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Clinohumite

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Formula:
Mg9(SiO4)4F2
System:
Monoclinic
Hardness:
6
Name:
Named in 1876 Alfred Lewis Oliver Legrand Des Cloizeaux in allusion to its monoclinic crystal structure and relationship to humite, which was named after Sir Abraham Hume [February 20, 1749 London, england, UK – March 24, 1838 Wormley Bury. England. UK], English connoisseur and collector of gems, minerals, and artwork.
Humite Group.

Fluorine analogue of Hydroxylclinohumite.

May be confused with chondrodite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Clinohumite.

Classification of Clinohumite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.AF.55

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination
52.3.2d.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
17.1.12

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
1 : Silicates with fluoride (not containing Al)
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Type Occurrence of Clinohumite

Year of Discovery:
1876

Physical Properties of Clinohumite

Hardness (Mohs):
6

Crystallography of Clinohumite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.71Å, b = 4.75Å, c = 10.29Å
β = 100.83°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.886 : 1 : 2.166
Unit Cell Volume:
V 658.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystallographic forms of Clinohumite

Crystal Atlas:
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Clinohumite no.27 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Clinohumite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.623 - 1.702 nβ = 1.636 - 1.709 nγ = 1.651 - 1.728
2V:
Measured: 52° to 90°, Calculated: 64° to 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.028
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
weak

Chemical Properties of Clinohumite

Formula:
Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ti,Al,Mn,Ca,(OH)

Relationship of Clinohumite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2
HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2
NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
9.AF.05SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
9.AF.10AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
9.AF.10KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)O
9.AF.15KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
9.AF.20MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
9.AF.20Krieselite(Al,Ga)2(GeO4)(OH)2
9.AF.23BoromulliteAl9BSi2O19
9.AF.25YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)
9.AF.30MagnesiostauroliteMg(Mg,Li)3(Al,Mg)18Si8O44(OH)4
9.AF.30StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
9.AF.30ZincostauroliteZn2Al9Si4O23(OH)
9.AF.35TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
9.AF.40NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
9.AF.45AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
9.AF.45Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
9.AF.45ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2
9.AF.45KumtyubeiteCa5(SiO4)2F2
9.AF.45HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2
9.AF.50Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
9.AF.50Manganhumite(Mn2+,Mg)7(SiO4)3(OH)2
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)Ca7(SiO4)4F2
9.AF.55SonoliteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH,F)2
9.AF.55HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2
9.AF.60LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
9.AF.65Ribbeite(Mn2+,Mg)5(SiO4)2(OH)2
9.AF.70JerrygibbsiteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH)2
9.AF.75FranciscaniteMn62+(V5+,☐)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6
9.AF.75ÖrebroiteMn32+(Sb5+,Fe3+)(SiO4)(O,OH)3
9.AF.75WeliniteMn62+(W6+,Mg)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6
9.AF.80EllenbergeriteMg6(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)2(Al,Mg)6Si8O28(OH)10
9.AF.85Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
9.AF.85MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2
9.AF.85Ottrélite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
9.AF.90PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
9.AF.90OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
17.1.1HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
17.1.3AgrelliteNaCa2Si4O10F
17.1.4Fluorapophyllite-(Na)NaCa4(Si8O20)F · 8H2O
17.1.5Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
17.1.6Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
17.1.7HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2
17.1.8LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6F
17.1.9NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
17.1.10Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
17.1.11Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
17.1.13CanasiteK2Na4Ca5(Si12O30(OH,F)4
17.1.14Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2O
17.1.15CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
17.1.16BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
17.1.17ZeophylliteCa13(Si10O28)F10 · 6H2O
17.1.18Rowlandite-(Y)(Y,Ce)4Fe2+(Si2O7)2F2 (?)
17.1.19Yuksporite(K,Ba)NaCa2(Si,Ti)4O11(F,OH) · H2O
17.1.20Yftisite-(Y)(Y,Dy,Er)4(Ti,Sn)(SiO4)2O(F,OH)6
17.1.21Mosandrite(◻,Ca,Na)3(Ca,REE)4Ti(Si2O7)2[H2O,OH,F]4 · H2O
17.1.22Hiortdahlite(Ca,Na)3(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2
17.1.23BurpaliteNa2CaZr(Si2O7)F2
17.1.24SeidozeriteNa8Mn22+Zr3Ti3(Si2O7)4O4F4
17.1.25ThorosteenstrupineCaMnThSi4O11(OH)F · 6H2O
17.1.26Zircophyllite(K,Na)3(Mn,Fe2+)7(Zr,Ti)2Si8O24(O,OH,F)7
17.1.27JinshajiangiteBaNaFe42+Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F
17.1.28Rosenbuschite(Ca,Na)3(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)OF
17.1.29NarsarsukiteNa4(Ti,Fe)2[Si8O20](O,OH,F)2
17.1.30SonoliteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH,F)2

Other Names for Clinohumite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:斜硅镁石
Spanish:Clinohumita
Traditional Chinese:斜矽鎂石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Clinohumite

Reference List:
American Mineralogist (1973): 58: 43-49.

V.M. Gekimyants, E.V. Sokolova, E.M. Spiridonov, G. Ferraris, N.V. Chukanov, M. Prencipe, V.N. Avdonin, Yu.A. Polenov (1999): Hydroxylclinohumite Mg9(SiO4)4(OH,F)2 - a new mineral of the humite group. Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1999): 128(5): 64-70.

FERRARIS, G., PRENCIPE, M., SOKOLOVA, E.V., GEKIMYANTS, V.M., SPIRIDONOV, E.M. (2000): Hydroxylclinohumite, a new member of the humite group: Twinning, crystal structure and crystal chemistry of the clinohumite subgroup. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 215, 169-173.

Langer, K., Platonov, A.N., Matsyuk, S.S., and Wildner, M. (2002) The crystal chemistry of the humite minerals Fe 2+ - Ti 4+ charge transfer and structural allocation of Ti 4+ in chondrodite and clinohumite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 14: 1027-1032.

Internet Links for Clinohumite

Specimens:
The following Clinohumite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Clinohumite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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