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Chloritoid

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Formula:
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
System:MonoclinicColour:dark green to green-gray ...
Hardness:
Member of:Chloritoid Group
Name:Named in 1837 by Gustav Rose for the visual similarity to chlorite-group minerals.


Carboirite-Chloritoid Series. The Fe2+ analogue of Magnesiochloritoid.

Monoclinic and triclinic polytypes are known.

Classification of Chloritoid

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/B.24-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AF.85

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:52.3.3.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.19.6

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
19 : Aluminosilicates of Fe and Mg
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Type Occurrence of Chloritoid

Type Locality:Kosoi Brod Village, Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk), Sverdlovskaya Oblast', Middle Urals, Urals Region, Russia

Physical Properties of Chloritoid

Lustre:Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:dark green to green-gray or nearly black.
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:Perfect
{001} perfect, {110} good.
Density (measured):3.4 - 3.8 g/cm3

Crystallography of Chloritoid

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b {B1 1 2/b} {C2/c} {C1 2/c 1}
Space Group Setting:C2/c
Cell Parameters:a = 9.50Å, b = 5.50Å, c = 18.22Å
β = 101.9°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.727 : 1 : 3.313
Unit Cell Volume:V 931.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Thin to thick foliated plates or as massive aggremates. Seldom as pseudohexagonal tabular crystals.

Also triclinic.
Twinning:Common on {001}, polysynthetic.
Comment:For monoclinic polytype (space group C2/c). Triclinic polytype (C-1) has a = 9.46(1), b = 5.50(1), c = 9.15(1) A, α = 97.05(2), β = 101.56(2), γ = 90.10(2)°.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.46 (100)
2.964 (18)
2.459 (6)
2.356 (7)
2.306 (14)
1.574 (11)
1.482 (6)

Optical Data of Chloritoid

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.713 - 1.730 nβ = 1.719 - 1.734 nγ = 1.723 - 1.740
2V:Measured: 36° to 89°, Calculated: 78° to 80°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.010

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:r > v

Chemical Properties of Chloritoid

Formula:
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Essential elements:Al, Fe, H, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Fe, H, Mg, Mn, O, Si

Relationship of Chloritoid to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Carboirite (see here)
Member of:Chloritoid Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Carboirite
FeAl
 
2
(GeO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
Magnesiochloritoid
MgAl
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
Ottrélite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AF.05Sillimanite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.10Andalusite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.10Kanonaite
Mn
3+
 
Al(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.15Kyanite
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AF.20Mullite
Al
 
4+2x
Si
 
2-2x
O
 
10-x
9.AF.20Krieselite
(Al,Ga)
 
2
(GeO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
9.AF.23Boromullite
Al
 
9
BSi
 
2
O
 
19
9.AF.25Yoderite
Mg(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O(OH)
9.AF.30Magnesiostaurolite
(Mg,Li,Fe
2+
 
)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.30Staurolite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Zn)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH,O)
 
2
9.AF.30Zincostaurolite
(Zn,Li,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.35Topaz
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.40Norbergite
Mg
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Alleghanyite
Mn
2+
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Chondrodite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.45Reinhardbraunsite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
9.AF.45Kumtyubeite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
F
 
2
9.AF.45Hydroxylchondrodite
Mg
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Humite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(F,OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Manganhumite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)
Ca
 
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
9.AF.55Clinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
F
 
2
9.AF.55Sonolite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH,F)
 
2
9.AF.55Hydroxylclinohumite
Mg
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.60Leucophoenicite
Mn
2+
7
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.65Ribbeite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.70Jerrygibbsite
Mn
2+
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
9.AF.75Franciscanite
Mn
2+
6
(V
5+
 
,☐)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
9.AF.75Örebroite
Mn
2+
3
(Sb
5+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(SiO
 
4
)(O,OH)
 
3
9.AF.75Welinite
Mn
2+
6
(W
6+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
9.AF.80Ellenbergerite
Mg
 
6
(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)
 
2
(Al,Mg)
 
6
Si
 
8
O
 
28
(OH)
 
10
9.AF.85Magnesiochloritoid
MgAl
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.85Ottrélite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
9.AF.90Poldervaartite
CaCa[SiO
 
3
(OH)](OH)
9.AF.90Olmiite
CaMn
2+
 
[SiO
 
3
(OH)](OH)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.19.1Indialite
Mg
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
16.19.2Cordierite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
16.19.3Sekaninaite
(Fe,Mg)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
16.19.4Ferro-gedrite
☐{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.19.5Staurolite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Zn)
 
1.5-2
Al
 
9
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
6
(OH,O)
 
2
16.19.7Amesite
Mg
 
2
Al(AlSiO
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
16.19.8Corundophilite
(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
6
(Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
(OH)
 
8
16.19.9Yoderite
Mg(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O(OH)
16.19.10Delessite
(Mg,Fe,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
(O,OH)
 
8
16.19.11Ferrocarpholite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)(OH)
 
4
16.19.12Magnesiocarpholite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)(OH)
 
4
16.19.13Chamosite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.19.14Orthochamosite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
3+
 
)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,O)
 
8
16.19.15Berthierine
(Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,AlMg)
 
2-3
((Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
16.19.16Odinite
(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)
 
2.4
((Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
16.19.17Clinochlore
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.19.18Gedrite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
}(Al
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
16.19.19Magnesiogedrite
16.19.20Diabantite
(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.19.21Sudoite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.19.22Vermiculite
(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
3
((Al,Si)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
16.19.23Corrensite
(Mg,Fe)
 
9
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
10
· nH
 
2
O

Other Names for Chloritoid

Synonyms:
BarytophylliteBliabergiteBliabergsiteChlorite sparChloritoidite
SismondineSismonditeStrüverite (of Brezina)
Other Languages:
German:Barytophyllit
Bliabergit
Bliabergsit
Chloritoidit
Chloritspat
Sismondit
Russian:Хлоритоид
Simplified Chinese:硬绿泥石
Spanish:Barytophyllita
Bliabergita
Bliabergsita
Chloritoidita
Sismondita
Varieties:
Masonite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Chloritoid

Reference List:

- +
Acta Crystallographica: B31: 780.

American Mineralogist (1980): 65: 534-539.

Theye, T., Seidel, E., and Vidal, O. (1992) Carpholite, sudoite, chloritoid in low-grade high-pressure metapelites from Crete and the Peloponnese, Greece. European Journal of Mineralogy: 4: 487-507.

Theye, T. (2000) New experimental high pressure data on chloritoid and carpholite. Beiheft No. 1, European Journal of Mineralogy: 12: 212.

Best Localities for Chloritoid

Best of Species:Chloritoid

Internet Links for Chloritoid

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Chloritoid details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Chloritoid

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