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Churchite-(Y)

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Formula:
Y(PO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colorless, white, gray, ...
Hardness:3
Name:Named in 1865 by Charles H. Greville Williams in honor of Arthur Herbert Church [June 2, 1834 London, England, UK – May 31, 1915 Shelsley, Kew Gardens, England, UK]. Church was the first to examine absorption spectra of gemstones for identification purposes. He was a chemist and mineralogist. He wrote five books and was an authority on a variety of fields including paint chemistry, porcelain, and organic/agricultural chemistry. He named several mineral soecies.

The original chemical analysis of churchite (1865) indicated 51.87 wt.% of Ce2O3 with some didymium (from Cornwall). Unfortunately, the real chemical composition of the material was primarily Y-dominant, with minor amounts of La, Nd, and Er. The phosphate mineral weinschenkite (now a synonym of churchite) was described by Heinrich Laubmann in 1923 from Bavaria. Dana's 7th edition, volume II (1951) "System of Mineralogy" covered the species as two entries, both as "Weinschenkite" and as "Churchite," with the formula of the former being Y-dominant and the latter being Ce-dominant. Claringbull and Hey (1953) re-examined churchite and found that it was Y-dominant and contained little cerium. Because the name weischenkite had been used twice, Claringbull and Hey (1953) maintained churchite as weinschenkite, earlier, had been given to a hornblende-like amphibole in 1922 by G. Murgoci. Following the guidelines of the Levinson nomenclature (Levinson, 1966), Michael Fleischer (1987, Glossary of Mineral Species) added -(Y) to churchite.
Isostructural with:Gypsum

Classification of Churchite-(Y)

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/C.25-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.CJ.50

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
J : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:40.4.6.1

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
4 : (AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.9.2

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc
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Type Occurrence of Churchite-(Y)

Type Locality:Maffei Mine (Nitzelbuch Mine), Nitzlbuch (Nitzelbuch), Auerbach, Upper Palatinate, Bavaria, Germany
Place of Conservation of Type Material:British Museum of Natural History
Year of Discovery:1865

Occurrences of Churchite-(Y)

Geological Setting:Limonite deposit.

Physical Properties of Churchite-(Y)

Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy, Silky, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Comment:Lustre pearly on cleavage.
Colour:Colorless, white, gray, yellow; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {101}, perfect.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.14 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.2 g/cm3

Crystallography of Churchite-(Y)

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b
Cell Parameters:a = 5.578Å, b = 15.006Å, c = 6.275Å
β = 117.83°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.372 : 1 : 0.418
Unit Cell Volume:V 464.49 ų
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals acicular to lath-shaped (gypsum-like), elongated [001] and flattened {010}; form crusts and spherulites with a radial-fibrous structure.
Comment:I2/a
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
7.51 (79)
4.69 (24)
4.19 (100)
3.74 (60)
3.01 (71)
2.83 (45)
2.61 (31)
2.17 (18)
1.8606 (19)
1.7773 (17)
Comments:RRUFF, see also ICDD 8-167

Optical Data of Churchite-(Y)

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.605 - 1.623 nβ = 1.608 - 1.631 nγ = 1.645 - 1.657
2V:Measured: 10° , Calculated: 60°
Birefringence:0.039
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.040

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:weak
Optical Extinction:c^[001] ~ 30°-35°
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Churchite-(Y)

Formula:
Y(PO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Y(PO4)·2H2O
Essential elements:H, O, P, Y
All elements listed in formula:H, O, P, Y

Relationship of Churchite-(Y) to other Species

Common Associates:
WavelliteLimoniteDufréniteCrandalliteCacoxenite
Beraunite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.CJ.05Stercorite
Na(NH
 
4
)HPO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CJ.10Mundrabillaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
8.CJ.10Swaknoite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
8.CJ.15Nabaphite
NaBaPO
 
4
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CJ.15Nastrophite
Na(Sr,Ba)PO
 
4
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CJ.20Haidingerite
CaHAsO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
8.CJ.25Vladimirite
Ca
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(AsO
 
3
OH) · 4H
 
2
O
8.CJ.30Ferrarisite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CJ.35Machatschkiite
(Ca,Na)
 
6
(AsO
 
4
)(HAsO
 
4
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
,SO
 
4
) · 15H
 
2
O
8.CJ.40Phaunouxite
Ca
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
8.CJ.40Rauenthalite
Ca
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Brockite
(Ca,Th,Ce)PO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Grayite
(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(La)
(La,Ce)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce,La)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Tristramite
(Ca,U,Fe)(PO
 
4
,SO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
8.CJ.45Smirnovskite
CaTh(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
8.CJ.50Ardealite
Ca
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
) · 4H
 
2
O
8.CJ.50Brushite
Ca(HPO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
8.CJ.50Pharmacolite
Ca(HAsO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Nd)
Nd(PO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
8.CJ.55Mcnearite
NaCa
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)(HAsO
 
4
)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CJ.60Dorfmanite
Na
 
2
HPO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
8.CJ.65Sincosite
Ca(VO)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
8.CJ.65Bariosincosite
Ba(VO)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.CJ.70Catalanoite
Na
 
2
(HPO
 
4
) · 8H
 
2
O
8.CJ.75Guérinite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 9H
 
2
O
8.CJ.85Ningyoite
CaU(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 1-2H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.9.1Xenotime-(Y)
Y(PO
 
4
)
19.9.3Monazite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO
 
4
)
19.9.4Monazite-(La)
(La,Ce,Nd)(PO
 
4
)
19.9.5Monazite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
19.9.6Rhabdophane-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)
(La,Ce)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce,La)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.9.9Vitusite-(Ce)
Na
 
3
(Ce,La,Nd)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.9.10Florencite-(Ce)
CeAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
19.9.11Florencite-(La)
LaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
19.9.12Florencite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
19.9.13Kolbeckite
ScPO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Churchite-(Y)

Synonyms:
ChurchiteRogersite (of Smith)Weinschenkite (of Laubmann)
Other Languages:
German:Churchit
Russian:Черчит-(Y)
Simplified Chinese:针磷钇铒矿
Spanish:Churchita
Traditional Chinese:針磷釔鉺礦

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent in UV
Thermal Behaviour:Thermoluminescent upon gentle heating.
Other Information:Soluble in hot acids, insoluble in alkalies.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Churchite-(Y)

Reference List:

- +
Church, Arthur Herbert (1865) Preliminary note on a new British mineral containing cerium, The Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science, London, 12, 121-121
Williams, Charles H. Greville (1865) On the presence of didymium in churchite, Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science, London: 12: 183.
Laubmann, Heinrich (1923) Geognost. Jahreshefte, Geol. Landes. München: 35: 193 (as Weinschenkite).
Larsen, Esper Signius and Berman, Harry (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 111.
Heinrich (1935) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 142: 1.
Strunz, Hugo (1942) Naturwiss.: 30: 64 (as Weinschenkite).
Milton, Murata, and Knechtel (1944) American Mineralogist: 29: 92 (as Weinschenkite).
Palache, Charles, Berman, Harry, & Frondel, Clifford (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 771-773 (as Weinschenkite), 773 (as Churchite).
Milton, D. J. and Bastron, H. (1971) Churchite and Florencite (Nd) from Sausalito, California, The Mineralogical Record, 2, 166-168
Mineralogical Magazine (1987): 51: 468.
Kohlmann, M., Sowa, H., Reithmayer, K., Schulz, H., Krüger, R. R., Abriel, W. (1994): Structure of a Y1-x(Gd,Dy,Er)xPO4·2H2O microcrystal using synchrotron radiation. Acta Crystallographica, C50, 1651-1652.
Hikichi, Y. (1996): Preparation and some properties of rare earth orthophosphates. Kidorui, 29, 61-78. (in Japanese)
Assaaoudi, H.; Ennaciri, A.; Rulmont, A. (2001): Vibrational spectra of hydrated rare earth orthophosphates. Vibrational Spectroscopy 25, 81-90.

Internet Links for Churchite-(Y)

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Churchite-(Y) details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Churchite-(Y)

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Córdoba
      • Punilla Department
        • Tanti
    Dr. Nestor Hillar P. collection
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
    Birch BH Book
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Middleback Range
          • Iron Knob
    Australian Jour.Min. v.6, no. 1
    • Western Australia
      • Laverton Shire
        • Mount Weld Station
    Trans. Inst. Mining Metall.(Sect. B:Applied Earth Sci.) 104, 203-208(1995)
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Fischbacher Alpen
        • Fischbach
    Bernhard, F. & Taucher, J. (1999)
        • Rettenegg
    Bernhard, F. & Leikauf, B. (2007)
    Bolivia
     
    • Cochabamba Department
      • Ayopaya Province
    Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408
    Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
      • Jaguaraçu
    [Mineralogical Record - Vol 25 No.3]
    China
     
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
      • Baise Prefecture
        • Jingxi Co.
    Wang, Q.F., Deng, J., Liu, X.F., Zhang, Q.Z., Sun, S.L., Jiang, C.Z., Zhou, F. (2010): Discovery of the REE minerals and its geological significance in the Quyang bauxite deposit, West Guangxi, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 39, 701-712.
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Shangrao Prefecture
        • Yanshan Co. (Qianshan Co.)
    Rengui Wu and Dagan Yu (2000): Uranium Geology 16(4), 204-211
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Hradec Králové Region
        • Krkonoše Mtn (Riesengebirge)
          • Špindlerův Mlýn
    Plášil J., Sejkora J., Škoda R., Goliáš V. 2006: Supergene Y, REE minerals from the Medvědín deposit, the Krkonoše (Giant) Mts., Czech Repulic. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 28, 181-183; Journal of Geosciences 54:15-56
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
            • Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal)
    Lapis 2002(7/8), 62
      • Liberec Region
        • Harrachov (Harrachsdorf)
    Sejkora, j., Veselovský, F., Šrein, V.: The supergene mineralization of uranium occurence Rýžoviště near Harrachov (Krkonoše Mts., Czech republic). Acta Mus. Nat. Prague, Ser. B, Hist. nat., 1994, 50, p. 55-91.
        • Jilemnice (Starkenbach)
    Škoda, R., Rus, P.: Revize dufrenitu z Poniklé. Minerál, 2010, roč. 18, č. 2, s. 119-123.
    Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
        • Javorník (Jauernig)
    Pauliš, P., Toegel, V., Civiš, S.: Churchit-(Y) z uranového ložiska Zálesí v Rychlebských horách (Česká republika). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2011, 19, 1, 32-34.
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Allier
        • Ébreuil
          • Échassières
    Queneau Patrice collection
    Le Règne Minéral, (33), 5-25.
    • Poitou-Charentes
      • Deux-Sèvres
        • Le Temple
    Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Menzenschwand
    Kolitsch & Brandstätter, unpubl. results (2010)
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Fichtelgebirge
          • Weißenstadt
            • Großschloppen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Auerbach
          • Nitzlbuch (Nitzelbuch)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 772; Lapis 1983(3), 9-18; Dana 7:II:772,803,960; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Stuttgart (2001), 224
        • Oberpfälzer Wald
          • Vohenstrauß
            • Pleystein
    DILL, H.G., MELCHER, F., GERDES, A. and WEBER, B. (2008): The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe-Mn-Mg-Sc-U-REE-Zn phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite (Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany). Canadian Mineralogist 46, 1131-1157.
            • Waidhaus
    H.G. Dill, A. Gerdes, B. Weber, Age and mineralogy of supergene uranium minerals — Tools to unravel geomorphological and palaeohydrological processes in granitic terrains (Bohemian Massif, SE Germany), Geomorphology 117 (2010) 44–65
        • Sulzbach-Rosenberg
    Andreas Gerstenberg collection
    • Hesse
      • Odenwald
        • Lautertal (Odenwald)
          • Reichenbach
            • Borstein
    Collected by Klaus Petitjean.
    S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Siegerland
        • Gebhardshain
          • Kausen
    Wittern: "Mineralfundstellen in Deutschland", 2001
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Schneeberg District
          • Neustädtel
            • Weißer Hirsch Mine (Shaft 3)
      • Oberlausitz
        • Görlitz
          • Rengersdorf
    T. Witzke & T. Giesler (1997): Neufunde aus Sachsen (VI): Churchit-(Y), Cyrilovit, Faustit, Kidwellit, Meurigit und Nickelhexahydrit aus der Lausitz.- Lapis 22, 9, 36-38
          • Thiemendorf
    Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2013): Eine Seltenerd- und Niob-Tantal-Mineralisation aus dem Königshainer Granit in der Lausitz, Sachsen.- Mineralien-Welt 24(1), 36-45
        • Niesky
          • Horscha
    Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2007): Der Schieferabbau Pansberg bei Horscha in der Lausitz, Sachsen. Lapis 32 (7-8), 68-73; 86.
      • Vogtland
        • Oelsnitz
    Gröbner, J. and Kolitsch, U. (2007): The minerals of the uranium prospect at Tirpersdorf, Vogtland. Lapis 32, 37-42; 58. (in German)
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Savona Province
        • Maremola Valley
          • Magliolo
    Balestra, C., Ciriotti, M.E., Bracco, R. (2011): Su alcune novità mineralogiche liguri caratterizzate dal SIUK dell'AMI. MICRO, 2011, 46-53.
    • Sardinia
      • Cagliari Province
        • Capoterra
    Olmi F., Sabelli C., Senesi F., Stara P., 2002. La mineralizzazione uranifera di Arcu su Linnarbu. Riv. Miner. Ital., 3: 148-169.
        • Sarroch
    - Orlandi, P., Gelosa, M., Bonacina, E., Caboni, F., Mamberti, M., Tanca, G., A. et Vinci, A. (2013) : Sardignaite, gelosaite et tancaite-(Ce) : trois nouveaux minéraux de Su Seinargiu, Sarroch, Sardaigne, Italie. Le Règne Minéral, 112, 39-52.
    Madagascar
     
    • Antananarivo Province
      • Itasy Region
        • Soavinandriana District
          • Mahavelona Commune
    Behier, J. (1960): Travaux mineralogiques. In Rapport Annuel du Service Geologique pour 1960. Republique Madagascar, Tananarive. 181-199
    Mozambique
     
    • Zambezia Province
      • Alto Ligonha District
    Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Iveland
        • Landås
    Bjørlykke, H.(1966): Årsrapport for Geologisk avdeling. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse, Årbok 1965) 242: 182; Neumann Neumann (1985) : Norges mineraler. Norges geologiske undersøkelse Skrifter 68, pp. 125-126
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
        • Boșorod
    Onac, B.P., Ettinger, K., Kearns, J., Balasz, I.I. (2005): A modern, guano-related occurrence of foggite, CaAl(PO4)(OH)2·H2O and churchite-(Y), YPO4·2H2O in Cioclovina Cave, Romania. Mineralogy and Petrology, 85, 291-302.; European Journal of Mineralogy; April 2009; v. 21; no. 2; p. 507-514
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
    Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Keivy Mountains
            • Western Keivy Massif
    A.V. Voloshin, Ya.A. Pakhomovskii Minerals and mineralformation evolution in amazonite pegmatites of Kola peninsula, - Leningrad, Nauka, 1986, pp.168.
          • Lovozero Massif
            • Seidozero Lake
              • Lepkhe-Nel'm Mt (Lepkhe-Nelm; Nepkha)
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Plast
            • Kochkar' District
              • Svetlyi
    Igor Savin's data
    Slovenia
     
    • Ljubljana
      • Katarina Mt.
    A. Rečnik, N. Daneu, J. Zavašnik, T. Dolenec - Dvojčki pirita želeni križ s Katarine nad Ljubljano; Nahajališča Mineralov v Sloveniji, IJS 2007
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
    USGS Open File report 02-189
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Córdoba
        • Villanueva de Córdoba
    Schnorrer, G. & Kronz, A. (2005): Cobaltneustädtelit, Metatorbernit, Churchit und Plumbogummit, vier von der ehemaligen Grube Espuela de San Miguel bei Villanueva de Cordoba, Prov. Cordoba in Spanien. Der Aufschluss, 56, 177-182. (in German)
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • Camborne - Redruth - St Day District
          • Camborne
            • Killivose
              • Wheal Pendarves
    Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
        • Mount's Bay District
          • St Hilary
    Manchester University Museum,
        • St Austell District
          • Lanivet
    Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
    No reference listed
    USA
     
    • Alabama
      • Cherokee Co.
    Min.Rec.:20(5):361.; Barwood, H. & Hajek, B. (1978): Notes of Some New Occurences in Alabama. Mineralogical Record. 9: 388-391
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    Rocks & Min 70:5 pp 320-333
      • Tallapoosa Co.
    Rocks & Min 70:5 pp 320-333
    • Arkansas
      • Hot Spring Co.
    http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/magcov.htm
    • California
      • Marin Co.
        • Sausalito
    Milton, D.J. and Bastron, H. (1971). "Churchite and Florencite (Nd) from Sausalito, California." Mineralogical Record: 2(4): 166-168.
    • Georgia
      • Burke Co.
        • Girard District
    Jason Smith & M.E. Ciriotti (2005) [[email protected]]
    Leonard S.Wiener and Sigrid Ballew,1995, Updated by Kenny Gay,2006, A Listing Of North Carolina Minerals,Geologic Note No.4
      • Mitchell Co.
        • Spruce Pine District
          • Spruce Pine
            • Greasy Creek Township
    Genth,F.A,1891,The Minerals of North Carolina, pg 75 and pg 107
    • Texas
      • Llano Co.
        • Llano
    Self-collected by David Aldridge, March, 2006.
    • Virginia
      • Albemarle Co.
        • North Garden
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Amherst Co.
        • Roseland
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Rockbridge Co.
        • Lyndhurst-Vesuvius District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 772; Rocks & Minerals: 64: 44-45.
    www.minresco.com
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