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Silica

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Not really a true synonym, silica can mean many things, but in mineralogy it is the suite of species comprised of SiO2 (e.g. see chalcedony, opal etc.).

Classification of Silica

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Other Names for Silica

Varieties:
Float-stone

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Silica

Reference List:

- +
Sosman, R.B. (1927) The Properties of Silica. 856 pp., New York.

Rogers, Austin Flint (1928), Natural history of the silica minerals: American Mineralogist: 13: 73-92;

Cartz, L. (1964) An X-ray diffraction study of the structure of silica glass. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 120: 241-260.

Robinson, H.A. (1965) On the structure of vitreous SiO2. I. A new pentagonal dodecahedral model. Journal Phys. Chem. Solids: 26: 209-222.

Henninger, E.H., Buschert, R.C., and Heaton, L. (1967) Atomic structure and correlation in vitreous silica by x-ray and neutron diffraction. Journal Phys. Chem. Solids: 28: 423-432.

Hicks, J.F.G. (1967) Structure of silica glass. Scence: 155: 459-461.

Kushiro, I. (1969), The system forsterite-diopside-silica with and without water at high pressures: American Journal of Science: 267: 269-294.

Mozzi, R.L. and Warren, B.E (1969) The structure of vitreous silica. Journalm of Applied Crystallography: 2: 164-172.

Bell, R.J. and Dean, P. (1972) The structure of vitreous silica: validity of the random network theory. Phil. Magazine: 25: 1381-1398.

Konnert, J.H. and Karle, J. (1972) Tridymite-like structure in silica glass. Nature Phys. Sci.: 236: 92-94.

Narten, A.H. (1972) Diffraction pattern and structure of non-crystalline BeF2 and SiO2 at 25°C. Journal Chem. Phys.: 56: 1905-1909.

Konnert, J.H. and Karle, J. (1973a) Crystalline ordering in silica and germania glasses. Science: 179: 177-179.

Konnert, J.H., Ferguson, G.A., and Karle, J. (1974) Structure of silica glass: rebuttal. Science: 184: 93.

Da Silva, J.R.G.D., Pinatti, D.G., Anderson, C.E., and Rudee, M.L. (1975) A refinement of the structure of vitreous silica. Phil. Magazine: 31: 713-717.

Yip, K.L. and Fowler, W.B. (1975) Electronic structure of E1' centers in SiO2. Physics Review B: B11: 2327-2338.

Gaskell, P.H. and Tarrant, I.D. (1980) Refinement of a random network model for vitreous silicon dioxide. Phil. Magazine: B42: 265-286.

Herms, G. and Steil, H. (1980) The pentagonal dodecahedral model of vitreous silica and its compatibility with diffraction experiments. Krist. Tech.-Cryst. Res. Tech.: 15: 879-884.

Konnert, J.H., D'Antonio, P., and Karle, J. (1982) Comparison of radial distribution function for silica glass with those for various bonding topologies: use of correlation function. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 53: 135-141.

Richet, P., Bottinga, Y., Deniélou, L., Petitet, J.P., and Téqui, C. (1982) Thermodynamic properties of quartz, cristobalite, and amorphous SiO2: drop calorimetry measurements between 1000 and 1800 K and a review from 0 to 2000 K. Geochimica et Cosmochmica Acta: 46: 2639-2658.

Jani, M.G., Bossoli, R.B., and Halliburton, L.E. (1983) Further characterization of the E1' center in crystalline SiO2. Physics Review: B 27: 2285-2293.

Johnson, P.A.V., Wright, A.C., and Sinclair, R.N. (1983) Neutron scattering from vitreous silica. II. Twin-axis diffraction experiments. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: 58: 109-130.

Smith, J.V. and Blackwell, C.S. (1983) Nuclear magnetic resonance of silica polymorphs. Nature: 303: 223-225.

Dupree, E. and Pettifer, R.F. (1984) Determination of the Si-O-Si angle distribution in vitreous silica by magic angle spinning NMR. Nature: 308: 523-525.

Coombs, P.G., De Natale, J.F., Hood, P.J., McElfresh, D.K., Wortman, R.S., and Shackelford, J.F. (1985) The nature of the Si-O-Si bond angle distribution in vitreous silica. Phil. Magazine: B51: L39-L42.

Gupta, R.P. (1985) Electronic structure of crystalline and amorphous silicon dioxide. Physical Review: B32: 8278-8292.

Galeener, F.L. and Wright, A.C. (1986) The J.C. Phillips model for vitreous SiO2: a critical appraisal. Solid State Commun.: 57: 677-682.

Gerber, T. and Himmel, B. (1986) The structure of silica glass. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: 83: 324-334.

Goodman, C.H.L. (1986) The structure of silica glass and its surface. Phys. Chem. Glasses: 27: 27-31.

Kusabiraki, K. (1987) Infrared and Raman spectra of vitreous silica and sodium silicates containing titanium. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: 95-96: 411-418.

Galeener, F.L. (1988) Current models for amorphous SiO2. In: The Physics and Technology of Amorphous SiO* (R.A.B. Devine, ed.) Plenum Press, New York, NY.

Griscom, D.L. (1989) Self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide. Physics review: B 40: 4224-4228.

Gladden, L.F. (1990b) Medium-range order in v-SiO2. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: 119: 318-330.

Guttman, L. (1990) Ring structure of the crystalline and amorphous forms of silicon dioxide. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: 116: 154-147.

Marians, C.S. and Burdett, J.K. (1990) Geometric constraints: a refined model for the structure of silica glass. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: 124: 1-21.

Marians, C.S. and Hobbs, L.W. (1990) Local structure of silica glasses. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: 119: 269-282.

Young-nian, X. and Ching, W.Y. (1991) Electronic and optical properties of all polymorphic forms of silicon dioxide. Physical review: B44: 11048-11059.

Leko, V.K. (1993) The structure of vitreous silica. Glass Phys. Chem.: 19: 351-374.

Li, D., Bancroft, G.M., Kasrai, M., Fleet, M.E., Secco, R.A., Feng,X.H., Tan, K.H., and Yang, B.X. (1994): X-ray absorption spectroscopy of silicon dioxide (SiO2) polymorphs: the structural characterization of opal. American Mineralogist: 79: 622-632.

Wright, A.C. (1994) Neutron scatterng from vitreous silica. V. The structure of vitreous silica: what have we learned from 60 years of diffraction studies? Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: 179: 84-115.

Di Pomponio, A., Continenza, Lozzi, A.A., Passacantando, L., Santucci, M., and Picozzi, P. (1995) Electronic properties of crystalline and amorphous SiO2 investigated via all-electron calculations and photoemission spectroscopy. Solid State Communications: 95: 313-317.

LeBail, A. (1995) Modelling the silica glass structure by the Rietveld method. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: 183: 39-42.

Gaskell, P.H. and Wallis, D.J. (1996) Medum-range order in silica, the canonical network glass. Phys. Rev. Lett.: 76: 66-69.

MAuri, F., Pasquarello, A., Pfrommr, BG., Yoon, Y.-G., and Louie, S.G. (2000) Si-O-Si bond-angle distribution in vitreous silica from first principles 29Si NMR analysis. Phys. Rev.: B62: R4786-R4789.

Nakamura, M., Arai, M., Otomo, T., Inamura, Y., and Bennington, S.M. (2001) Dispersive excitation in different forms of SiO2 Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: 293-295: 377-382.

Nakamura, M., Arai, M., Inamura, Y., and Otomo, T. (2003) Dynamical properties of vitreous silica around the first sharp diffraction peak. Phys. Rev.: B67: 064204.

Clark, T.M., Grandinetti, P.J., Florian, P., and Stebbins, J.F. (2004) Correlated structural distributions in silica glass. Phys. Rev.: B70: 064202.

Tucker, M.G., Keen, D.A., Dove, M.T., and Trachenko, K. (2005) Refinement of the Si-O-Si angle distribution in vitreous silica. Journal Phys. Condens. Matter: 17: S67-S75.

Uchino, T., Harrop, J.D., Taraskin, S.N., and Elliott, S.R. (2005) Real and reciprocal space structural correlations contributing to the first sharp diffraction peak in silica glass. Phys. Rev.: B71: 014202.

Internet Links for Silica

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  • Localities for Silica

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
     
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • Victoria Land
        • Allan Hills
    Michael K. Weisberg, Marty Prinz & Cherukupalli E. Nehru (1988). ALH85085: A Unique Unequilibrated Chondrite. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, vol. 19, p. 1257.
    Argentina
     
    • Jujuy
      • Tumbaya Department
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
        • Salinas Grandes
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Kennedy Co.
        • Fifield
    Narromine 1:250 000 Mine Data Sheets
    Narromine 1:250 000 Mine Data Sheets
    Crane, M.J., Sharpe, J.L., and Williams, P.A. (2001): Records of the Australian Museum 53, 49-56.
    Crane, M.J., Sharpe, J.L., and Williams, P.A. (2001): Records of the Australian Museum 53, 49-56.
      • Narromine Co.
        • Tomingley
    Narromine 1:250 000 Mine Data Sheets
    • Western Australia
      • East Pilbara Shire
        • Marble Bar
    Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V.(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
      • Leonora Shire
        • Mount Margaret Goldfield
    Murrin Murrin Nickel Laterite Deposit, WA; M.A. Wells, CSIRO Exploration and Mining; CRC LEME 2003
      • Perenjori Shire
        • Karara Conservation Reserve
    Fred Rose (employee of drilling company during exploration and original owner of 50 specimens collected from this time); Western Australian Museum (some specimens have been tested and ID by the musuem)
      • Upper Gascoyne Shire
        • Yinnietharra (Yinnietharra Station; Yinnetharra)
    Moolooite, a Naturally Occurring Hydrated Copper Oxalate; R.M. Clarke and I.R. Williams; Mineralogical Magazine, June 1986, Vol 50, pp 295-298
      • Yilgarn Shire
        • Koolyanobbing
    Mount Dimer Gold Deposit, Marda Greenstone Belt, Western Australia; DJ Jackson; CRCLEME CSIRO Exploration and Mining, 2003.
    Bolivia
     
    • Oruro Department
      • Cabrera Province
        • Salinas de Garci Mendoza
    USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 150 & 248 (1992)
    Chile
     
    • Atacama Region
      • Chañaral Province
        • Salitrosa-Porvenir district
    Sernageomin database 2006;Stgo de Chile
    Sernageomin database 2006;Stgo de Chile
        • Santa Rosa district
    Sernageomin database 2006;Stgo de Chile
    Sernageomin database 2006;Stgo de Chile
    India
     
    • Uttar Pradesh
    Lauretta, Dante S., Peter R. Buseck, and Thomas J. Zega (2001) Opaque minerals in the matrix of the Bishunpur (LL3.1) chondrite: constraints on the chondrule formation environment. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 65(8)(15 April 2001): 1337-1353.
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Iburi Province
    Africano & Bernard (2000), Jour. Volcanology & Geothermal Research: 97: 475-495.
    Morocco
     
    A. J. Irving, T. E. Bunch, Alan E. Rubin & John T. Wasson (2010). Northwest Africa 2828/Al Haggounia 001 is a Weathered, Unequilibrated EL Chondrite: Trace Element and Petrologic Evidence. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 45, p. A90. [Supplement]
    Nicaragua
     
    • Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte (Zelaya Norte Department)
      • Siuna
    Venable, M. E. (1994). A geologic, tectonic and metallogenic evaluation of the Siuna terrane. PhD thesis. University of Arizona.
    Pacific Ocean
     
    • East Pacific Rise
      • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
    Geological Survey of Canada contribution number 1998185, abstract.
    Pakistan
     
    • Sindh
    Deon Van Niekerk & Klaus Keil (2011). Metal/sulfide–silicate intergrowth textures in EL3 meteorites: Origin by impact melting on the EL parent body. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46, #10, 1484-1497.
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Granada
    Bunch, T.E., Keil, K., and Olsen, E. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 25, 297-340.
    Sudan
     
    • Nar an Nil
    Michael Zolensky et al. (2010). Mineralogy and Petrography of the Almahata Sitta ureilite, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45, #10-11, 1618-1637. (Oct/Nov 2010).
    The Moon
     
    • Mare Crisium
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
    UK
     
    • England
      • Somerset
        • Cranmore
    Turner R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2007) Merehead Mineralogy - an Update. Russell Soc Newsletter, No 50, pp 17-18 (March 2007)
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Nome Borough
        • Port Clarence District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10062115, MRDS ID #TC35372.
            • Warren
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10065038, MRDS ID #TC40028.
      • Gila Co.
        • San Carlos Indian Reservation
          • Bucket Mountain area
    Bromfield, C.S. and Shride, A.F. (1956) Mineral Resources of the San Carlos Indian Reservation, Arizona. USGS Bull. 1027-N: 637; MRDS database Dep. ID #10209410, MAS ID #0040070554.
      • Greenlee Co.
        • Shannon Mts
          • Copper Mountain District (Clifton-Morenci District)
    MRDS database Dep. ID #10183075, MAS ID #0040110164.
    MRDS database Dep. ID #10062118, MRDS ID #TC35375.
      • Pima Co.
        • Ajo District
          • Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range
            • Copper Valley claims (Way Out claims; Kerns claims; Old Organ Pipe Cactus claims)
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10065022, MRDS ID #TC40010.
          • Chico Shuni Hills
            • Chico Shuni
              • San Antonio group of claims
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10065019, MRDS ID #TC40006.
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10105305, MRDS ID #TC38988.
        • Baboquivari Mts
          • Baboquivari District
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10065039, MRDS ID #TC40029.
        • Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10065021, MRDS ID #TC40009.
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10105327, MRDS ID #TC40001.
        • Quijotoa Mts
          • Quijotoa District
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10105328, MRDS ID #TC40007.
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10065020, MRDS ID #TC40008.
    MRDS database Dep. ID file #10065016, MRDS ID #TC40003.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Santa Catalina Mts
          • Oracle District (Control District; Old Hat District; Santa Catalina District)
            • Biosphere 2 area
    MRDS database Dep. ID #10062119, MRDS ID #TC35377.
    • Arkansas
    Jay Ellis Ransom,1974, Gems and Minerals of America
    • California
      • Alameda Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • Livermore District (Tesla District)
            • Tesla
    Huey, Arthur Sidney (1948), Geology of the Tesla quadrangle, California California Division Mines Bulletin 140, 75 pp.: 61, Pl. 1; USGS MRDS database (2005), loc. file ID #10097001.
      • Amador Co.
        • Ione
    Mining World (1963) (March): 3.
      • Contra Costa Co.
        • Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve
          • Nortonville
    Davis, Fenelon Francis & J.W. Vernon (1951), Mines and mineral resources of Contra Costa County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology (Report 47): 47(4): 583-584; Davis, Fenelon Francis and H.B. Goldman (1958) Mines and mineral resources of Contra Costa County. California Journal of Mines and Geology: 54(4): 580.
    Bureau of Land Management Township Report (1963 & 1969) (7-29-63, & 3-7-69); USGS MRDS database (2005), loc. file ID #10076503.
          • Somersville
    McCulloch, W.C., Oesterling, W.A., Spurck, W.H., & Tischler, M.S. (1964), Minerals for Industry, Northern California, Southern Pacific Company: Vol. II: 71.
    Davis, Fenelon Francis and H.B. Goldman (1958) Mines and mineral resources of Contra Costa County. California Journal of Mines and Geology: 54(4): 582, Pl. 5.
        • Brentwood
    Davis, Fenelon Francis & J.W. Vernon (1951), Mines and mineral resources of Contra Costa County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology (Report 47): 47(4): 584; Davis, Fenelon Francis and H.B. Goldman (1958) Mines and mineral resources of Contra Costa County. California Journal of Mines and Geology: 54(4): 585, Pl. 5.
        • Byron
    MESA Report No. R-2, Identification NO04-01949,9-18-75; Phoenix, Arizona; USGS MRDS database (2005).
        • West Hartley
    Davis, Fenelon Francis & J.W. Vernon (1951), Mines and mineral resources of Contra Costa County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology (Report 47): 47(4): 581-582.
      • Los Angeles Co.
        • El Segundo
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): No. 277, p. 707.
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): No. 278, p. 707.
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): No. 279, p. 707; USGS MRDS database (2005).
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): No. 276, p. 706.
        • Gardena
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): No. 271, p. 705.
        • Lake Los Angeles
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): No. 285, p. 709; USGS MRDS database (2005).
        • Quartz Hill
          • Quartz Hill Ridge
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): No. 284, p. 709; USGS MRDS database (2005).
        • San Gabriel Mts
          • Acton District
            • Acton
    Sampson, Reid J. (1937), Mineral resources of Los Angeles County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Mining Bureau (Report 33): 33(3): 204; USGS MRDS database (2005).
    Sampson, Reid J. (1937), Mineral resources of Los Angeles County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Mining Bureau (Report 33): 33(3): 204; Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): 665.
              • Soledad Canyon
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): 709; USGS MRDS database (2005).
          • Glendora
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): 566-567, 708.
          • Kagel Canyon
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): 708.
          • Tujunga
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): No. 273, p. 705; USGS MRDS database (2005)
        • Sierra Pelona Mts (Sierra Pelona Range)
          • Green Valley
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): 708.
        • Torrance
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): 546-547.
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): No. 270, p. 705; USGS MRDS database (2005).
    Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 50): 50(3&4): No. 272, p. 705.
      • Monterey Co.
        • Del Monte Forest
    Hart, E.W. (1966) Mines and mineral resources of Monterey County, California. California Division Mines and Geology County Report 5, 142 pp.: No. 116, p. 136; USGS MRDS database (2005).
      • Plumas Co.
        • Chester
    David Adams, USGS.
      • San Diego Co.
        • Borrego Springs
    Weber, F.H., Jr. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California; California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3, 309 pp.: No. 412, p. 254.
        • Campo
    Weber, F.H., Jr. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California; California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3, 309 pp.: No. 254B, p. 216.
        • Cuyamaca
    Weber, F.H., Jr. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California; California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3, 309 pp.: 213.
        • Jacumba District
          • Jewell Valley
    Weber, F.H., Jr. (1963a) Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology County Report 3, 309 pp.: No. 346: 215; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 349.
        • Laguna Mts
          • Pine Valley
    Weber, F.H., Jr. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California; California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3, 309 pp.: No. 351, p. 216.
        • Lake Wohlford
    Weber, F.H., Jr. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California; California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3, 309 pp.: No. 344, p. 214.
        • Lakeside
    Weber, F.H., Jr. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California; California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3, 309 pp.: No. 342, p. 214.
        • Oceana
    Weber, F.H., Jr. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California; California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3, 309 pp.: 253-255.
        • Potrero
    Weber, F.H., Jr. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California; California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3, 309 pp.: 211.
    Weber, F.H., Jr. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California; California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3, 309 pp.: No. 352, p. 216.
      • Shasta Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • East Shasta Copper - Zinc District
            • O'Brien
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10232087.
      • Siskiyou Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • Condrey Mountain Roadless Area Review & Evaluation (Rare II) Area
            • Condrey Mountain
    McCulloch, W.C., Oesterling, W.A., Spurck, W.H., & Tischler, M.S. (1964), Minerals for Industry, Northern California, Southern Pacific Company: Vol. II: 187; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10141461.
          • Jackson Peak
    Trask, Parker Davies (1950) Geologic description of the manganese deposits of California. California Division of Mines Bulletin 152, 378 pp.: 278.
          • Klamath River District
            • Horse Creek
    McCulloch, W.C., Oesterling, W.A., Spurck, W.H., & Tischler, M.S. (1964), Minerals for Industry, Northern California, Southern Pacific Company: Vol. II: 187; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10239002.
            • Klamath River
    McCulloch, W.C., Oesterling, W.A., Spurck, W.H., & Tischler, M.S. (1964), Minerals for Industry, Northern California, Southern Pacific Company: Vol. II: 187; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10213534.
      • Stanislaus Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • Black Wonder District
            • Copper Mountain
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10165880.
        • Patterson
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10192320.
      • Trinity Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • Willow Creek District
            • Salyer
    USGS MRDS database (2005).
      • Yuba Co.
        • Hammonton District (Yuba River District; Yuba Gold Field; Yuba Dredge Field; Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields)
          • Hammonton
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10118930.
    • Kansas
      • Norton Co.
    Lionel Wilson & Klaus Keil (1991). Consequences of explosive eruptions on small solar system bodies - The case of the missing basalts on the aubrite parent body. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 104, no. 2-4, 505-512.
    • Utah
      • Salt Lake Co.
        • Wasatch Mts
          • Big Cottonwood District
            • Cottonwood Heights
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10088732.
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