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Chlorapatite

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Formula:
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
System:HexagonalColour:White
Hardness:5
Member of:Apatite Group > Apatite Supergroup
Name:Named in 1860 by Carl F. Rammelsberg from the Greek απατείν ("apatein"), "to deceive" or "to be misleading", as Apatite was often confused with other minerals (e.g. Beryl, Milarite), plus the "chlor-" prefix for chlorine being a dominant anion.


Apatite Group. The chlorine analogue of fluorapatite and hydroxylapatite. The phosphate analogue of turneaureite. The Ca5 analogue of phosphohedyphane. The calcium analogue of alforsite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Chlorapatite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Chlorapatite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/B.39-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.BN.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1
Dana 8th edition ID:41.8.1.2

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : A5(XO4)3Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:22.2.3

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride
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Type Occurrence of Chlorapatite

Type Locality:Kragerø, Telemark, Norway
General Appearance of Type Material:White hexagonal crystals
Associated Minerals at type locality:
AlbiteCalciteIlmeniteRutileTitanite

Occurrences of Chlorapatite

Geological Setting:Veins in gabbroic rocks; in meteorites.

Physical Properties of Chlorapatite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:White
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):5
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
{0001}, {1010}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.17 - 3.18 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.17 g/cm3

Crystallography of Chlorapatite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/m
Space Group Setting:P63/m
Cell Parameters:a = 9.5979Å, c = 6.7762Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.706
Unit Cell Volume:V 540.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals short to long hexagonal prisms [0001], with {1010} and {1011} dominant; also thick tabular {0001}, frequently in the crystals of hydrothermal origin in pegmatites and veins, with {1010}, relatively large {0001}, and often also {1011} or low pyramids. Massive, coarse granular to compact.
Twinning:Rare contact twins on {1121}. Twin plane {10_13} rare. Also twinning reported on {1010} and {11_23}.
Comment:May be monoclinic, space-group P21/m (a = 9.605, b = 19.210, c = 6.785 A, β = 120°, Z = 6)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.39 (40)
2.853 (100)
2.770 (100)
2.306 (40)
1.960 (50)
1.910 (25)
1.838 (50)

Optical Data of Chlorapatite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.675 nε = 1.668
Birefringence:0.0075
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.008

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Chlorapatite

Formula:
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Essential elements:Ca, Cl, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Cl, O, P

Relationship of Chlorapatite to other Species

Member of:Apatite Group > Apatite Supergroup
Other Members of Group:

- +
Alforsite
Ba
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Bellite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
,CrO
 
4
, SiO
 
2
)
 
3
Cl
Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(F,O)
Fluorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
Hydroxylapatite-M
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
Hydroxylpyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
Johnbaumite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
Johnbaumite-M
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
Manganapatite
Mimetite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Mimetite-2M
Mimetite-M
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Miyahisaite
(Sr,Ca)
 
2
Ba
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Mn-bearing Fluorapatite
(Ca,Mn
2+
 
)
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(F,Cl,OH) or Ca
 
5
([P,Mn
5+
 
]O
 
4
)
 
3
(F,Cl,OH)
Oxypyromorphite
Pb
 
10
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
O
Pieczkaite
Mn
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Pyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Stronadelphite
Sr
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Svabite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Turneaureite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
Vanadinite
Pb
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
Common Associates:
TitaniteScapoliteRutilePyrrhotiteMagnetite
IlmeniteHornblende
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.BN.05Alforsite
Ba
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)
NaCeSr
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(F,O)
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH,O)
8.BN.05Mimetite-M
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-M
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
8.BN.05Fluorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Hedyphane
Pb
 
3
Ca
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
8.BN.05Johnbaumite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
8.BN.05Mimetite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Morelandite
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Pyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Fluorstrophite
SrCaSr
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Svabite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Turneaureite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Vanadinite
Pb
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)
NaLaSr
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Deloneite
(Na
 
0.5
REE
 
0.25
Ca
 
0.25
)(Ca
 
0.75
REE
 
0.25
)Sr
 
1.5
(CaNa
 
0.25
REE
 
0.25
)(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
 
0.5
(OH)
 
0.5
8.BN.05Fluorcaphite
SrCaCa
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)
NaCeBa
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
 
0.5
Cl
 
0.5
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-M
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
OH
8.BN.05Phosphohedyphane
Ca
 
2
Pb
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
8.BN.05Stronadelphite
Sr
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Fluorphosphohedyphane
Ca
 
2
Pb
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)
NaNdCa
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.05Miyahisaite
(Sr,Ca)
 
2
Ba
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
8.BN.10Arctite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
F
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
22.2.1Sampleite
NaCaCu
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
22.2.2Lavendulan
NaCaCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
22.2.4Turneaureite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.5Shubnikovite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
8
(AsO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)Cl · 7H
 
2
O
22.2.6Richelsdorfite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
5
Sb(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
Cl · 6H
 
2
O
22.2.7Alforsite
Ba
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.8Morelandite
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.9Pyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.10Mimetite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.11Mimetite-M
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.12Sahlinite
Pb
 
14
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
9
Cl
 
4
22.2.13Georgiadèsite
Pb
 
4
(AsO
 
3
)Cl
 
4
(OH)
22.2.14Vanadinite
Pb
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.15Kombatite
Pb
 
14
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
9
Cl
 
4
22.2.16Leningradite
PbCu
 
3
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl
22.2.17Hedyphane
Pb
 
3
Ca
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.18Nealite
Pb
 
4
Fe
2+
 
(As
3+
 
O
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Chlorapatite

Synonyms:
Apatite-(CaCl)xChlor-apatiteFluorian Chlorapatite
Other Languages:
German:Chlorapatit
Norwegian (Bokmål):Klorapatitt
Russian:Хлорапатит
Апатит-(CaCl)
Simplified Chinese:氯磷灰石
Spanish:Clorapatita
Varieties:
Munkforssite

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in HCl or in HNO3. Varieties containing CO3 may dissolve with slight effervescence.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Chlorapatite

Reference List:

- +
Rammelsberg, C.F. (1860) Handbuch der Mineralchemie. First edition, Leipzig (as Chlorapatit).

Nacken (1912) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 547.

Borgström (1932) Finska Kem. Medd.: no. 2: 51.

Hendricks, Jefferson, and Mosley (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 352.

Gruner and McConnell (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 97: 208.

McConnell and Gruner (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 157.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 879-889.

Prener, J.S. (1967) The growth and crystallographic properties of calcium fluor- and chlorapatite. Journal of the Electrochem. Society: 114: 77-83.

Canadian Mineralogist (1972): 10: 137.

Knottnerus, D.I.M., Den Hartog, H.W., and van Der Lugt, W. (1972) Optical and EPR investigations of colour centres in calcium chlorapatite. Phys. Stat. Sol.(a): 13: 505-515.

Roufosse, A., Stapelbroek, M., Bartram, R.H., and Gilliam, O.R. (1974) Oxygen-associated hole-like centers in calcium chlorapatite. Phys. Rev.: B9: 855-862.

Elliott, J.C., Young, K.A., and Mackie, P.E. (1975) Effect of chlorine ion vacancies on the local atomic parameters in non-stoichiometric chlorapatite. Acta Crystallographica: A31: S268.

Bauer, M. and Klee, W.E. (1993) The monoclinic-hexagonal phase transition in chlorapatite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 307-316.

Fleet, M.E., Liu, X., and Pan, Y. (2000b) Rare earth elements in chlorapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2]: uptake, site preference and degradation of monoclinic structure. American Mineralogist: 85: 1437-1446.

Internet Links for Chlorapatite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Chlorapatite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Chlorapatite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Afghanistan
     
    • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
      • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
        • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
          • Sar-e Sang (Sar Sang; Sary Sang)
    Journal of Petrology 43(4):725-747 (2002)
    Algeria
     
    www.meteoriticalsociety.org/bulletin/mb89preview.pdf.
    Suporn Boonsuea & John Spraya (2012) Shock-Induced Phase Transformations in Melt Pockets within Martian Meteorite NWA 4468. Spectroscopy Letters: An International Journal for Rapid Communication 45:127-134.
    • Sahara Desert
      • Lakhbi
    www.meteoriticalsociety.org/bulletin/mb88.pdf.
    Antarctica
     
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • Enderby Land
    http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2003AM/finalprogram/abstract_60995.
    Argentina
     
    • Chaco
      • Doce de Octubre Department
        • Gran Chaco
    Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Brachina
    Nehru, C. E., Prinz, M., Delaney, J. S., Dreibus, G., Palme, H., Spettel, B. & Waenke, H. (1983) Brachina - a new type of meteorite, not a chassignite. Journal of Geophysical Research, Supplement. vol. 88: pp. B237-B244. (Nov 1983)
      • Mt Lofty Ranges
        • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
          • Mount Barker
            • Nairne
      • Murray Basin
        • Murray Mallee
          • Karoonda
    Alan E. Rubin (1992). Magnetite-Pentlandite Chondrules in CK Chondrites (Abstract). Meteoritics 27, #3, p. 281.
      • Olary Province
        • Weekeroo Station
    Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
      • Western Region
        • Maralinga
    Keller, L. P., Clark, J. C., Lewis, C. F. & Moore, C. B. (1992). Maralinga, a metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrite found in Australia. Meteoritics 27 (1): 87-91. (March 1992)
    Austria
     
    • Lower Austria
      • Waldviertel
        • Lichtenau im Waldviertel
    Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1812) Chlorapatit, Dolomit und Siderit aus dem Steinbruch Malaschofsky bei Lichtenau, west-südwestlich von Gföhl, Waldviertel, Niederösterreich. P. 126 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXII. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
    • Styria
      • Fischbacher Alpen
        • Krieglach
          • Freßnitzgraben
            • Alpl
    F. Bernhard, F. Walter, K. Ettinger, J. Taucher, K. Mereiter: Amer. Mineral. 83:625-630 (1998)
    SEM-EDS on polished section, 15.1.2005, Franz Bernhard
    Azerbaijan
     
    • Daşkəsən District (Daskasan; Dashkyasan)
      • Dashkesan
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Bahamas
     
    • San Salvador District
      • San Salvador Island
    Carb.&Evap. v.16 no.1 (2001)
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Rafael Bustillo Province (Bustillos Province)
        • Llallagua
    Ulf Kempe, et al (2008) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (in press)
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Doce valley
        • Divino das Laranjeiras
          • Linópolis
    [MinRecord 28:492]
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
      • Cross Lake
        • North Group
          • (Gottcha Claim)
    The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 36,pp. 367-376 (1998)
    • Ontario
      • Frontenac Co.
        • Bedford Township
    John Montgomery Collection
        • Oso Township
    John R. Montgomery trade with Canadian Museum of Nature
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • Pierre-De Saurel RCM
          • Saint-Robert
    http://castaing.eps.mcgill.ca/meteoriteposter/poster.html.
    • Saskatchewan
      • Athabasca Basin
        • Honsvall Lake
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1995, 7, pp. 1251-1272.
    Chile
     
    • Atacama Region
      • Chañaral Province
        • Inca de Oro
    Roberto Rojas
      • Huasco Province
        • Alto del Carmen
    Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
        • Los Colorados district
    Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
    • Coquimbo Region
      • Elqui Province
        • La Serena
    Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
    China
     
    • Hubei Province
      • Suizhou Prefecture
        • Zengdu District (Cengdou District)
          • Xihe
    Lapis 29(2), 42 (2004)
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Hulunbuir League (Hulunbei'er Prefecture)
        • Manjur Co. (Manzhouli Co.)
    Guodong Ren (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(8), 16-23
    • Shaanxi Province
      • Hanzhong Prefecture
        • Ningqiang Co.
    Rubin, A. E., Wang, D., Kallemeyn, G. W. & Wasson, J. T. (1988). The Ningqiang meteorite: Classification and petrology of an anomalous CV chondrite. Meteoritics 23, #1, 13–23. (March 1988).
    • Yunnan Province
      • Kunming Prefecture
        • Dongchuan District
    Yongping Huang, Jianmin Wu, and Ziping Wang (1999): Geology and Prospecting 35(4), 15-18
    Egypt
     
    • Al Iskandanyah Governorate (Alexandria Governorate)
      • Abu Hommos
        • Nakhla
    Bridges,J.C. & Grady, M.M. (2000): Evaporite mineral assemblages in the nakhlite (martian) meteorites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 176, 267-279; Berkley, J. L., Keil, K., & Prinz, M. (1980) Comparative petrology and origin of Governador Valadares and other nakhlites. In: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 11th, Houston, TX, March 17-21, 1980, Proceedings. Volume 2. (A82-22296 09-91) New York, Pergamon Press, 1980, p. 1089-1102.; Rull, F., Martinez‐Frias, J., Sansano, A., Medina, J., & Edwards, H. G. M. (2004). Comparative micro‐Raman study of the Nakhla and Vaca Muerta meteorites. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35(6), 497-503.
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Sodankylä
    Mutanen, T. 1997. Geology and ore petrology of the Akanvaara and Koitelainen mafic layered intrusions and the Keivitsa-Satovaara layered complex, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 395, 233 s.
    France
     
    • Champagne-Ardenne
      • Haute-Marne
        • Chassigny
    Lunar. Planet. Sci. 29, #1069 (1998).; Floran, R. J., Prinz, M., Hlava, P. F., Keil, K., Nehru, C. E., & Hinthorne, J. R. (1978). The Chassigny meteorite: A cumulate dunite with hydrous amphibole-bearing melt inclusions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 42(8), 1213-1229.; Mason, B., Nelon, J. A., Muir, P., & Taylor, S. R. (1976). The composition of the Chassigny meteorite. Meteoritics, 11(1), 21-27.
    Germany
     
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Andernach
          • Eich
    Blass, G., Graf, HW., Kolitsch, U., Sebold, D., Über neue Mineralfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, Mineralien-Welt 6/2005
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Magdeburg
        • Salzwedel
          • Hohenlangenbeck
    Matthes, J. (1995): The Salzwedel meteorite. Petrology and shock metamorphism. Chemie der Erde 55, 257-261.
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Ehrenfriedersdorf
    Thomas, R., and Webster, J.D. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 570-582.
    Hungary
     
    • Tolna Co.
      • Geresdi Hills
        • Mórágy
    HOM Collection
    Italy
     
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
        • Valchiavenna
          • Bodengo Valley
    Guastoni, A., et al. (2007): [Title]. Mineralogical Magazine 71,579-585
    • Piedmont
      • Vercelli Province
        • Sesia Valley
          • Quarona
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
          • Varallo Sesia
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto Region
        • Kanagawa Prefecture
          • Yamakita
    Harada, Z. (1938) Beitraege zur Kenntnis der optischen und chemischen Eigenschaften des Apatits von Kurokura, Kanagawa Praefektur. Journ. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido University, ser. 4, 11.
        • Saitama Prefecture
          • Chichibu City
            • Ohtaki-mura
              • Nakatsugawa
                • Chichibu mining district (Chichibu mine)
    Harada et al (1971) Am. Min., 56, 1507-1518.
    Alfredo Petrov collection
      • Kinki region
        • Hyogo Prefecture
    Tomeoka, K., Ohnishi, I., & Nakamura, N. (2001) Silicate darkening in the Kobe CK Chondrite: Evidence for shock metamorphism at high temperature. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 36 (11):1535-1545 (Nov 2001)
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Kostanay Province (Qostanay Oblysy; Kostanai Oblast')
      • Kostanay (Qostanay; Kustany)
    Попов В.А., Епанчинцев С.Г. (2010) Двойники прорастания магнетита в рудах Куржункульского месторождения (Казахстан), - Новые данные о минералах, Вып.45, с. 149.
      • Rudny
    Pavel M. Kartashov data; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    Kenya
     
    • Rift Valley Province
    Schulze, H., Bischoff, A., Palme, H., Spettel, B., Dreibus, G. & Otto, J. (1994). Mineralogy and chemistry of Rumuruti: The first meteorite fall of the new R chondrite group, Meteoritics 29 (2), 275-286. (March 1994)
    Mexico
     
    • Coahuila
      • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
        • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
          • Limestone caves
    Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
    • Guerrero
      • Acapulco
    Michel-Lévy, M. C. & Lorin, J. C. (1978) El Quemado, A New Type of Stone Meteorite Fallen Near Acapulco: Meteoritics 13: 411-412. (Dec 1978)
    • Mexico
      • Jiquipilco (Xiquipilco)
    Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
    Morocco
     
    • Guelmim-Es Semara Region
      • Assa-Zag Province
        • Zag
    Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI (2005)
    Irving, A. J., & Kuehner, S. M. (2003, March). Petrology of NWA 1460: A Baddeleyite-bearing Shergottite Paired with NWA 480. In Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts (Vol. 34, p. 1503).
    T. Bunch and J. Wittke, NAU
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Tazenakht
    Handbook of Mineralogy
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Waikato
    Can. Mineral., 27, 199-203
    Nigeria
     
    • Niger State
      • Benue River
    Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Froland
        • Lyngrott
    Vogt, J.H.L. (1910): Norges jernmalmforekomster. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. 51, 1-225 ( p. 151); Vogt, Th. (1938): Leptittformasjonens jernforekomster i Norge. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 17, 217-223
      • Gjerstad
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68 p. 123.
      • Risør
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 123
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p 123.
      • Vegårshei
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 123
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 123
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p.123
    • Buskerud
      • Modum
    Raade, G. & Mladeck, M. H. (1979): Holtedahlite, a new magnesium phospate from Modum, Norway. LITHOS 12, 283-287; Raade, G. (1999): Et unikt mineralselskap av magnesiumfosfater fra magnesitt-serpentin-forekomster på Modum. Bergverksmuseets Skrift nr 15, 10-14
      • Nedre Eiker
        • Ryggkollen
    Stensrud, S. (2004): Skjerp på magnetkis i Ryggkollen. In Hurum, J.H & Frøyland M. (eds) (2004): Nedre Eikers underjordiske skatter. Stein til nytte og glede. Editon by Nedre Eiker kommune. 193-204
    Neumann (1985, p. 123).
    • Nordland
      • Rana
        • Altermark area
    Nordrum, F. S. (2007): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2006-2007. STEIN 34 (2), 14-26
    • Telemark
      • Bamble (Bamle)
        • Bjordam
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68. p. 123.
    Ramsay, C.R. & Morton, R.D. (1971): Hydrothermal retrogression of cordierite in the Bamble sector, South Norway. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatsheft. 398-403
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 123
    Brøgger, W.C. & Reusch, H.H. (1880): Norske Apatitforekomster. Nyt Magasin for Naturvidenskaberne, 25: 255-300
    Brøgger, W.C. & Reusch, H.H. (1880): Norske Apatitforekomster. Nyt Magasin for Naturvidenskaberne, 25: 255-300
    Morton, R.D. & Catanzaro, E.J. (1964): Stable chlorine isotope abundances in apatites from Ødegårdens Verk, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 44, 307-313
    Rammelsberg, C.F. (1860) Handbuch der Mineralchemie. First edition, Leipzig, p. 353 Raade, G. (1996): Minerals originally described from Norway. Including notes on type material. Bergverksmuseets Skrift nr 11, p. 29
        • Sannidal
          • Skarvann
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p 123.
    Oman
     
    • Dhofar Province (Al Janubiyah Province)
    The Meteoritical Bulletin 84 (Aug.2000)
    Taylor, L. A., Nazarov, M. A., Ivanova, M. A., Patchen, A., Clayton, R. N., & Mayeda, T. K. (2000). Petrology of the Dhofar 019 shergottite. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, 35, 155.
    The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 88, 2004 JULY, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, Axxx–Axxx (2004)
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Ząbkowice District
        • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
          • Szklary (Gläsendorf)
    Pieczka A. 2007: Beusite and an unusual Mn-rich apatite from the Szklary granitic pegmatite, Lower Silesia, Southwestern Poland. Canadian Mineralogist, vol. 45, no.4, p. 901-914
    • Mazowieckie
      • Warszawa
    Manecki, 2001. in Geological Quarterly Vol. 45-03 (Polish Geological Institute)
    Romania
     
    • Brașov Co.
      • Racoş Commune
    Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
    • Caraş-Severin Co.
      • Banat Mts
        • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
    Ciobanu, C.L., and Cook, N.J. (2004): Skarn textures and a case study:the Ocna de Fier-Dognecea orefield, Banat, Romania. - Ore Geology Reviews 24, 315-370.
    • Harghita Co.
      • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
        • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
    Szakáll, S., Almási, E., Köllı, A., Sajó, I., Vezzalini, G. (2006): New data about the minerals of the copper ore deposit at Balan (East Carpathians) and of limestone xenolithes from basalt at Racosu de Jos (Persani Mts.), Romania. Acta Mineral.-Petrogr., Abstr. Ser. 5, p. 112. [http://www.mineral.hermuz.hu/acta_05/pdf/szakalls1.pdf]; Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Northern Karelia
          • Oulanka plutonic complex
            • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
    Semenov, S.V., Glebovitsky, V.A., Kol’tsov, A.B., Semenov, V.S., Korneev, S.I., and Savatenkov, V.M. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(4), 249-274.
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Magnitogorsk
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Slovakia
     
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
        • Vyšná Šebastová
    Povondra P., Skála R., Chapman R., 2007: Hydrotermal assemblage of Cl-,F- and OH-bearing apatite-group minerals from Maglovec near Prešov, Slovakia. Canadian Mineralogist, 45, 1355-1366.
      • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
    Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Granada
    Takeda, H., Hsu, W., & Huss, G. R. (2003). Mineralogy of silicate inclusions of the Colomera IIE iron and crystallization of Cr-diopside and alkali feldspar from a partial melt. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67(12), 2269-2287.
    • Castile and Leon
      • Zamora
        • Villar del Buey
          • Pinilla de Fermoselle
    Am Min 90:1887-1899
    Sweden
     
    • Lappland
      • Kiruna district
        • Svappavaara
    No reference listed
    • Värmland
      • Munkfors
        • Ransäter
    [var: Munkforssite] Igelström (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 27: 601; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1006.
    Switzerland
     
    • Vaud (Waadt)
      • Lavey-les-Bains
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 44
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Coconino Co.
        • Winona
    Prinz, M., Waggoner, D. G. & Hamilton, P. J. (1980) Winonaites: a Primitive Achondritic Group Related to Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons (Abstract). Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XI: 902-904. (March 1980)
      • Yavapai Co.
    AmMin 67: 97-113 (1982)
    • Georgia
      • Lumpkin Co.
        • Dahlonega
          • Auraria
    Minerals of Georgia: Their properties and occurrences. Robert Cook GGWRD Bull 92
    • Indiana
      • Tippecanoe Co.
        • Lafayette
    www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/mmc/Lafay.pdf.; Berkley, J. L., Keil, K., & Prinz, M. (1980) Comparative petrology and origin of Governador Valadares and other nakhlites. In: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 11th, Houston, TX, March 17-21, 1980, Proceedings. Volume 2. (A82-22296 09-91) New York, Pergamon Press, 1980, p. 1089-1102.
    • Michigan
      • Baraga Co.
        • Alberta
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Montana
      • Stillwater Co.
        • Nye
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
    • Nevada
      • Eureka Co.
        • Safford District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Hampshire
      • Grafton Co.
        • Groton
    NIZAMOFF, James W., SIMMONS, William B., and FALSTER, Alexander U. (2004) PHOSPHATE MINERALOGY AND PARAGENESIS OF THE PALERMO #2 PEGMATITE, NORTH GROTON, NEW HAMPSHIRE Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 115
    Journal of Pegmatology vol. 1, no. 1 ; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 115
    • New York
      • Essex Co.
        • Mineville District
    NY State Museum spec. no. 18229
    • Texas
      • Castro Co.
        • Dimmitt
    Rubin, A. E., Scott, E. R., Taylor, G. J., Keil, K., Allen, J. S., Mayeda, T. K., ... & Bogard, D. D. (1983). Nature of the H chondrite parent body regolith: Evidence from the Dimmitt breccia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978–2012), 88(S02), A741-A754.
      • Ector Co.
        • Odessa
    Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
      • Hamilton Co.
        • Carlton
    American Mineralogist, Volume 79, pages 375-380, 1994
    • Virginia
      • Fairfax Co.
        • Culpeper Basin
          • Centreville
    Minerals of Virginia (1990) by R. V. Dietrich
      • Loudoun Co.
        • Conklin
    Rocks & Min.:60:167.
      • Mecklenburg Co.
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • West Virginia
      • Grant Co.
        • Landes
    Meteoritics, volume 7, number 1, pages 31-38
    Venezuela
     
    • Miranda
    Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
    Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
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