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Clausthalite

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Formula:
PbSe
System:IsometricColour:Bluish grey to lead-grey
Hardness:2½ - 3
Member of:Galena Group
Name:After the discovery locality: Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Harz Mountains, Germany.

Classification of Clausthalite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/C.15-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.CD.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
D : With Sn, Pb, Hg, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:2.8.1.2

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.6.6

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
6 : Sulphides etc. of Sb and Pb
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Type Occurrence of Clausthalite

Type Locality:St Lorenz Mine, Burgstatt veins, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Harz, Lower Saxony, Germany
Year of Discovery:1832

Occurrences of Clausthalite

Geological Setting:Selenium bearing low sulfur hydrothermal deposits.

Physical Properties of Clausthalite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Bluish grey to lead-grey
Streak:Grey-black
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=44 - 49 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Good on {001}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Comment:Granular fracture
Density (measured):7.8 - 8.22 g/cm3
Density (calculated):8.275 g/cm3

Crystallography of Clausthalite

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fm3m {F4/m 3 2/m}
Space Group Setting:Fm3m
Cell Parameters:a = 6.1243Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 229.70 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Massive, fine granular, foliated

Chemical Properties of Clausthalite

Formula:
PbSe
Essential elements:Pb, Se
All elements listed in formula:Pb, Se
Common Impurities:Hg,Co,Cu

Relationship of Clausthalite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Galena (see here)
Member of:Galena Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Alabandite
Mn
2+
 
S
Altaite
PbTe
Galena
PbS
Niningerite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)S
Oldhamite
(Ca,Mg)S
Common Associates:
TiemanniteKlockmanniteBerzelianiteUmangiteGold
StibiopalladiniteUraninite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.CD.05Herzenbergite
(Sn,Pb)SnS
 
2
2.CD.05Teallite
(Pb,Sn)SnS
 
2
2.CD.10Alabandite
Mn
2+
 
S
2.CD.10Altaite
PbTe
2.CD.10Galena
PbS
2.CD.10Niningerite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)S
2.CD.10Oldhamite
(Ca,Mg)S
2.CD.10Keilite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)S
2.CD.15aCinnabar
HgS
2.CD.15bHypercinnabar
HgS
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.6.1Herzenbergite
(Sn,Pb)SnS
 
2
3.6.2Ottemannite
beta Sn
 
2
S
 
3
3.6.3Berndtite
SnS
 
2
3.6.4Stistaite
SnSb
3.6.5Galena
PbS
3.6.7Altaite
PbTe
3.6.8Furutobeite
(Cu,Ag)
 
6
PbS
 
4
3.6.9Aschamalmite
Pb
 
6
Bi
 
2
S
 
9
3.6.10Betekhtinite
Pb
 
2
(Cu,Fe)
 
21
S
 
15
3.6.11Shadlunite
(Pb,Cd)(Fe,Cu)
 
8
S
 
8

Other Names for Clausthalite

Synonyms:
ClausthalieSelenbleiglanz
Other Languages:
German:Clausthalit
Selenblei
Russian:Клаусталит
Simplified Chinese:硒铅矿
Spanish:Clausthalita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Clausthalite

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 204-205.

American Mineralogist (1950): 35: 337-364.

American Mineralogist (1959): 44: 166.

Internet Links for Clausthalite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Clausthalite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Clausthalite

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