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Chondrodite

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Formula:
(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Yellow, Red or Brown.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Name:
Named in 1817 by Baron Abraham Constantin Mouradgea d'Ohsson from the Swedish "grynig och körtelaktig" meaning gritty and gland-like in allusion to its occurring in isolated grains. (Later given as χονδρωδης meaning grain.) The original chemical analysis by d'Ohsson did not find fluorine, but reported a 100% total. Seybert (1822) analyzed a similar mineral that did contain fluorine from Sparta, New Jersey, USA and named it maclureite for William Maclure, geologist-mineralogist, educator, and philanthropist. A minor controversy arose between Henry Seybert and Thomas Nuttall in 1822-1824 regarding priority of who first found fluorine in maclureite. Eventually, the maclureite of Seybert (1822) was indirectly equated with norbergite rather than chondrodite (Larsen et al., 1928). See also Thomson and Torrey (1836).
Dimorph of:
May be confused with clinohumite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Chondrodite.


Classification of Chondrodite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.AF.45

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination
52.3.2b.2

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
17.1.10

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
1 : Silicates with fluoride (not containing Al)

Occurrences of Chondrodite

Type Occurrence of Chondrodite

Physical Properties of Chondrodite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Yellow, Red or Brown.
Streak:
White-gray, yellow
Hardness (Mohs):
6 - 6½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Indistinct on {100}
Parting:
on {001}
Density:
3.16 - 3.26 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.177 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Chondrodite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.84Å, b = 4.73Å, c = 10.25Å
β = 109°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.658 : 1 : 2.167
Unit Cell Volume:
V 359.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Typically slightly flattened crystals, frequently rounded grains, massive
Twinning:
On {001}

Crystallographic forms of Chondrodite

Crystal Atlas:
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Chondrodite no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Chondrodite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.41 (8)
4.841 (30)
3.987 (14)
3.715 (16)
3.660 (6)
3.562 (35)
3.479 (25)
3.384 (30)
3.020 (45)
2.847 (12)
2.805 (6)
2.758 (35)
2.667 (30)
2.617 (30)
2.570 (6)
2.510 (45)
2.477 (10)
2.447 (6b)
2.423 (10)
2.320 (30)
2.288 (35)
2.258 (100)
2.148 (12)
2.108 (8)
2.083 (4)
2.027 (6)
2.019 (6)
2.003 (4)
1.984 (4)
1.964 (6)
1.937 (6)
1.878 (8)
1.839 (4)
1.815 (8)
1.802 (8)
1.740 (70)
1.692 (10)
1.677 (4)
Comments:
ICDD 12-527 (Tilly Foster Mine, Brewster, NY, USA). See also ICDD 33-865 (titanian) Buell Park, Arizona, USA.

Optical Data of Chondrodite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.592 - 1.643 nβ = 1.602 - 1.655 nγ = 1.619 - 1.675
2V:
Measured: 64° to 90°, Calculated: 76° to 78°
Birefringence:
0.030
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.027 - 0.032
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v weak to strong
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= colorless, very pale yellow, brownish yellow
Y= colorless, yellow green
Z= colorless, pale green

Chemical Properties of Chondrodite

Formula:
(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Idealised Formula:
Mg5(SiO4)2F,2
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,Al,Mn

Relationship of Chondrodite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2
HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2
NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
9.AF.05SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
9.AF.10AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
9.AF.10KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)O
9.AF.15KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
9.AF.20MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
9.AF.20Krieselite(Al,Ga)2(GeO4)(OH)2
9.AF.23BoromulliteAl9BSi2O19
9.AF.25YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)
9.AF.30MagnesiostauroliteMg(Mg,Li)3(Al,Mg)18Si8O44(OH)4
9.AF.30StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
9.AF.30ZincostauroliteZn2Al9Si4O23(OH)
9.AF.35TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
9.AF.40NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
9.AF.45AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
9.AF.45ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2
9.AF.45KumtyubeiteCa5(SiO4)2F2
9.AF.45HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2
9.AF.50Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
9.AF.50Manganhumite(Mn2+,Mg)7(SiO4)3(OH)2
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)Ca7(SiO4)4F2
9.AF.55ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
9.AF.55SonoliteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH)2
9.AF.55HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2
9.AF.60LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
9.AF.65Ribbeite(Mn2+,Mg)5(SiO4)2(OH)2
9.AF.70JerrygibbsiteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH)2
9.AF.75FranciscaniteMn62+(V5+,☐)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6
9.AF.75ÖrebroiteMn32+(Sb5+,Fe3+)(SiO4)(O,OH)3
9.AF.75WeliniteMn62+(W6+,Mg)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6
9.AF.80EllenbergeriteMg6(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)2(Al,Mg)6Si8O28(OH)10
9.AF.85Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
9.AF.85MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2
9.AF.85Ottrélite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
9.AF.90PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
9.AF.90OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
17.1.1HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
17.1.3AgrelliteNaCa2Si4O10F
17.1.4Fluorapophyllite-(Na)NaCa4(Si8O20)F · 8H2O
17.1.5Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
17.1.6Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
17.1.7HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2
17.1.8LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6F
17.1.9NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
17.1.11Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
17.1.12ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
17.1.13CanasiteK3Na3Ca5Si12O30(OH)4
17.1.14Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2O
17.1.15CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
17.1.16BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
17.1.17ZeophylliteCa13Si10O28(OH)2F8 · 6H2O
17.1.18Rowlandite-(Y)(Y,Ce)4Fe2+(Si2O7)2F2 (?)
17.1.19YuksporiteK4(Ca,Na)14(Sr,Ba)2(◻,Mn,Fe)(Ti,Nb)4(O,OH)4(Si6O17)2(Si2O7)3(H2O,OH)3
17.1.20Yftisite-(Y)(Y,Dy,Er)4(Ti,Sn)(SiO4)2O(F,OH)6
17.1.21Mosandrite-(Ce)(Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2
17.1.22Hiortdahlite(Na,Ca)2Ca4Zr(Mn,Ti,Fe)(Si2O7)2(F,O)4
17.1.23BurpaliteNa2CaZr(Si2O7)F2
17.1.24SeidozeriteNa4MnZr2Ti(Si2O7)2O2F2
17.1.25Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O
17.1.26Zircophyllite(K,Na)3(Mn,Fe2+)7(Zr,Ti)2Si8O24(O,OH,F)7
17.1.27JinshajiangiteBaNaFe42+Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F
17.1.28RosenbuschiteNa6Ca6Zr3Ti(Si2O7)4O2F6
17.1.29NarsarsukiteNa4(Ti,Fe)2[Si8O20](O,OH,F)2
17.1.30SonoliteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH)2

Other Names for Chondrodite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Chondrodite

Reference List:
d’Ohsson, Abraham Constantin Mouradgea (1817) Undersökning af någre Mineralier, Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar för år 1817 Stockholm: 206-210.

d’Ohsson, Abraham Constantin Mouradgea (1822) Analyses of Some Northern Minerals, Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature, and the Arts, 12: 329.

Seybert, Henry (1822) Analysis of the Maclureite or Fluosilicate of Magnesia, a New Mineral Species from New Jersey, American Journal of Science 5: 336-344.

Thomson, Thomas and Torrey, John (1836) Chemical Examination of Some Minerals, Chiefly from America (read November 5, 1827 by John Torrey), Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New-York, 3: 54-61.

Larsen, Esper S., Bauer, Lawson H., and Berman, Harry (1928) Norbergite from Franklin, New Jersey, American Mineralogist, 13: 349-353.

American Mineralogist(1970): 55: 1182-1194.

Sinogeikin, S. V. and Bass, J. D. (1999) Single-crystal elastic properties of chondrodite: implications for water in the upper mantle. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 26: 297-303.

Langer, K., Platonov, A. N., Matsyuk, S. S., and Wildner, M. (2002) The crystal chemistry of the humite minerals Fe 2+ - Ti 4+ charge transfer and structural allocation of Ti 4+ in chondrodite and clinohumite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 14: 1027-1032.

Internet Links for Chondrodite

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http://www.mindat.org/min-1027.html
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Specimens:
The following Chondrodite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Chondrodite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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