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Clinochrysotile

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System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Pale green to white, ...
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
Named in 1843 by Franz von Kobell from the Greek chrysos - "gold" and tilos - "fiber." Re-named clinochrysotile by Eric James William Whittaker in 1951. This is by far the most common chrystotile structure and the most common commercial asbestos mineral. Chrysotile was reinstated as the species name of the chrysotile polytypes in 2006.
A polytype of Chrysotile

Clinochrysotile represents the monoclinic or triclinic polymorphs of chrysotile.
Whereas chrysotile (asbestos) has been known since ancient times from many localities, specimens from the Bell mine, one of the oldest mines in the Thetford Mines area (in operation since 1877), have been the subjects of most of the early structural studies, from which the chrysotile nomenclature was defined. These investigations identified monoclinic (Warren & Bragg 1930), and triclinic (Padurow 1950, Whittaker 1956a) polymorphs from the Bell mine, which should be considered the type locality. Clinochrysotile is no longer a valid species (Burke 2006).

Classification of Clinochrysotile

Redefined Approved 2006
Explanation of status:
Polytype of chrysotile.
71.1.2d.1

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
1 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
14.4.5

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
4 : Silicates of Mg
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First Recorded Occurrence of Clinochrysotile

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
Virtually always fibrous.
Year of Discovery:
1834
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Common in veins in serpentinized rocks.
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Physical Properties of Clinochrysotile

Resinous, Greasy, Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Pale green to white, also yellow to brown, light gray.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Flexible
Parting:
Cylinders of chrysotile separate as fine flexible threads or fibers.
Fracture:
Fibrous
Comment:
Somewhat brittle
Density:
2.53-2.55 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.63 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Clinochrysotile

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.3Å, b = 9.19Å, c = 14.63Å
β = 93°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.577 : 1 : 1.592
Unit Cell Volume:
V 711.61 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Fibrous, although fine-grained clinochrysotile may be dense and homogeneous in appearance.
Comment:
Settings include Cc and C2/m
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.1 (90)
4.60 (20)
4.40 (20)
4.07 (10)
3.55 (60)
2.65 (30)
2.39 (100)
2.001 (30)
Comments:
21-1262 [Cc space group]

Optical Data of Clinochrysotile

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.545 - 1.569 nβ = 1.546 - 1.569 nγ = 1.553 - 1.571
2V:
Measured: 20° to 60°
Birefringence:
0.001-0.008
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
relatively weak
Optical Extinction:
Inclined
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
May be weakly pleochroic

Relationship of Clinochrysotile to other Species

Other Members of Group:
AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Baumite(Mg,Al,Mn,Zn,Fe)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Caryopilite(Mn,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
CronstedtiteFe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
GreenaliteFe2-3(Si2O5)(OH)4
HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
KellyiteMn22+Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8
NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Népouite(Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Orthochrysotile
Parachrysotile
PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Webskyite
14.4.1ForsteriteMg2SiO4
14.4.2EnstatiteMgSiO3
14.4.3ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3
14.4.4ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
14.4.6Orthochrysotile
14.4.7Parachrysotile
14.4.8LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
14.4.9TalcMg3(Si4O10)(OH)2
14.4.10SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
14.4.11SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2O
14.4.12LoughliniteNa2Mg3Si6O16 · 8H2O
14.4.13EifeliteKNa3Mg4Si12O30
14.4.14Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
14.4.15AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
14.4.16 Magnesio-anthophyllite

Other Names for Clinochrysotile

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Clinochrysotile

Reference List:
WARREN, B.E. & BRAGG, W.L. (1930): The structure of chrysotile, H4Mg3Si2O9. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie 76, 201-210.
PADUROW, N.N. (1950): Über die Strukturzelle von Chrysotilasbest. Acta Crystallographica 3, 204-208.
WHITTAKER, E.J.W. (1956): The structure of chrysotile. II. Clinochrysotile. Acta Crystallographica 9, 855-862.
WHITTAKER, E.J.W. & ZUSSMAN, J. (1956): The characterization of serpentine minerals by X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical Magazine 31, 107-126.
Burke, E.A.J. (2006) A mass discreditation of GQN minerals.Canadian Mineralogist 44 (2006), 1557

Internet Links for Clinochrysotile

Localities for Clinochrysotile

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Zeehan district
      • North Dundas
Patterson, D.J., 1979, Renison mine, Tasmania. Unpub. PhD thesis, Uni. Tas.
  • Victoria
    • Phillip Island
      • Kitty Miller Bay
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Hohe Tauern
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
      • Goldberg group
        • Kleine Fleiß valley
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Karawanken
      • Bad Eisenkappel (Bad Eisenkappl)
        • Ebriach
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Salzburg
    • Radstädter Tauern
      • Großarl valley
        • Großarl
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
  • Styria
    • Frohnleiten
      • Kirchdorf
Kolitsch, U. et al. (2008)
    • Leoben
      • St Stefan ob Leoben
Schantl (1975)
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Thompson Nickel Belt
      • Ospwagan Lake & Paint Lake area
Canadian Mineraloglst Vol. 14, pp. 307-313 (1976)
  • Ontario
    • Cochrane District
      • Timmins area
        • Porcupine Mining District
          • Deloro Township
Van King
  • Québec
    • Chaudière-Appalaches
      • Les Appalaches RCM
        • Thetford Mines
WARREN, B.E. & BRAGG, W.L. (1930): The structure of chrysotile, H4Mg3Si2O9. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie 76, 201-210. PADUROW, N.N. (1950): Über die Strukturzelle von Chrysotilasbest. Acta Crystallographica 3, 204-208. WHITTAKER, E.J.W. (1956): The structure of chrysotile. II. Clinochrysotile. Acta Crystallographica 9, 855-862.
          • Black Lake
Taner, M. F. and Laurent, R., 1984, Iron-rich Amesite from the Lake Asbestos Mine, Black Lake, Quebec, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 22, p. 437-442
France
 
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Tarn-et-Garonne
      • Orgueil
David J. Barber (1985). Phyllosilicates and other layer-structured materials in stony meteorites. Clay Minerals 20, 415-454 (1985).
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Hautes-Alpes
      • Chateau-Ville-Vieille
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Lahr
        • Reichenbach
          • Schuttertal
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Todtmoos
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Saxony
    • Glauchau
      • Callenberg
XRD analysis (T. Witzke)
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Aggteleki Mts
Koch: Minerals of Hungary
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Nus
      • Saint-Barthélemy
• Barresi, A.A., Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R., Bonacina, E. (2005): La miniera di manganese di Varenche (Aosta, Italia nord-occidentale): ardennite, arseniopleite, manganberzeliite, pirofanite, sarkinite, thortveitite, nuovo As-Sc-analogo della metavariscite e altre specie. Micro (località), 2/2005, 81-122.
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Ne
[MinRec 32:360]
Redazionale (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia del Ferrania Club, 19 , 3-5.
          • Reppia
Redazione (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia Ferrania Club, 19, 3-5.
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Vallone del Cengiaccio (Cengiaccio; Cengiàsc; Cengiasco)
Van King
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province
      • Fiemme Valley
Collection of NHM, Vienna
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Hidaka Province
      • Saru-gun
        • Biratori
H. Okada (1964) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 23-38.
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Yamaguchi Prefecture
        • Iwakuni City
          • Nishiki-cho
Motoiki Saito (1973) Some serpentine minerals occurring in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, series C, 7, 21-36.
            • Mitake
Motoiki Saito (1973) Some serpentine minerals occurring in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, series C, 7, 21-36.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib District
      • Okongava Ost Farm 72
- Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 411 pp. (in English)
  • Karas Region
    • Karasburg District
      • Warmbad
Lapis 25(2), 39-41 (2000)
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 386 pp. (in English)
New Caledonia
 
  • Southern Province
    • Mont-Dore Commune
Cédrick Gineste
Norway
 
  • Rogaland
    • Gjesdal
      • Moi
Andresen, Peter (1990): Fra Steinrøysa. STEIN 17 (4),36
  • Sør-Trøndelag
    • Oppdal
Witsø, T. (1995): Mineraler i Oppdal med beskrivelse. Driva Kro og Steinsenter. Unpublished paper. http://vinstradalen.no/pdf/Mineraler.pdf
Witsø, T. (1995): Mineraler i Oppdal med beskrivelse. Driva Kro og steinsenter. Unpublished paper
      • Vinstradalen
Witsø, T. (2005): Mineraler i Vinstradalen, Oppdal. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 72-73
  • Telemark
    • Bamble (Bamle)
Neumann, H. (ed)(1960): Mineral occurences in southern Norway. Guide to excursions no. A.15 and no. C.12. International Geological Congress XXI Session Norden 1960, Oslo. 18p
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Ząbkowice District
Rev. Min. 19 (1988), 91; HB2/1 (1995); Canadian Mineralogist 44 (2006), 1557
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
Ďuďa R.,Kotuľak P., Káňa R., 1993: Bergbau und Mineralien von Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz), Slowakei. Emser Hefte, 14, 3, 1-70, Haltern
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
Pauliš P., Ďuďa R., 2002:Nejznámejší mineralogická nalezište Slovenska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 136p
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Ehlanzeni District
Minerals of South Africa
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Swaziland
 
  • Hhohho District
    • Bulembu (Havelock)
Van King; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:679-691
Sweden
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
      • Persberg district
Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
Östra Värmlands Mineral Society,Långban,Sweden
        • Pajsberg
Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Albula Valley
      • Landwasser Valley
        • Davos
          • Wolfgang
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 114-115.
      • Oberhalbstein (Surses; Sursass)
        • Marmorera lake
Volker Dietrich (1972) Die sulfidischen Vererzungen in den Oberhalbsteiner Serpentiniten. Beitrage zur Geologie der Schweiz. Geotechnische Serie 49.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Zermatt - Saas Fee area
      • Matt Valley
        • Zermatt
          • Findel glacier (Findeln glacier; Findelen glacier) area
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 87
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
          • Bisbee
            • Queen Hill
              • Copper Queen Mine (Halero Mine)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 177.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 381.
    • Gila Co.
      • Fort Apache Indian Reservation
Van King
Van King
      • Salt River District
        • Salt River
          • Mule Hoof Bend (Oxbow Bend)
Van King
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa District
        • Santa Teresa Mts
          • Aravaipa
            • Landsman Camp (Landsman group)
Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 4.
  • California
    • Fresno Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • New Idria District
          • Condon Peak
Rice, S.J. (1966) Asbestos: uses and economic importance. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 191: 86-92; Page, N.J. and Coleman, R.G. (1967) Serpentine mineral analyses and physical properties. USGS Professional Paper 575-B: 103-107; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 64, 422.
          • Wright Mountain
Page, N.J. and Coleman, R.G. (1967) Serpentine mineral analyses and physical properties. USGS Professional Paper 575-B: 104; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 143, 422.
Montoya, J.W. & Gretta S. Baur (1963), Nickeliferous serpentines, chlorites, and related minerals found in two lateritic ores: American Mineralogist: 48: 1227, 1228.
    • Inyo Co.
      • Darwin Hills
MinRec 15:5
    • San Francisco Co.
Schlocker, J. (1974) Geology of the San Francisco North quadrangle. USGS Professional Paper 782, 109 pp.: 58; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 424.
  • Maine
    • Aroostook Co.
      • Mapleton
Boucot, Arthur J., Field, Michael T., Fletcher, Raymond, Forbes, William H., Naylor, Richard S., and Pavlides, Louis (1964) Reconnaissance Bedrock Geology of the Presque Isle Quadrangle, Maine, Quadrangle Mapping Series 2, Department of Economic Development, Augusta, Maine, pp 123 + plate.
      • TD R2 WELS
Pavlides, Louis and Milton, Charles, 1962, Geology and Manganese Deposits of the Maple and Hovey Mountains Area, Aroostook County, Maine, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 362, pp. 116 + plates.
    • Franklin Co.
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, Vo. 1.
http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/downloads/asbestos_sites.xls.
    • Hancock Co.
      • Deer Isle
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1.
  • Michigan
    • Baraga Co.
      • Alberta
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson; Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Nevada
    • Lyon Co.
      • Yerington District
        • Artesia Lake
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Paradise Range
        • Gabbs District
          • Gabbs
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
      • Currant District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Morris Co.
Van King
Weber, J. and Greer, R., 1965, Dehydration of Serpentine, American Mineralogist, v 50,p 450-464.
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Aristarain, et al: Am. Min.:59:66-70 (1974); Foshag, W.F.: Am. Min.:11:38-39 (1926); Dunn(1995):Pt4:485.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Francis, C.A.: The Picking Table:31(2):4-6 (1990); Dunn(1995):Pt4:485.
  • New York
John H. Betts (2009) "The minerals of New York City", Rocks & Minerals, 84, 204-240.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lebanon Co.
      • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
Weber, J. and Greer, R., 1965, Dehydration of Serpentine, American Mineralogist, v 50,p 450-464.
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Johnston
Michael W. Kieron coll.; Rocks & Minerals (1986) 61:264-275
      • Lincoln
        • Lime Rock
No reference listed
  • Vermont
    • Orleans & Lamoille Cos.
      • Lowell & Eden
Chidester, A.H., Albee, A.L., and Cady, W.M., (1978). Petrology, structure and genesis of the asbestos-bearing ultramafic rocks of the Belvidere Mountain area in Vermont: U.S. Geologic Survey Professional Paper 1016
    • Windham Co.
      • Newfane
Rocks & Min. Vol. 71, (1996)
Zimbabwe
 
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
  • Matabeleland South
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
    • Mweza Range (Wedja)
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
  • Midlands
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
    • Zvishavane District
      • Zvishavane (Shabani; Shabanie; Shavani)
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
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