "to deceive" or "to be misleading", as Apatite was often confused with other minerals (e.g. Beryl, Milarite), plus the "chlor-" prefix for chlorine being a dominant anion.
Apatite Group. The chlorine analogue of fluorapatite and hydroxylapatite. The phosphate analogue of turneaureite. The Ca5 analogue of phosphohedyphane. The calcium analogue of alforsite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Chlorapatite.

Classification of Chlorapatite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.BN.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1
41.8.1.2

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : A5(XO4)3Zq
22.2.3

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-1013.html
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First Recorded Occurrence of Chlorapatite

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
White hexagonal crystals
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Occurrences of Chlorapatite

Geological Setting:
Veins in gabbroic rocks; in meteorites.

Physical Properties of Chlorapatite

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
White
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
5
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
{0001}, {1010}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.17 - 3.18 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.17 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Chlorapatite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/m
Space Group Setting:
P63/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.5979Å, c = 6.7762Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.706
Unit Cell Volume:
V 540.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals short to long hexagonal prisms [0001], with {1010} and {1011} dominant; also thick tabular {0001}, frequently in the crystals of hydrothermal origin in pegmatites and veins, with {1010}, relatively large {0001}, and often also {1011} or low pyramids. Massive, coarse granular to compact.
Twinning:
Rare contact twins on {1121}. Twin plane {10_13} rare. Also twinning reported on {1010} and {11_23}.
Comment:
May be monoclinic, space-group P21/m (a = 9.605, b = 19.210, c = 6.785 A, β = 120°, Z = 6)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.39 (40)
2.853 (100)
2.770 (100)
2.306 (40)
1.960 (50)
1.910 (25)
1.838 (50)

Optical Data of Chlorapatite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.675 nε = 1.668
Birefringence:
0.0075
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Chlorapatite

Formula:
Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Chlorapatite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
BellitePb5 (AsO4,CrO4, SiO2)3Cl
Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OH
HydroxylpyromorphitePb5(PO4)3(OH)
JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
Manganapatite
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mimetite-2M
Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F
Mn-bearing Fluorapatite(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
OxypyromorphitePb10(PO4)6O
PieczkaiteMn5(PO4)3Cl
PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)Pb5(PO4)3F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)Pb5(AsO4)3(OH)
VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
8.BN.05AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)NaCeSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
8.BN.05Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
8.BN.05FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05HedyphanePb3Ca2(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
8.BN.05JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
8.BN.05MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
8.BN.05TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)NaLaSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Deloneite(Na0.5REE0.25Ca0.25)(Ca0.75REE0.25)Sr1.5(CaNa0.25REE0.25)(PO4)3F0.5(OH)0.5
8.BN.05FluorcaphiteSrCaCa3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)NaCeBa3(PO4)3F0.5Cl0.5
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OH
8.BN.05PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
8.BN.05FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)NaNdCa3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F
8.BN.10ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3F
22.2.1SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
22.2.2LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2O
22.2.4TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.5ShubnikoviteCa2Cu8(AsO4)6(OH)Cl · 7H2O
22.2.6RichelsdorfiteCa2Cu5Sb(AsO4)4(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
22.2.7AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
22.2.8MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.9PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
22.2.10MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.11Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.12SahlinitePb14(AsO4)2O9Cl4
22.2.13GeorgiadèsitePb4(AsO3)Cl4(OH)
22.2.14VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
22.2.15KombatitePb14(VO4)2O9Cl4
22.2.16LeningraditePbCu3(VO4)2Cl
22.2.17HedyphanePb3Ca2(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.18NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2O

Other Names for Chlorapatite

Name in Other Languages:
Norwegian (Bokmål):Klorapatitt
Simplified Chinese:氯磷灰石
Spanish:Clorapatita

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in HCl or in HNO3. Varieties containing CO3 may dissolve with slight effervescence.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Chlorapatite

Reference List:
Rammelsberg, C.F. (1860) Handbuch der Mineralchemie. First edition, Leipzig (as Chlorapatit).

Nacken (1912) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 547.

Borgström (1932) Finska Kem. Medd.: no. 2: 51.

Hendricks, Jefferson, and Mosley (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 352.

Gruner and McConnell (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 97: 208.

McConnell and Gruner (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 157.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 879-889.

Prener, J.S. (1967) The growth and crystallographic properties of calcium fluor- and chlorapatite. Journal of the Electrochem. Society: 114: 77-83.

Canadian Mineralogist (1972): 10: 137.

Knottnerus, D.I.M., Den Hartog, H.W., and van Der Lugt, W. (1972) Optical and EPR investigations of colour centres in calcium chlorapatite. Phys. Stat. Sol.(a): 13: 505-515.

Roufosse, A., Stapelbroek, M., Bartram, R.H., and Gilliam, O.R. (1974) Oxygen-associated hole-like centers in calcium chlorapatite. Phys. Rev.: B9: 855-862.

Elliott, J.C., Young, K.A., and Mackie, P.E. (1975) Effect of chlorine ion vacancies on the local atomic parameters in non-stoichiometric chlorapatite. Acta Crystallographica: A31: S268.

Bauer, M. and Klee, W.E. (1993) The monoclinic-hexagonal phase transition in chlorapatite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 307-316.

Fleet, M.E., Liu, X., and Pan, Y. (2000b) Rare earth elements in chlorapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2]: uptake, site preference and degradation of monoclinic structure. American Mineralogist: 85: 1437-1446.

Internet Links for Chlorapatite

Localities for Chlorapatite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Afghanistan
 
  • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
      • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
        • Sar-e Sang (Sar Sang; Sary Sang)
Journal of Petrology 43(4):725-747 (2002)
Algeria
 
www.meteoriticalsociety.org/bulletin/mb89preview.pdf.
Suporn Boonsuea & John Spraya (2012) Shock-Induced Phase Transformations in Melt Pockets within Martian Meteorite NWA 4468. Spectroscopy Letters: An International Journal for Rapid Communication 45:127-134.
  • Sahara Desert
    • Lakhbi
www.meteoriticalsociety.org/bulletin/mb88.pdf.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Enderby Land
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2003AM/finalprogram/abstract_60995.
Argentina
 
  • Chaco
    • Doce de Octubre Department
      • Gran Chaco
Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Brachina
Nehru, C. E., Prinz, M., Delaney, J. S., Dreibus, G., Palme, H., Spettel, B. & Waenke, H. (1983) Brachina - a new type of meteorite, not a chassignite. Journal of Geophysical Research, Supplement. vol. 88: pp. B237-B244. (Nov 1983)
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Mount Barker
          • Nairne
    • Murray Basin
      • Murray Mallee
        • Karoonda
Alan E. Rubin (1992). Magnetite-Pentlandite Chondrules in CK Chondrites (Abstract). Meteoritics 27, #3, p. 281.
    • Olary Province
      • Weekeroo Station
Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
    • Western Region
      • Maralinga
Keller, L. P., Clark, J. C., Lewis, C. F. & Moore, C. B. (1992). Maralinga, a metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrite found in Australia. Meteoritics 27 (1): 87-91. (March 1992)
  • Western Australia
    • Quairading Shire
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pages.
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
      • Lichtenau im Waldviertel
Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1812) Chlorapatit, Dolomit und Siderit aus dem Steinbruch Malaschofsky bei Lichtenau, west-südwestlich von Gföhl, Waldviertel, Niederösterreich. P. 126 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXII. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
  • Styria
    • Fischbacher Alpen
      • Krieglach
        • Freßnitzgraben
          • Alpl
F. Bernhard, F. Walter, K. Ettinger, J. Taucher, K. Mereiter: Amer. Mineral. 83:625-630 (1998)
SEM-EDS on polished section, 15.1.2005, Franz Bernhard
Azerbaijan
 
  • Daşkəsən District (Daskasan; Dashkyasan)
    • Dashkesan
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Bahamas
 
  • San Salvador District
    • San Salvador Island
Carb.&Evap. v.16 no.1 (2001)
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Rafael Bustillo Province (Bustillos Province)
      • Llallagua
Ulf Kempe, et al (2008) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (in press)
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Doce valley
      • Divino das Laranjeiras
        • Linópolis
[MinRecord 28:492]
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Cross Lake
      • North Group
        • (Gottcha Claim)
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 36,pp. 367-376 (1998)
  • Ontario
    • Frontenac Co.
      • Bedford Township
John Montgomery Collection
      • Oso Township
John R. Montgomery trade with Canadian Museum of Nature
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • Pierre-De Saurel RCM
        • Saint-Robert
http://castaing.eps.mcgill.ca/meteoriteposter/poster.html.
  • Saskatchewan
    • Athabasca Basin
      • Honsvall Lake
Eur. J. Mineral. , 1995, 7, pp. 1251-1272.
Chile
 
  • Atacama Region
    • Chañaral Province
      • Inca de Oro
Roberto Rojas
    • Huasco Province
      • Alto del Carmen
Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
      • Los Colorados district
Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
  • Coquimbo Region
    • Elqui Province
      • La Serena
Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
China
 
  • Hubei Province
    • Suizhou Prefecture
      • Zengdu District (Cengdou District)
        • Xihe
Lapis 29(2), 42 (2004)
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Hulunbuir League (Hulunbei'er Prefecture)
      • Manjur Co. (Manzhouli Co.)
Guodong Ren (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(8), 16-23
  • Shaanxi Province
    • Hanzhong Prefecture
      • Ningqiang Co.
Rubin, A. E., Wang, D., Kallemeyn, G. W. & Wasson, J. T. (1988). The Ningqiang meteorite: Classification and petrology of an anomalous CV chondrite. Meteoritics 23, #1, 13–23. (March 1988).
  • Yunnan Province
    • Kunming Prefecture
      • Dongchuan District
Yongping Huang, Jianmin Wu, and Ziping Wang (1999): Geology and Prospecting 35(4), 15-18
Egypt
 
  • Al Iskandanyah Governorate (Alexandria Governorate)
    • Abu Hommos
      • Nakhla
Bridges,J.C. & Grady, M.M. (2000): Evaporite mineral assemblages in the nakhlite (martian) meteorites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 176, 267-279; Berkley, J. L., Keil, K., & Prinz, M. (1980) Comparative petrology and origin of Governador Valadares and other nakhlites. In: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 11th, Houston, TX, March 17-21, 1980, Proceedings. Volume 2. (A82-22296 09-91) New York, Pergamon Press, 1980, p. 1089-1102.; Rull, F., Martinez‐Frias, J., Sansano, A., Medina, J., & Edwards, H. G. M. (2004). Comparative micro‐Raman study of the Nakhla and Vaca Muerta meteorites. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35(6), 497-503.
Finland
 
  • Lapland Region
    • Sodankylä
Mutanen, T. 1997. Geology and ore petrology of the Akanvaara and Koitelainen mafic layered intrusions and the Keivitsa-Satovaara layered complex, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 395, 233 s.
France
 
  • Champagne-Ardenne
    • Haute-Marne
      • Chassigny
Lunar. Planet. Sci. 29, #1069 (1998).; Floran, R. J., Prinz, M., Hlava, P. F., Keil, K., Nehru, C. E., & Hinthorne, J. R. (1978). The Chassigny meteorite: A cumulate dunite with hydrous amphibole-bearing melt inclusions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 42(8), 1213-1229.; Mason, B., Nelon, J. A., Muir, P., & Taylor, S. R. (1976). The composition of the Chassigny meteorite. Meteoritics, 11(1), 21-27.
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Andernach
        • Nickenich
Blass, G., Graf, HW., Kolitsch, U., Sebold, D., Über neue Mineralfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, Mineralien-Welt 6/2005
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Magdeburg
      • Salzwedel
        • Hohenlangenbeck
Matthes, J. (1995): The Salzwedel meteorite. Petrology and shock metamorphism. Chemie der Erde 55, 257-261.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Ehrenfriedersdorf
Thomas, R., and Webster, J.D. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 570-582.
Hungary
 
  • Tolna Co.
    • Geresdi Hills
      • Mórágy
HOM Collection
Iran
 
  • Markazi Province
    • Delijan County
      • Naragh (Naraq; Narāq; Narāk)
Adib D., Liou J. G. (1979): The Naragh meteorite - A new olivine-bronzite chondrite fall. Meteoritics, 14, 257-272.
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valchiavenna
        • Bodengo Valley
Guastoni, A., et al. (2007): [Title]. Mineralogical Magazine 71,579-585
  • Piedmont
    • Vercelli Province
      • Sesia Valley
        • Quarona
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
        • Varallo Sesia
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Florence Province
      • Impruneta
Prosperi, B., Batacchi, C., Ciriotti, M.E., Ceccantini, L. (2013): Ercinite, perovskite, pirofanite e nuove segnalazioni dalle ofioliti dell' Impruneta, Firenze. Micro, 1/2013, 32-38-
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto Region
      • Kanagawa Prefecture
        • Yamakita
Harada, Z. (1938) Beitraege zur Kenntnis der optischen und chemischen Eigenschaften des Apatits von Kurokura, Kanagawa Praefektur. Journ. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido University, ser. 4, 11.
      • Saitama Prefecture
        • Chichibu City
          • Ohtaki-mura
            • Nakatsugawa
              • Chichibu mining district (Chichibu mine)
Harada et al (1971) Am. Min., 56, 1507-1518.
Alfredo Petrov collection
    • Kinki region
      • Hyogo Prefecture
        • Kobe City
          • Kita-ku
Tomeoka, K., Ohnishi, I., & Nakamura, N. (2001) Silicate darkening in the Kobe CK Chondrite: Evidence for shock metamorphism at high temperature. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 36 (11):1535-1545 (Nov 2001)
Kazakhstan
 
  • Kostanay Province (Qostanay Oblysy; Kostanai Oblast')
    • Kostanay (Qostanay; Kustany)
Попов В.А., Епанчинцев С.Г. (2010) Двойники прорастания магнетита в рудах Куржункульского месторождения (Казахстан), - Новые данные о минералах, Вып.45, с. 149.
    • Rudny
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Kenya
 
  • Rift Valley Province
Schulze, H., Bischoff, A., Palme, H., Spettel, B., Dreibus, G. & Otto, J. (1994). Mineralogy and chemistry of Rumuruti: The first meteorite fall of the new R chondrite group, Meteoritics 29 (2), 275-286. (March 1994)
Mexico
 
  • Coahuila
    • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
      • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
        • Limestone caves
Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
  • Guerrero
    • Acapulco
Michel-Lévy, M. C. & Lorin, J. C. (1978) El Quemado, A New Type of Stone Meteorite Fallen Near Acapulco: Meteoritics 13: 411-412. (Dec 1978)
  • Mexico
    • Jiquipilco (Xiquipilco)
Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
Morocco
 
  • Guelmim-Es Semara Region
    • Assa-Zag Province
      • Zag
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI (2005)
Irving, A. J., & Kuehner, S. M. (2003, March). Petrology of NWA 1460: A Baddeleyite-bearing Shergottite Paired with NWA 480. In Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts (Vol. 34, p. 1503).
T. Bunch and J. Wittke, NAU
  • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
Handbook of Mineralogy
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Waikato
Can. Mineral., 27, 199-203
Nigeria
 
  • Niger State
    • Benue River
Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
    • Froland
      • Lyngrott
Vogt, J.H.L. (1910): Norges jernmalmforekomster. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. 51, 1-225 ( p. 151); Vogt, Th. (1938): Leptittformasjonens jernforekomster i Norge. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 17, 217-223
    • Gjerstad
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68 p. 123.
    • Risør
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 123
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p 123.
    • Vegårshei
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 123
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 123
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p.123
  • Buskerud
    • Modum
Raade, G. & Mladeck, M. H. (1979): Holtedahlite, a new magnesium phospate from Modum, Norway. LITHOS 12, 283-287; Raade, G. (1999): Et unikt mineralselskap av magnesiumfosfater fra magnesitt-serpentin-forekomster på Modum. Bergverksmuseets Skrift nr 15, 10-14
    • Nedre Eiker
      • Ryggkollen
Stensrud, S. (2004): Skjerp på magnetkis i Ryggkollen. In Hurum, J.H & Frøyland M. (eds) (2004): Nedre Eikers underjordiske skatter. Stein til nytte og glede. Editon by Nedre Eiker kommune. 193-204
Neumann (1985, p. 123).
  • Nordland
    • Rana
      • Altermark area
Nordrum, F. S. (2007): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2006-2007. STEIN 34 (2), 14-26
  • Telemark
    • Bamble (Bamle)
      • Bjordam
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68. p. 123.
Ramsay, C.R. & Morton, R.D. (1971): Hydrothermal retrogression of cordierite in the Bamble sector, South Norway. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatsheft. 398-403
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 123
Brøgger, W.C. & Reusch, H.H. (1880): Norske Apatitforekomster. Nyt Magasin for Naturvidenskaberne, 25: 255-300
Brøgger, W.C. & Reusch, H.H. (1880): Norske Apatitforekomster. Nyt Magasin for Naturvidenskaberne, 25: 255-300
Morton, R.D. & Catanzaro, E.J. (1964): Stable chlorine isotope abundances in apatites from Ødegårdens Verk, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 44, 307-313
Rammelsberg, C.F. (1860) Handbuch der Mineralchemie. First edition, Leipzig, p. 353 Raade, G. (1996): Minerals originally described from Norway. Including notes on type material. Bergverksmuseets Skrift nr 11, p. 29
      • Sannidal
        • Skarvann
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p 123.
Oman
 
  • Dhofar Province (Al Janubiyah Province)
The Meteoritical Bulletin 84 (Aug.2000)
Taylor, L. A., Nazarov, M. A., Ivanova, M. A., Patchen, A., Clayton, R. N., & Mayeda, T. K. (2000). Petrology of the Dhofar 019 shergottite. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, 35, 155.
The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 88, 2004 JULY, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, Axxx–Axxx (2004)
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Ząbkowice District
      • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
        • Szklary (Gläsendorf)
Pieczka A. 2007: Beusite and an unusual Mn-rich apatite from the Szklary granitic pegmatite, Lower Silesia, Southwestern Poland. Canadian Mineralogist, vol. 45, no.4, p. 901-914
  • Mazowieckie
    • Warszawa
Manecki, 2001. in Geological Quarterly Vol. 45-03 (Polish Geological Institute)
Romania
 
  • Brașov Co.
    • Racoş Commune
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
Ciobanu, C.L., and Cook, N.J. (2004): Skarn textures and a case study:the Ocna de Fier-Dognecea orefield, Banat, Romania. - Ore Geology Reviews 24, 315-370.
  • Harghita Co.
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S., Almási, E., Köllı, A., Sajó, I., Vezzalini, G. (2006): New data about the minerals of the copper ore deposit at Balan (East Carpathians) and of limestone xenolithes from basalt at Racosu de Jos (Persani Mts.), Romania. Acta Mineral.-Petrogr., Abstr. Ser. 5, p. 112. [http://www.mineral.hermuz.hu/acta_05/pdf/szakalls1.pdf]; Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
[World of Stones 12:49]
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Northern Karelia
        • Oulanka plutonic complex
          • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
Semenov, S.V., Glebovitsky, V.A., Kol’tsov, A.B., Semenov, V.S., Korneev, S.I., and Savatenkov, V.M. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(4), 249-274.
Slovakia
 
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Vyšná Šebastová
Povondra P., Skála R., Chapman R., 2007: Hydrotermal assemblage of Cl-,F- and OH-bearing apatite-group minerals from Maglovec near Prešov, Slovakia. Canadian Mineralogist, 45, 1355-1366.
    • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Granada
Takeda, H., Hsu, W., & Huss, G. R. (2003). Mineralogy of silicate inclusions of the Colomera IIE iron and crystallization of Cr-diopside and alkali feldspar from a partial melt. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67(12), 2269-2287.
  • Castile and Leon
    • Zamora
      • Villar del Buey
        • Pinilla de Fermoselle
Am Min 90:1887-1899
Sweden
 
  • Lappland
    • Kiruna district
      • Svappavaara
No reference listed
  • Värmland
    • Munkfors
      • Ransäter
[var: Munkforssite] Igelström (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 27: 601; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1006.
Switzerland
 
  • Vaud (Waadt)
    • Lavey-les-Bains
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 44
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Winona
Prinz, M., Waggoner, D. G. & Hamilton, P. J. (1980) Winonaites: a Primitive Achondritic Group Related to Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons (Abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XI: 902-904. (March 1980)
    • Yavapai Co.
AmMin 67: 97-113 (1982)
  • Georgia
    • Lumpkin Co.
      • Dahlonega
        • Auraria
Minerals of Georgia: Their properties and occurrences. Robert Cook GGWRD Bull 92
  • Indiana
    • Tippecanoe Co.
      • Lafayette
www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/mmc/Lafay.pdf.; Berkley, J. L., Keil, K., & Prinz, M. (1980) Comparative petrology and origin of Governador Valadares and other nakhlites. In: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 11th, Houston, TX, March 17-21, 1980, Proceedings. Volume 2. (A82-22296 09-91) New York, Pergamon Press, 1980, p. 1089-1102.
  • Michigan
    • Baraga Co.
      • Alberta
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Montana
    • Stillwater Co.
      • Nye
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
  • Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Safford District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
NIZAMOFF, James W., SIMMONS, William B., and FALSTER, Alexander U. (2004) PHOSPHATE MINERALOGY AND PARAGENESIS OF THE PALERMO #2 PEGMATITE, NORTH GROTON, NEW HAMPSHIRE Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 115
Journal of Pegmatology vol. 1, no. 1 ; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 115
  • New York
    • Essex Co.
      • Mineville District
NY State Museum spec. no. 18229
  • Texas
    • Castro Co.
      • Dimmitt
Rubin, A. E., Scott, E. R., Taylor, G. J., Keil, K., Allen, J. S., Mayeda, T. K., ... & Bogard, D. D. (1983). Nature of the H chondrite parent body regolith: Evidence from the Dimmitt breccia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978–2012), 88(S02), A741-A754.
    • Ector Co.
      • Odessa
Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
    • Hamilton Co.
      • Carlton
American Mineralogist, Volume 79, pages 375-380, 1994
  • Virginia
    • Fairfax Co.
      • Culpeper Basin
        • Centreville
Minerals of Virginia (1990) by R. V. Dietrich
    • Loudoun Co.
      • Conklin
Rocks & Min.:60:167.
    • Mecklenburg Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • West Virginia
    • Grant Co.
      • Landes
Meteoritics, volume 7, number 1, pages 31-38
Venezuela
 
  • Miranda
Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
Mineral and/or Locality  
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