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Chlorapatite

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Formula:
Ca5(PO4)3Cl
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
White
Hardness:
5
Name:
Name introduced in 1860 by Carl F. Rammelsberg, in his Handbuch der Mineralchemie. Here he reviewed some analysis of apatites, and found that apatite may have fluor(F) or chloride (Cl) as the dominant anion. An analysis of apatite from Kragerø, Norway (cited after Völker) showed 4.10 wt % Cl, and was named as chlorapatite. The name is made of the prefix, chlor, for the dominant chlorine and the greek ἀπατάω (apatao), to deceive, as apatite was often confused with other minerals (e.g. beryl, milarite).
A chlorine-rich calcium phosphate that belongs to the apatite group. It is the chlorine analogue of fluorapatite and hydroxylapatite, the phosphate analogue of turneaureite, the Ca5 analogue of phosphohedyphane and the calcium analogue of alforsite.
Chlorapatite is formed in fluor-deficient environments, and found in calcium silicate marbles, in layered mafic intrusions and in diabases. It is known to replace triphylite in some granite pegmatites (Ptáček 2016). A monoclinic polymorph, chlorapatite-M is known.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Chlorapatite.

Classification of Chlorapatite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.BN.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1
41.8.1.2

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : A5(XO4)3Zq
22.2.3

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride
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Type Occurrence of Chlorapatite

General Appearance of Type Material:
White hexagonal crystals
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Occurrences of Chlorapatite

Geological Setting:
Veins in gabbroic rocks; in meteorites.

Physical Properties of Chlorapatite

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
White
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
5
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
{0001}, {1010}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.17 - 3.18 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.17 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Chlorapatite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/m
Space Group Setting:
P63/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.5979Å, c = 6.7762Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.706
Unit Cell Volume:
V 540.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals short to long hexagonal prisms [0001], with {1010} and {1011} dominant; also thick tabular {0001}, frequently in the crystals of hydrothermal origin in pegmatites and veins, with {1010}, relatively large {0001}, and often also {1011} or low pyramids. Massive, coarse granular to compact.
Twinning:
Rare contact twins on {1121}. Twin plane {10_13} rare. Also twinning reported on {1010} and {11_23}.
Comment:
May be monoclinic, space-group P21/m (a = 9.605, b = 19.210, c = 6.785 A, β = 120°, Z = 6)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.39 (40)
2.853 (100)
2.770 (100)
2.306 (40)
1.960 (50)
1.910 (25)
1.838 (50)

Optical Data of Chlorapatite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.675 nε = 1.668
Birefringence:
0.0075
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Chlorapatite

Formula:
Ca5(PO4)3Cl
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Chlorapatite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
HydroxylpyromorphitePb5(PO4)3(OH)
JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
OxypyromorphitePb10(PO4)6O
PieczkaiteMn5(PO4)3Cl
PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)Pb5(PO4)3F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)Pb5(AsO4)3(OH)
VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
8.BN.05AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)NaCeSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
8.BN.05Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
8.BN.05FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
8.BN.05JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
8.BN.05MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
8.BN.05TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)NaLaSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Deloneite(Na0.5REE0.25Ca0.25)(Ca0.75REE0.25)Sr1.5(CaNa0.25REE0.25)(PO4)3F0.5(OH)0.5
8.BN.05FluorcaphiteSrCaCa3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)NaCeBa3(PO4)3F0.5Cl0.5
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OH
8.BN.05PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
8.BN.05FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)NaNdCa3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F
8.BN.10ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3F
22.2.1SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
22.2.2LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2O
22.2.4TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.5ShubnikoviteCa2Cu8(AsO4)6(OH)Cl · 7H2O
22.2.6RichelsdorfiteCa2Cu5Sb(AsO4)4(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
22.2.7AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
22.2.8MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.9PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
22.2.10MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.11Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.12SahlinitePb14(AsO4)2O9Cl4
22.2.13GeorgiadèsitePb4(AsO3)Cl4(OH)
22.2.14VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
22.2.15KombatitePb14(VO4)2O9Cl4
22.2.16LeningraditePbCu3(VO4)2Cl
22.2.17HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.18NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2O

Other Names for Chlorapatite

Name in Other Languages:
Norwegian (Bokmål):Klorapatitt
Simplified Chinese:氯磷灰石
Spanish:Clorapatita

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in HCl or in HNO3. Varieties containing CO3 may dissolve with slight effervescence.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Chlorapatite

Reference List:
Rammelsberg, C.F. (1860) Handbuch der Mineralchemie. First edition, Leipzig (as Chlorapatit).

Nacken (1912) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 547.

Borgström (1932) Finska Kem. Medd.: no. 2: 51.

Hendricks, Jefferson, and Mosley (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 352.

Gruner and McConnell (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 97: 208.

McConnell and Gruner (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 157.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 879-889.

Prener, J.S. (1967) The growth and crystallographic properties of calcium fluor- and chlorapatite. Journal of the Electrochem. Society: 114: 77-83.

Canadian Mineralogist (1972): 10: 137.

Knottnerus, D.I.M., Den Hartog, H.W., and van Der Lugt, W. (1972) Optical and EPR investigations of colour centres in calcium chlorapatite. Phys. Stat. Sol.(a): 13: 505-515.

Roufosse, A., Stapelbroek, M., Bartram, R.H., and Gilliam, O.R. (1974) Oxygen-associated hole-like centers in calcium chlorapatite. Phys. Rev.: B9: 855-862.

Elliott, J.C., Young, K.A., and Mackie, P.E. (1975) Effect of chlorine ion vacancies on the local atomic parameters in non-stoichiometric chlorapatite. Acta Crystallographica: A31: S268.

Bauer, M. and Klee, W.E. (1993) The monoclinic-hexagonal phase transition in chlorapatite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 307-316.

Fleet, M.E., Liu, X., and Pan, Y. (2000b) Rare earth elements in chlorapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2]: uptake, site preference and degradation of monoclinic structure. American Mineralogist: 85: 1437-1446.

Ptáček, P. (2016): Apatites and their Synthetic Analogues - Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications. InTech. 514 p.

Internet Links for Chlorapatite

Localities for Chlorapatite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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