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Colemanite

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Formula:
Ca[B
 
3
O
 
4
(OH)
 
3
] · H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, white, ...
Hardness:
Name:
After William Tell Coleman (1824-1893), a founder of the California borax industry and owner of the mine where the mineral was first found.


Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Colemanite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Colemanite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/J.03-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:6.CB.10

6 : BORATES
C : Triborates
B : Ino-triborates
Dana 8th edition ID:26.3.5.1

26 : HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
3 : Triborates
Hey's CIM Ref.:9.3.14

9 : Borates
3 : Borates of Ca and Sr
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Type Occurrence of Colemanite

Type Locality:Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area), Inyo Co., California, USA
Year of Discovery:1884

Occurrences of Colemanite

Geological Setting:Borate deposits formed in arid alkalai lacustrine environments.

Physical Properties of Colemanite

Lustre:Adamantine, Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless, white, yellowish, grey; colourless in transitted light
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:Perfect
On {010} perfect; on {001} distinct.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.423(5) g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.422 g/cm3

Crystallography of Colemanite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Space Group Setting:P21/a
Cell Parameters:a = 8.712(2) Å, b = 11.247(3) Å, c = 6.091(1) Å
β = 110.12°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.775 : 1 : 0.542
Unit Cell Volume:V 560.40 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals commonly short prismatic [001] with large (110), large to small (001) and complex terminations; pseudo-rhombohedral with large (110) and (301); pseudo-octahedral with large (221) and (011). Massive, cleavable to granular and compact.
Crystal Atlas:
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Colemanite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Colemanite no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Colemanite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.586 nβ = 1.592 nγ = 1.614
2V:Measured: 55° to 56°, Calculated: 56°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.028

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:relatively weak r > v

Chemical Properties of Colemanite

Formula:
Ca[B
 
3
O
 
4
(OH)
 
3
] · H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca[B3O4(OH)3]·H2O
Essential elements:B, Ca, H, O
All elements listed in formula:B, Ca, H, O

Relationship of Colemanite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
6.CB.15Hydroboracite
CaMg[B
 
3
O
 
4
(OH)
 
3
]
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
6.CB.20Howlite
Ca
 
2
B
 
5
SiO
 
9
(OH)
 
5
6.CB.25Jarandolite
Ca[B
 
3
O
 
4
(OH)
 
3
]
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
9.3.1Calciborite
Ca(B
 
2
O
 
4
)
9.3.2Sibirskite
Ca
 
2
(HB
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
9.3.3Fabianite
CaB
 
3
O
 
5
OH
9.3.4Uralborite
Ca
 
2
[B
 
3
O
 
3
(OH)
 
5
· OB(OH)
 
3
]
9.3.5Vimsite
CaB
 
2
O
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.3.6Olshanskyite
Ca
 
3
[B(OH)
 
4
]
 
4
(OH)
 
2
9.3.7Frolovite
Ca[B(OH)
 
4
]
 
2
9.3.8Korzhinskite
Ca(B
 
2
O
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
9.3.9Tyretskite
Ca
 
2
B
 
5
O
 
9
OH · H
 
2
O
9.3.10Nifontovite
Ca
 
3
B
 
6
O
 
6
(OH)
 
12
(H
 
2
O)
 
2
9.3.12Inyoite
Ca(H
 
4
B
 
3
O
 
7
)(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
9.3.13Gowerite
Ca[B
 
5
O
 
8
(OH)][B(OH)
 
3
] · 3H
 
2
O
9.3.15Pentahydroborite
CaB
 
2
O(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
9.3.16Hexahydroborite
Ca[B(OH)
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
9.3.17Meyerhofferite
Ca
 
2
(H
 
3
B
 
3
O
 
7
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.3.18Priceite
Ca
 
2
B
 
5
O
 
7
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
9.3.19Ginorite
Ca
 
2
B
 
14
O
 
23
· 8H
 
2
O
9.3.20Probertite
NaCaB
 
5
O
 
7
(OH)
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
9.3.21Ulexite
NaCa[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
6
] · 5H
 
2
O
9.3.22Hydroboracite
CaMg[B
 
3
O
 
4
(OH)
 
3
]
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
9.3.23Inderborite
CaMg(H
 
3
B
 
3
O
 
7
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
9.3.24Wardsmithite
Ca
 
5
Mg[B
 
4
O
 
7
]
 
6
· 30H
 
2
O
9.3.25Henmilite
Ca
 
2
Cu[B(OH)
 
4
]
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.3.26Strontioborite
SrB
 
8
O
 
11
(OH)
 
4
9.3.27Veatchite
Sr
 
2
B
 
11
O
 
16
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
9.3.28Veatchite-A
Sr
 
2
B
 
11
O
 
16
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
9.3.29 P-Veatchite
9.3.30 Balavinskite
Sr
 
2
B
 
6
O
 
11
· 4H
 
2
O
9.3.31Tunellite
SrB
 
6
O
 
9
(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
9.3.32Strontioginorite
(Sr,Ca)
 
2
B
 
14
O
 
23
· 8H
 
2
O

Other Names for Colemanite

Synonyms:
BorsparNeocolemanite
Other Languages:
French:Colémanite
German:Colemanit
Neocolemanit
Italian:Colemanite
Polish:Colemanit
Russian:Колеманит
Simplified Chinese:硬硼酸钙石
Spanish:Colemanita
Neocolemanita
Traditional Chinese:硬硼酸鈣石
Ukrainian:Колеманіт

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Bright pale yellow fluorescence, may phosphoresce pale green.
Electrical:Pyroelectric and piezoelectric at very low temperatures.
Other Information:Soluble in hot HCl, with the separation of boric acid upon cooling. Very slightly soluble in water (1 part in 1,100 at 20°-25°).
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Ore of boron.

References for Colemanite

Reference List:

- +
Neuschwander in Hanks (1883) Third Report of the State Mineralogist, California: 86.

Evans, J.T. (1884), Colemanite: Calif. Acad. Sci. Bull. 1: 57-59.

Jackson, A.W., Jr. (1884) On colemanite, a new borate of lime, Amer. Jour. Sci., 3rd. series: 28: 447-448.

Evans, J.T. (1885), The chemical properties and relations of colemanite: Calif. Acad. Sci. Bull. 1, No. 2: 37-42.

Hiortdahl, Th. (1885), Colemanit, ein krystallisirtes Kalkborat aus Californien: Vidensk, selsk. Christiania Forh., 1884, n o. 10, 8: pp., 1885 [also Zeitschr. Kristallographic, Band 10, pp. 25-31, 1885].

Jackson, A.W., Jr. (1885), On the morphology of colemanite, Calif. Acad. Sci., 1st. series, Bull. 2: 3-36.

Whitfield (1887) American Journal of Science: 34: 281.

Mülheims, A. (1888), Über eine neue Art der Axenwinkelmessung und über die Bestimmung von Brechungsexponenten nach der Methode der Totalreflexion – Colemanit von Californien: Zeitschr. Kristallogrphic, Band 14: 202-236.

Ley analysis in: Kraut (1897) Zs. Anal. Chem.: 36: 165.

Baumhauer (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 30: 97.

Eakle (1902) University of California Department of Geology, Bulletin 3: 31

Morgan and Tallmon (1904) Amerrican Journal of Science: 18: 363.

Eakle (1911) University of California, Department of Geology Bulletin 6: 179 (as Neocolemanite).

Hutchinson (1912) Mineralogical Magazine: 16: 239.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 2: 176.

Hicks in: Gale (1913) USGS Professional Paper 85A: 7.

McNairn (1917) Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute: 11: 231.

Rogers (1919) American Mineralogist: 4: 135.

Foshag (1921) Economic Geology: 16: 199.

Hintze, Carl (1922) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 180.

Van Arkel and Fritzius (1931) Recueil des travaux chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique, Leyden: 50: 1035.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848.

Boky (1937) Bull. ac. sc. U.R.S.S., Cl. sci. mat. nat., Ser. chim.: 871.

Godlevsky (1937) Mineralogicheskoe Obshchestvo, Leningrad, Zapiski: 66(2): 353.

Nikolsky (1940) C.r. ac. sc. U.R.S.S.: 28: 59;...Mineral Abstracts: 9: 44 (1944).

Dér (1941) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 103: 431.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 349-353.

Christ, C.L., J.R. Clark & H.T. Evans (1954), The structure of colemanite, CaB3O4(OH)3•H2O, determined by the direct method of Hauptman and Karle: Acta Crystallographica: 7: 453-454.

Schröder, Alfred & Wolfgang Hoffmann (1956), Zur optic des Colemanits: Neues del Jahr. Min.,: 265-271.

Christ, C.L., J.R. Clark & H.T. Evans (1958): The crystal structure of colemanite, CaB2O4(OH)3 • H2O: Acta. Cryst.: 11: 761-770.

Perloff, A. and Block, S. (1960) Low-temperature phase transition of colemanite. American Mineralogist: 45: 229.

Pemberton, H.E. (1973) Colemanite: type locality and describer. Mineralogical Record: 4: 272-274.

Canadian Mineralogist (1993): 31: 297-304.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 158.

Best Localities for Colemanite

Best of Species:Colemanite

Internet Links for Colemanite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Colemanite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Colemanite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
      • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    • Jujuy
      • Susques Department
        • Coranzuli
    Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
      • Tumbaya Department
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
    • Salta
    Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
      • Salar Del Hombre Muerto
      • Sijes
    www.sijes.com.ar
    www.sijes.com.ar
    Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
    Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates - Handbook of Deposits, Processing, Properties and Use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 475 pp.; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
    Galliski, M.A., Cooper, M.A., Márquez-Zavalía, M.F., and Hawthorne, F.C. (2010) Alfredstelznerite: a new calcium borate hydrate from Santa Rosa mine, Salta, northwestern Argentina. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 123-128; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
    www.sijes.com.ar
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Sud Lípez Province
    USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 254 (1992)
    Canada
     
    • New Brunswick
      • Kings Co.
        • Cardwell Parish
          • Penobsquis
    GRICE, J. L. (2005) Borate Minerals from the Penobsquis and Millstream Deposits of Southern New Brunswick, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 43, 1469-1487.
        • Hammond Parish
          • Salt Springs evaporite deposit
    BURNS, P.C., HAWTHORNE, F.C. & STIRLING, J.A.R. (1992): Trembathite, (Mg,Fe)3B7O13Cl, a new borate mineral from the Salt Springs potash deposit, Sussex, New Brunswick. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 445-448.
        • Studholm Parish
    Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1469-1487.
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Sámos Prefecture
        • Sámos Island
    Econ Geol (1989)84:788-798; Helvaci, C., Stamatakis, M. G., Zagouroglou, C., & Kanaris, J. (1993). Borate minerals and related authigenic silicates in northeastern Mediterranean Late Miocene continental basins. Exploration and Mining Geology, 2(2), 171-178.
    Iran
     
    • Zanjan Province
      • Dandy District
    M Nazari collection
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Mexico
     
    • Sonora
      • Mun. de Tubutama
        • La Salada
    Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates - Handbook of Deposits, Processing, Properties and Use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 475 pp.
    Serbia
     
    • Raška District
      • Raška
        • Jarandol Basin
          • Baljevac na Ibru
            • Bella Stena (Bela Stena)
    Econ Geol (1992) 87:2169-2174
    Econ Geol (1992) 87:2169-2174
    S. V. Malinko et al.: New Data on Minerals 39:26-31 (2004)
    Turkey
     
    • Aegean Region
      • Kütahya Province
        • Emet
          • Doğanlar village
    J. García-Veigas, L. Rosell, X. Alcobé, I. Subias, F. Ortí, I. Gündogan and C. Helvaci (2010) Fontarnauite, a New Sulphate-Borate Mineral from the Emet Borate District (Turkey). Macla 13, 97-98.
          • Emet Borate deposit
    J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. V (2003)
    American Mineralogist; April 1979; v. 64; no. 3-4; p. 362-366
    • Central Anatolia Region
      • Eskişehir Province
        • Kirka
    García-Veigas, J., & Helvacı, C. (2013). Mineralogy and sedimentology of the Miocene Göcenoluk borate deposit, Kırka district, western Anatolia, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 290, 85-96.
    CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/T%FCrkei/Eskisehir/Kirka/Sarikaya; Baysal, O. (1972) : A mineralogical study and genesis of Sarıkaya (Kırka) borate deposits. Hacettepe University, Ankara.
    • Marmara Region
      • Balikesir Province
        • Biga peninsula
        • Bigadiç
    CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
          • Çamköy
    Meixner, H. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 445-455.
    Meixner, H. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 445-455.
          • Faraşköy (Faraş)
    CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
          • Iskeleköy (Iskele)
    Meixner, H. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 445-455.
        • Susurluk
          • Sultançayırı (Sultan Tschair)
    CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.; Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
      • Bursa Province
        • Mustafa Kemalpafla
    Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Maricopa Co.
    Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
      • Yuma Co.
        • Gila Bend
    MRDS database Dep ID file #10092989, MRDS ID #RL10063.
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Amargosa Range
          • Black Mts
            • Monte Blanco
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 359; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1916b), Inyoite and meyerhofferite, two new calcium borates: USGS Bulletin 610: 35; Foshag, William Frederick (1924), The world’s biggest borax deposits (California and Nevada): Engineering & Mining Journal: 118: 420; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 264, 376.
            • Zabriskie Point
    Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min.Encylopaedia, p.133
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Amargosa Valley
    Countryman, R.L. (1977): Hydroboracite from the Amargosa desert, eastern California. Mineralogical Record 8, 503-504; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 240; www.mineralsocal.org.
    Reiner Mielke
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 45; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153-154.
          • Furnace Creek
    Evans, James R., G.C. Taylor, and J.S. Rapp (1976) Mines and mineral deposits in Death Valley National Monument. California Division Mines and Geology Special Report 125: 1-61; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 238, 254.
          • Mushroom Rock
    Jackson, Abraham Wendell, Jr. (1886), Mineralogical contributions: California Academy of Science, 1st. series, Bulletin 4: 358-374; […(abstract): Neues Jahrb., 1888: 179-181]: 358; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 46; Campbell, M.R. (1902), Reconnaissance of the borax deposits of Death Valley and Mojave Desert: USGS Bulletin 200, 23 pp.: 16; Engineering and Mining Journal (Engineering & Mining Journal) (1907), General mining news: 83: 781; Foshag, William Frederick (1924a), Famous mineral localities: Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 9: 8; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and A.C. Vlisidis (1970) Wardsmithite 5CaO • MgO •12B2O3 •30H2O, a new borate mineral from the Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 55: 351; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 290.
          • Furnace Creek Ranch
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 342.
          • Ryan
    Am Min (1931), 16:338-341
    Rogers, Austin Flint (1919a), Colemanite pseudomorphs after inyoite from Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 4: 135-139; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153.
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 246.
    Foshag, William Frederick (1931b), Probertite from Ryan, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 338-341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
    Mineralogical Record: 20(5): 387; Mineralogical Record: 27: 35-40.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Anonymous (1963), California Division of Mines and Geology, Mineral Information Service: California Mineral Production 1962: 16(1): 9; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154, 377; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246, 255.
    Rock Currier, Collected them in the mine.; Rock Currier
    Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1916b), Inyoite and meyerhofferite, two new calcium borates: USGS Bulletin 610: 35; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & A.C. Vlisidis (1961), Nobleite, another new hydrous calcium borate from the Death Valley region, California: American Mineralogist: 46: 560-571; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 228; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
    Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & H. Almond (1959), Gowerite, a new hydrous calcium borate from Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 44: 911-919; American Mineralogist: 55: 349-357; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375; www.mineralsocal.org.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 256.
            • Mouth of Corkscrew Canyon area
    Foshag, William Frederick (1939), New Mineral names – priceite: American Mineralogist: 24: 728; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295.
    Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and A.C. Vlisidis (1970) Wardsmithite 5CaO • MgO •12B2O3 •30H2O, a new borate mineral from the Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 55: 349-357.
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
    ; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Foshag, William Frederick (1931b), Probertite from Ryan, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 338-341; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295, 376; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
          • Travertine Point
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
          • Twenty Mule Team Canyon
    American Mineralogist (1979): 64(3-4): 369-375.; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
    Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & H. Almond (1959), Gowerite, a new hydrous calcium borate from Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 44: 911-919; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore, et al (1965), American Mineralogist: 65: 629-640.
    Am Min 64:3-4 pp 369-375; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
    McAllister, James Franklin (1961), Sborgite in the Furnace Creek area, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 129: 300-301; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 259.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Greenwater Range
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1978) Hydroboracite from the Furnace Creek formation. Mineralogical Record: 9: 246.
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10188167.
          • Ryon summit
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Resting Spring Range
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1926b), Note on a colemanite deposit near Shoshone, California, with a sketch of the geology of a part of Amargosa Valley: USGS Bulletin 785: 63; Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: 11; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 249.
        • Saratoga District (Tecopa Mountain District; Shoshone District ?)
          • Dublin Hills
            • Shoshone
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 63, 72; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153, 376.; Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: 11. Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153.
    Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: A-11; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295, 377.
      • Kern Co.
        • Kramer District
    www.mineralsocal.org
    Yale, Charles G. & Hoyt S. Gale (1913), Borax: Mineral Resources of the United States, 1912, part 2; Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1926a), Borate deposits in the Kramer district, Kern County, California: USGS Bulletin 785-C: 47; Christ, C.L. & R.M. Garrels (1959), Relations among sodium borate hydrates at the Kramer deposit, Boron, California: American Journal of Science: 257: 516; Bowser, C.J. & F.W. Dickson (1961), Chemical zonation of the borates of Kramer, California, In: J.L. Rau (ed.), Second Symposium on Salt: 1: 122-132, Northern Ohio Geological Society; Obert, L. and Long, A.E. (1962) Underground borate mining, Kern County, California. US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 6110, 67 pp.: 1-12; Bowser, C.J. (1965a), Geochemistry and petrology of the sodium borates in the non-marine evaporative environment: Unpublished Ph.. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 307 pp.: 9; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1930), Borate minerals from the Kramer district, Mohave Desert, California: USGS PP 158-I: 138; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 168 (photo 4-5), 249; Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Soc. of California, Montebello, CA): 34; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 102; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 147, 149, 151.
    Richard Dale Collection; Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 36, No. 2, 131-136, 1988.
      • Los Angeles Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
          • Tick Canyon
            • Tick Canyon Borate deposit
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 348; Rocks & Minerals: 11: 156.; Kramer, H.C. & R.D. Allen (1956), A restudy of bakerite, priceite, and veatchite, American Mineralogist: 41: 689-700; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1911), Neocolemanite, a variety of colemanite, and howlite from Lang, Los Angeles County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Science Bulletin: 6: 179; Hutchinson, A. (1912), On the identity of neocolemanite with colemanite: Mineralogical Magazine: 16: 239-246; Merrill, Frederick James Hamilton (1919), Los Angeles, Orange and Riverside Counties: California Mining Bureau Report 15: 480; Armstrong, V.L. & Edwin V. Van Anringe (1948), Tick Canyon field trip: reprinted from Grieger’s “Encyclopedia and Super-Catalog of the Lapidary and Jewelry Arts,” Pasadena; Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology: 50: 506-508; Oakeshott, Gordon Blaisdell (1958) Geology and mineral deposits of San Fernando quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California. California Division of Mines Bulletin 172, 147 pp.: 11-12; Masimer, G.E. (1966) Tick Canyon revisited. Gems and Minerals: 347: 22; Pemberton, H. Earl (1968) The minerals of the Sterling borax mine, Los Angeles County, California. Mineral Explorer 3, No. 1, 10 pp.: 4-5; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 250.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Amargosa River
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
        • Avawatz Mts (Avawatz Range)
          • Cave Spring
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 60; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 854; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
        • Barstow
          • Lead Mountain
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
        • Cady Mts
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Madsen, B.M. (1970) Core logs of three test holes in Cenozoic lake deposits near Hector, California. USGS Bulletin 1296, 43 pp.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 250.
        • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
          • Calico District (Daggett District)
            • Borate
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 418.
            • Daggett
    Eakle, Arthur Starr (1902), Colemanite from southern California: University of California, Department of Geological Science Bulletin: 3: 31-50; Erwin, H.D. & D.L. Gardner (1940), Notes on the geology of a portion of the Calico Mountains, San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division Mines (Report 36): 36: 264; Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 49): 49(1-2): 223-225; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 250.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
        • Death Valley National Park
          • Death Valley
            • Owlshead Mts
              • Owl Hole Springs
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
        • East Kramer District
          • Kramer
            • East Kramer Borate area (East Kramer Colemanite area)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Fort Irwin area
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Kramer-Four Corners area
    Am Min 49:543-555
        • Lone Star Range
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 774-899; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 27: 394]: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
        • Lone Willow Spring area
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 12; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
        • Owlshead Mts
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62, 102; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295.
        • San Bernardino Mts
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
        • Slate Range
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 63; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 856; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
    Collection of NHM, Vienna
      • Ventura Co.
        • San Emigdio Mts
          • Ojai
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
          • Sespe Frazier Roadless Area Review & Evaluation (RARE) II Area
            • Frazier Mountain District (Fraser Mountain District)
              • Frazier Park area
                • Mount Pinos
    Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1914a), The origin of colemanite deposits: USGS PP 85: 5; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1914c), Borate deposits in Ventura County, California: USGS Bulletin 540: 440; Tucker, W. Burling & Reid J. Sampson (1932), Ventura County: California Mining Bureau. Report 28: 259-262; Carman, M.F., Jr. (1964), Geology of the Lockwood Valley area, Kern and Ventura Counties, California California Division Mines & Geology, Special Report 81; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 250.
          • Ventura County Borate District (Stauffer District)
            • Lake of the Woods area
              • Lockwood Valley
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 70; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1914a), The origin of colemanite deposits: USGS PP 85: 5; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1914c), Borate deposits in Ventura County, California: USGS Bulletin 540: 440; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Muddy Mts
          • Muddy Mountains District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.; Stephen B. Castor (1990) Borates in the Muddy Mountains, Clark County NBMG Nevada Geology
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Stephen B. Castor (1990) Borates in the Muddy Mountains, Clark County NBMG Nevada Geolog
    Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min.Encylopaedia, p.133
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
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