Mindat Logo

Clinochrysotile

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.



System:MonoclinicColour:Pale green to white, ...
Hardness:2½ - 3
Member of:Kaolinite-Serpentine Group
Name:Named in 1843 by Franz von Kobell from the Greek chrysos - "gold" and tilos - "fiber." Re-named clinochrysotile by Eric James William Whittaker in 1951. This is by far the most common chrystotile structure and the most common commercial asbestos mineral. Chrysotile was reinstated as the species name of the chrysotile polytypes in 2006.
A polytype of Chrysotile

Clinochrysotile represents the monoclinic or triclinic polymorphs of chrysotile.
Whereas chrysotile (asbestos) has been known since ancient times from many localities, specimens from the Bell mine, one of the oldest mines in the Thetford Mines area (in operation since 1877), have been the subjects of most of the early structural studies, from which the chrysotile nomenclature was defined. These investigations identified monoclinic (Warren & Bragg 1930), and triclinic (Padurow 1950, Whittaker 1956a) polymorphs from the Bell mine, which should be considered the type locality. Clinochrysotile is no longer a valid species (Burke 2006).

Classification of Clinochrysotile

IMA status:Redefined Approved 2006
Explanation of status:Polytype of chrysotile.
Dana 8th edition ID:71.1.2d.1

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
1 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.4.5

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
4 : Silicates of Mg
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-1071.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Clinochrysotile

Type Locality:Bell mine, Thetford Mines, Les Appalaches RCM, Chaudière-Appalaches, Québec, Canada
General Appearance of Type Material:Virtually always fibrous.
Year of Discovery:1834
Geological Setting of type material:Common in veins in serpentinized rocks.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
TalcLizarditeAntigorite

Physical Properties of Clinochrysotile

Lustre:Resinous, Greasy, Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Pale green to white, also yellow to brown, light gray.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Flexible
Parting:Cylinders of chrysotile separate as fine flexible threads or fibers.
Fracture:Fibrous
Comment:Somewhat brittle
Density (measured):2.53-2.55 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.63 g/cm3

Crystallography of Clinochrysotile

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 5.3Å, b = 9.19Å, c = 14.63Å
β = 93°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.577 : 1 : 1.592
Unit Cell Volume:V 711.61 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Fibrous, although fine-grained clinochrysotile may be dense and homogeneous in appearance.
Comment:Settings include Cc and C2/m
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
7.1 (90)
4.60 (20)
4.40 (20)
4.07 (10)
3.55 (60)
2.65 (30)
2.39 (100)
2.001 (30)
Comments:21-1262 [Cc space group]

Optical Data of Clinochrysotile

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.545 - 1.569 nβ = 1.546 - 1.569 nγ = 1.553 - 1.571
2V:Measured: 20° to 60°
Birefringence:0.001-0.008
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.008

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:relatively weak
Optical Extinction:Inclined
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic
Comments:May be weakly pleochroic

Relationship of Clinochrysotile to other Species

Member of:Kaolinite-Serpentine Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Amesite
Mg
 
2
Al(AlSiO
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Antigorite
Mg
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Baumite
(Mg,Al,Mn,Zn,Fe)
 
3
(Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
5
(OH)
 
4
Berthierine
(Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,AlMg)
 
2-3
((Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Brindleyite
(Ni,Al)
 
3
(Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
5
(OH)
 
4
Caryopilite
(Mn,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Chrysotile
Mg
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Cronstedtite
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
 
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Dickite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Fraipontite
(Zn,Al)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Greenalite
Fe
 
2-3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Halloysite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Kaolinite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Kellyite
Mn
2+
2
Al(AlSiO
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Lizardite
Mg
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Manandonite
Li
 
2
Al
 
4
(Si
 
2
AlB)O
 
10
(OH)
 
8
Nacrite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Népouite
(Ni,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Odinite
(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)
 
2.4
((Si,Al)
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Orthochrysotile
Parachrysotile
Pecoraite
Ni
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.4.1Forsterite
Mg
 
2
SiO
 
4
14.4.2Enstatite
MgSiO
 
3
14.4.3Clinoenstatite
MgSiO
 
3
14.4.4Chrysotile
Mg
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
14.4.6Orthochrysotile
14.4.7Parachrysotile
14.4.8Lizardite
Mg
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
14.4.9Talc
Mg
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
14.4.10Spadaite
MgSiO
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O (?)
14.4.11Sepiolite
Mg
 
4
(Si
 
6
O
 
15
)(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
14.4.12Loughlinite
Na
 
2
Mg
 
3
Si
 
6
O
 
16
· 8H
 
2
O
14.4.13Eifelite
KNa
 
3
Mg
 
4
Si
 
12
O
 
30
14.4.14Stevensite
(Ca,Na)
 
x
Mg
 
3-x
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
14.4.15Antigorite
Mg
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
14.4.16 Magnesio-anthophyllite

Other Names for Clinochrysotile

Synonyms:
KlinochrysotilSchweizerite
Other Languages:
German:Clinochrysotil

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Health Warning:Safe when in large chunks or fragments. Fine particles which can be airborne should be avoided. Low level frequent dust exposure may cause lung cancer.

References for Clinochrysotile

Reference List:

- +
WARREN, B.E. & BRAGG, W.L. (1930): The structure of chrysotile, H4Mg3Si2O9. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie 76, 201-210.
PADUROW, N.N. (1950): Über die Strukturzelle von Chrysotilasbest. Acta Crystallographica 3, 204-208.
WHITTAKER, E.J.W. (1956): The structure of chrysotile. II. Clinochrysotile. Acta Crystallographica 9, 855-862.
WHITTAKER, E.J.W. & ZUSSMAN, J. (1956): The characterization of serpentine minerals by X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical Magazine 31, 107-126.
Burke, E.A.J. (2006) A mass discreditation of GQN minerals.Canadian Mineralogist 44 (2006), 1557

Internet Links for Clinochrysotile

Search Engines:
  • Look for Clinochrysotile on Google
  • Look for Clinochrysotile images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Clinochrysotile details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • Buy from Dave Bunk Minerals
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Clinochrysotile specimens
  • Clinochrysotile specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Search for Clinochrysotile on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Buy minerals from YourMineralCollection
  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • Find Clinochrysotile on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Localities for Clinochrysotile

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Victoria
      • Phillip Island
        • Kitty Miller Bay
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Hohe Tauern
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
        • Goldberg group
          • Kleine Fleiß valley
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
      • Karawanken
        • Bad Eisenkappel (Bad Eisenkappl)
          • Ebriach
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Salzburg
      • Radstädter Tauern
        • Großarl valley
          • Großarl
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Styria
      • Frohnleiten
        • Kirchdorf
    Kolitsch, U. et al. (2008)
      • Leoben
        • St Stefan ob Leoben
    Schantl (1975)
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
      • Thompson Nickel Belt
        • Ospwagan Lake & Paint Lake area
    Canadian Mineraloglst Vol. 14, pp. 307-313 (1976)
    • Ontario
      • Cochrane District
        • Timmins area
          • Porcupine Mining District
            • Deloro Township
    Van King
    • Québec
      • Chaudière-Appalaches
        • Les Appalaches RCM
          • Thetford Mines
    WARREN, B.E. & BRAGG, W.L. (1930): The structure of chrysotile, H4Mg3Si2O9. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie 76, 201-210. PADUROW, N.N. (1950): Über die Strukturzelle von Chrysotilasbest. Acta Crystallographica 3, 204-208. WHITTAKER, E.J.W. (1956): The structure of chrysotile. II. Clinochrysotile. Acta Crystallographica 9, 855-862.
            • Black Lake
    Taner, M. F. and Laurent, R., 1984, Iron-rich Amesite from the Lake Asbestos Mine, Black Lake, Quebec, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 22, p. 437-442
    France
     
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Tarn-et-Garonne
        • Orgueil
    David J. Barber (1985). Phyllosilicates and other layer-structured materials in stony meteorites. Clay Minerals 20, 415-454 (1985).
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Hautes-Alpes
        • Chateau-Ville-Vieille
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Lahr
          • Reichenbach
            • Schuttertal
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Todtmoos
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
    • Saxony
      • Glauchau
        • Callenberg
    XRD analysis (T. Witzke)
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Aggteleki Mtns
    Koch: Minerals of Hungary
    Italy
     
    • Aosta Valley
      • Nus
        • Saint-Barthélemy
    • Barresi, A.A., Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R., Bonacina, E. (2005): La miniera di manganese di Varenche (Aosta, Italia nord-occidentale): ardennite, arseniopleite, manganberzeliite, pirofanite, sarkinite, thortveitite, nuovo As-Sc-analogo della metavariscite e altre specie. Micro (località), 2/2005, 81-122.
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Ne
    [MinRec 32:360]
    Redazionale (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia del Ferrania Club, 19 , 3-5.
            • Reppia
    Redazione (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia Ferrania Club, 19, 3-5.
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
        • Valtellina
          • Malenco Valley
            • Lanterna Valley
              • Lanzada
                • Vallone del Cengiaccio (Cengiaccio; Cengiàsc; Cengiasco)
    Van King
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Trento Province
        • Fiemme Valley
    Collection of NHM, Vienna
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Hidaka Province
        • Saru-gun
          • Biratori
    H. Okada (1964) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 23-38.
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku Region
        • Yamaguchi Prefecture
          • Iwakuni City
            • Nishiki-cho
    Motoiki Saito (1973) Some serpentine minerals occurring in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, series C, 7, 21-36.
              • Mitake
    Motoiki Saito (1973) Some serpentine minerals occurring in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, series C, 7, 21-36.
    Namibia
     
    • Erongo Region
      • Karibib District
        • Okongava Ost Farm 72
    - Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 411 pp. (in English)
    • Karas Region
      • Karasburg District
        • Warmbad
    Lapis 25(2), 39-41 (2000)
    Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 386 pp. (in English)
    New Caledonia
     
    • Southern Province
      • Mont-Dore Commune
    Cédrick Gineste
    Norway
     
    • Rogaland
      • Gjesdal
        • Moi
    Andresen, Peter (1990): Fra Steinrøysa. STEIN 17 (4),36
    • Sør-Trøndelag
      • Oppdal
    Witsø, T. (1995): Mineraler i Oppdal med beskrivelse. Driva Kro og Steinsenter. Unpublished paper. http://vinstradalen.no/pdf/Mineraler.pdf
    Witsø, T. (1995): Mineraler i Oppdal med beskrivelse. Driva Kro og steinsenter. Unpublished paper
        • Vinstradalen
    Witsø, T. (2005): Mineraler i Vinstradalen, Oppdal. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 72-73
    • Telemark
      • Bamble (Bamle)
    Neumann, H. (ed)(1960): Mineral occurences in southern Norway. Guide to excursions no. A.15 and no. C.12. International Geological Congress XXI Session Norden 1960, Oslo. 18p
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Ząbkowice District
    Rev. Min. 19 (1988), 91; HB2/1 (1995); Canadian Mineralogist 44 (2006), 1557
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
    Ďuďa R.,Kotuľak P., Káňa R., 1993: Bergbau und Mineralien von Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz), Slowakei. Emser Hefte, 14, 3, 1-70, Haltern
    • Košice Region
      • Rožňava Co.
    Pauliš P., Ďuďa R., 2002:Nejznámejší mineralogická nalezište Slovenska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 136p
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Ehlanzeni District
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Hotazel
    Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
    Swaziland
     
    • Hhohho District
      • Bulembu (Havelock)
    Van King; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:679-691
    Sweden
     
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
    Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
        • Persberg district
    Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
    Östra Värmlands Mineral Society,Långban,Sweden
          • Pajsberg
    Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
    Switzerland
     
    • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
      • Albula Valley
        • Landwasser Valley
          • Davos
            • Wolfgang
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 114-115.
        • Oberhalbstein (Surses; Sursass)
          • Marmorera lake
    Volker Dietrich (1972) Die sulfidischen Vererzungen in den Oberhalbsteiner Serpentiniten. Beitrage zur Geologie der Schweiz. Geotechnische Serie 49.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Zermatt - Saas Fee area
        • Matt Valley
          • Zermatt
            • Findel glacier (Findeln glacier; Findelen glacier) area
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 87
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
            • Bisbee
              • Queen Hill
                • Copper Queen Mine (Halero Mine)
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 177.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 381.
      • Gila Co.
        • Fort Apache Indian Reservation
    Van King
    Van King
        • Salt River District
          • Salt River
            • Mule Hoof Bend (Oxbow Bend)
    Van King
      • Graham Co.
        • Aravaipa District
          • Santa Teresa Mts
            • Aravaipa
              • Landsman Camp (Landsman group)
    Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 4.
    • California
      • Fresno Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • New Idria District
            • Condon Peak
    Rice, S.J. (1966) Asbestos: uses and economic importance. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 191: 86-92; Page, N.J. and Coleman, R.G. (1967) Serpentine mineral analyses and physical properties. USGS Professional Paper 575-B: 103-107; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 64, 422.
            • Wright Mountain
    Page, N.J. and Coleman, R.G. (1967) Serpentine mineral analyses and physical properties. USGS Professional Paper 575-B: 104; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 143, 422.
    Montoya, J.W. & Gretta S. Baur (1963), Nickeliferous serpentines, chlorites, and related minerals found in two lateritic ores: American Mineralogist: 48: 1227, 1228.
      • Inyo Co.
        • Darwin Hills
    MinRec 15:5
      • San Francisco Co.
    Schlocker, J. (1974) Geology of the San Francisco North quadrangle. USGS Professional Paper 782, 109 pp.: 58; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 424.
    • Maine
      • Aroostook Co.
        • Mapleton
    Boucot, Arthur J., Field, Michael T., Fletcher, Raymond, Forbes, William H., Naylor, Richard S., and Pavlides, Louis (1964) Reconnaissance Bedrock Geology of the Presque Isle Quadrangle, Maine, Quadrangle Mapping Series 2, Department of Economic Development, Augusta, Maine, pp 123 + plate.
        • TD R2 WELS
    Pavlides, Louis and Milton, Charles, 1962, Geology and Manganese Deposits of the Maple and Hovey Mountains Area, Aroostook County, Maine, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 362, pp. 116 + plates.
      • Franklin Co.
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, Vo. 1.
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/downloads/asbestos_sites.xls.
      • Hancock Co.
        • Deer Isle
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1.
    • Michigan
      • Baraga Co.
        • Alberta
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson; Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Nevada
      • Lyon Co.
        • Yerington District
          • Artesia Lake
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Nye Co.
        • Gabbs District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • White Pine Co.
        • Currant District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Jersey
      • Morris Co.
    Van King
    Weber, J. and Greer, R., 1965, Dehydration of Serpentine, American Mineralogist, v 50,p 450-464.
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
    Aristarain, et al: Am. Min.:59:66-70 (1974); Foshag, W.F.: Am. Min.:11:38-39 (1926); Dunn(1995):Pt4:485.
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Francis, C.A.: The Picking Table:31(2):4-6 (1990); Dunn(1995):Pt4:485.
    • New York
    John H. Betts (2009) "The minerals of New York City", Rocks & Minerals, 84, 204-240.
    • Pennsylvania
      • Lebanon Co.
        • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
    Weber, J. and Greer, R., 1965, Dehydration of Serpentine, American Mineralogist, v 50,p 450-464.
    • Rhode Island
      • Providence Co.
        • Johnston
    Michael W. Kieron coll.; Rocks & Minerals (1986) 61:264-275
        • Lincoln
          • Lime Rock
    No reference listed
    • Vermont
      • Orleans & Lamoille Cos.
        • Lowell & Eden
    Chidester, A.H., Albee, A.L., and Cady, W.M., (1978). Petrology, structure and genesis of the asbestos-bearing ultramafic rocks of the Belvidere Mountain area in Vermont: U.S. Geologic Survey Professional Paper 1016
      • Windham Co.
        • Newfane
    Rocks & Min. Vol. 71, (1996)
    Zimbabwe
     
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
    • Matabeleland South
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
      • Mweza Range (Wedja)
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
    • Midlands
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
      • Zvishavane District
        • Zvishavane (Shabani; Shabanie; Shavani)
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: August 20, 2014 09:21:50
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds