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Colemanite

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William Tell Coleman
Formula:
Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless, white, ...
Hardness:
Name:
After William Tell Coleman (1824-1893), a founder of the California borax industry and owner of the mine where the mineral was first found.

Classification of Colemanite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
6.CB.10

6 : BORATES
C : Triborates
B : Ino-triborates
26.3.5.1

26 : HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
3 : Triborates
9.3.14

9 : Borates
3 : Borates of Ca and Sr
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-1108.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

First Recorded Occurrence of Colemanite

Year of Discovery:
1884

Occurrences of Colemanite

Geological Setting:
Borate deposits formed in arid alkalai lacustrine environments.

Physical Properties of Colemanite

Adamantine, Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellowish, grey; colourless in transitted light
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010} perfect; on {001} distinct.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
2.423(5) g/cm3 (Measured)    2.422 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Colemanite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Space Group Setting:
P21/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.712(2) Å, b = 11.247(3) Å, c = 6.091(1) Å
β = 110.12°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.775 : 1 : 0.542
Unit Cell Volume:
V 560.40 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals commonly short prismatic [001] with large (110), large to small (001) and complex terminations; pseudo-rhombohedral with large (110) and (301); pseudo-octahedral with large (221) and (011). Massive, cleavable to granular and compact.

Crystallographic forms of Colemanite

Crystal Atlas:
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Colemanite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Colemanite no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Colemanite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.586 nβ = 1.592 nγ = 1.614
2V:
Measured: 55° to 56°, Calculated: 56°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.028
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
relatively weak r > v

Chemical Properties of Colemanite

Formula:
Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Colemanite to other Species

6.CB.15HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
6.CB.20HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
6.CB.25JarandoliteCa[B3O4(OH)3]
9.3.1CalciboriteCa(B2O4)
9.3.2SibirskiteCa2(HB2O5)(OH)
9.3.3FabianiteCaB3O5OH
9.3.4UralboriteCa2[B3O3(OH)5 · OB(OH)3]
9.3.5VimsiteCaB2O2(OH)4
9.3.6OlshanskyiteCa3[B(OH)4]4(OH)2
9.3.7FroloviteCa[B(OH)4]2
9.3.8KorzhinskiteCa(B2O4) · H2O
9.3.9TyretskiteCa2B5O9OH · H2O
9.3.10NifontoviteCa3B6O6(OH)12(H2O)2
9.3.12InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
9.3.13GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
9.3.15PentahydroboriteCaB2O(OH)6 · 2H2O
9.3.16HexahydroboriteCa[B(OH)4]2 · 6H2O
9.3.17MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
9.3.18PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
9.3.19GinoriteCa2B14O23 · 8H2O
9.3.20ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
9.3.21UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
9.3.22HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
9.3.23InderboriteCaMg(H3B3O7)2 · 8H2O
9.3.24WardsmithiteCa5Mg[B4O7]6 · 30H2O
9.3.25HenmiliteCa2Cu[B(OH)4]2(OH)4
9.3.26StrontioboriteSrB8O11(OH)4
9.3.27VeatchiteSr2B11O16(OH)5 · H2O
9.3.28Veatchite-ASr2B11O16(OH)5 · H2O
9.3.29 P-Veatchite
9.3.30 BalavinskiteSr2B6O11 · 4H2O
9.3.31TunelliteSrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
9.3.32Strontioginorite(Sr,Ca)2B14O23 · 8H2O

Other Names for Colemanite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Bright pale yellow fluorescence, may phosphoresce pale green.
Electrical:
Pyroelectric and piezoelectric at very low temperatures.
Other Information:
Soluble in hot HCl, with the separation of boric acid upon cooling. Very slightly soluble in water (1 part in 1,100 at 20°-25°).
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Ore of boron.

References for Colemanite

Reference List:
Neuschwander in Hanks (1883) Third Report of the State Mineralogist, California: 86.

Evans, J.T. (1884), Colemanite: Calif. Acad. Sci. Bull. 1: 57-59.

Jackson, A.W., Jr. (1884) On colemanite, a new borate of lime, Amer. Jour. Sci., 3rd. series: 28: 447-448.

Evans, J.T. (1885), The chemical properties and relations of colemanite: Calif. Acad. Sci. Bull. 1, No. 2: 37-42.

Hiortdahl, Th. (1885), Colemanit, ein krystallisirtes Kalkborat aus Californien: Vidensk, selsk. Christiania Forh., 1884, n o. 10, 8: pp., 1885 [also Zeitschr. Kristallographic, Band 10, pp. 25-31, 1885].

Jackson, A.W., Jr. (1885), On the morphology of colemanite, Calif. Acad. Sci., 1st. series, Bull. 2: 3-36.

Whitfield (1887) American Journal of Science: 34: 281.

Mülheims, A. (1888), Über eine neue Art der Axenwinkelmessung und über die Bestimmung von Brechungsexponenten nach der Methode der Totalreflexion – Colemanit von Californien: Zeitschr. Kristallogrphic, Band 14: 202-236.

Ley analysis in: Kraut (1897) Zs. Anal. Chem.: 36: 165.

Baumhauer (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 30: 97.

Eakle (1902) University of California Department of Geology, Bulletin 3: 31

Morgan and Tallmon (1904) Amerrican Journal of Science: 18: 363.

Eakle (1911) University of California, Department of Geology Bulletin 6: 179 (as Neocolemanite).

Hutchinson (1912) Mineralogical Magazine: 16: 239.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 2: 176.

Hicks in: Gale (1913) USGS Professional Paper 85A: 7.

McNairn (1917) Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute: 11: 231.

Rogers (1919) American Mineralogist: 4: 135.

Foshag (1921) Economic Geology: 16: 199.

Hintze, Carl (1922) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 180.

Van Arkel and Fritzius (1931) Recueil des travaux chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique, Leyden: 50: 1035.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848.

Boky (1937) Bull. ac. sc. U.R.S.S., Cl. sci. mat. nat., Ser. chim.: 871.

Godlevsky (1937) Mineralogicheskoe Obshchestvo, Leningrad, Zapiski: 66(2): 353.

Nikolsky (1940) C.r. ac. sc. U.R.S.S.: 28: 59;...Mineral Abstracts: 9: 44 (1944).

Dér (1941) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 103: 431.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 349-353.

Christ, C.L., J.R. Clark & H.T. Evans (1954), The structure of colemanite, CaB3O4(OH)3•H2O, determined by the direct method of Hauptman and Karle: Acta Crystallographica: 7: 453-454.

Schröder, Alfred & Wolfgang Hoffmann (1956), Zur optic des Colemanits: Neues del Jahr. Min.,: 265-271.

Christ, C.L., J.R. Clark & H.T. Evans (1958): The crystal structure of colemanite, CaB2O4(OH)3 • H2O: Acta. Cryst.: 11: 761-770.

Perloff, A. and Block, S. (1960) Low-temperature phase transition of colemanite. American Mineralogist: 45: 229.

Pemberton, H.E. (1973) Colemanite: type locality and describer. Mineralogical Record: 4: 272-274.

Canadian Mineralogist (1993): 31: 297-304.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 158.

Internet Links for Colemanite

Specimens:
The following Colemanite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Colemanite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca
    • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
  • Jujuy
    • Susques Department
      • Coranzuli
Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
    • Tumbaya Department
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
  • Salta
Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
    • Salar Del Hombre Muerto
    • Sijes
www.sijes.com.ar
www.sijes.com.ar
Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates - Handbook of Deposits, Processing, Properties and Use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 475 pp.; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
Galliski, M.A., Cooper, M.A., Márquez-Zavalía, M.F., and Hawthorne, F.C. (2010) Alfredstelznerite: a new calcium borate hydrate from Santa Rosa mine, Salta, northwestern Argentina. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 123-128; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
www.sijes.com.ar
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Sud Lípez Province
USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 254 (1992)
Canada
 
  • New Brunswick
    • Kings Co.
      • Cardwell Parish
        • Penobsquis
GRICE, J. L. (2005) Borate Minerals from the Penobsquis and Millstream Deposits of Southern New Brunswick, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 43, 1469-1487.
      • Hammond Parish
        • Salt Springs evaporite deposit
BURNS, P.C., HAWTHORNE, F.C. & STIRLING, J.A.R. (1992): Trembathite, (Mg,Fe)3B7O13Cl, a new borate mineral from the Salt Springs potash deposit, Sussex, New Brunswick. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 445-448.
      • Studholm Parish
Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1469-1487.
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Sámos Prefecture
      • Sámos Island
Econ Geol (1989)84:788-798; Helvaci, C., Stamatakis, M. G., Zagouroglou, C., & Kanaris, J. (1993). Borate minerals and related authigenic silicates in northeastern Mediterranean Late Miocene continental basins. Exploration and Mining Geology, 2(2), 171-178.
Iran
 
  • Zanjan Province
    • Dandy District
M Nazari collection
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Mexico
 
  • Sonora
    • Mun. de Tubutama
      • La Salada
Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates - Handbook of Deposits, Processing, Properties and Use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 475 pp.
Serbia
 
  • Raška District
    • Raška
      • Jarandol Basin
        • Baljevac na Ibru
          • Bella Stena (Bela Stena)
Econ Geol (1992) 87:2169-2174
Econ Geol (1992) 87:2169-2174
S. V. Malinko et al.: New Data on Minerals 39:26-31 (2004)
Turkey
 
  • Aegean Region
    • Kütahya Province
      • Emet
        • Doğanlar village
J. García-Veigas, L. Rosell, X. Alcobé, I. Subias, F. Ortí, I. Gündogan and C. Helvaci (2010) Fontarnauite, a New Sulphate-Borate Mineral from the Emet Borate District (Turkey). Macla 13, 97-98.
        • Emet Borate deposit
J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. V (2003)
American Mineralogist; April 1979; v. 64; no. 3-4; p. 362-366
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Eskişehir Province
      • Kirka
García-Veigas, J., & Helvacı, C. (2013). Mineralogy and sedimentology of the Miocene Göcenoluk borate deposit, Kırka district, western Anatolia, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 290, 85-96.
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/T%FCrkei/Eskisehir/Kirka/Sarikaya; Baysal, O. (1972) : A mineralogical study and genesis of Sarıkaya (Kırka) borate deposits. Hacettepe University, Ankara.
  • Marmara Region
    • Balikesir Province
      • Biga peninsula
      • Bigadiç
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
        • Çamköy
Meixner, H. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 445-455.
Meixner, H. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 445-455.
        • Faraşköy (Faraş)
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
        • Iskeleköy (Iskele)
Meixner, H. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 445-455.
      • Susurluk
        • Sultançayırı (Sultan Tschair)
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.; Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
    • Bursa Province
      • Mustafa Kemalpafla
Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Maricopa Co.
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
    • Yuma Co.
      • Gila Bend
MRDS database Dep ID file #10092989, MRDS ID #RL10063.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Amargosa Range
        • Black Mts
          • Monte Blanco
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 359; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1916b), Inyoite and meyerhofferite, two new calcium borates: USGS Bulletin 610: 35; Foshag, William Frederick (1924), The world’s biggest borax deposits (California and Nevada): Engineering & Mining Journal: 118: 420; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 264, 376.
          • Zabriskie Point
Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min.Encylopaedia, p.133
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Amargosa Valley
Countryman, R.L. (1977): Hydroboracite from the Amargosa desert, eastern California. Mineralogical Record 8, 503-504; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 240; www.mineralsocal.org.
Reiner Mielke
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 45; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153-154.
        • Furnace Creek
Evans, James R., G.C. Taylor, and J.S. Rapp (1976) Mines and mineral deposits in Death Valley National Monument. California Division Mines and Geology Special Report 125: 1-61; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 238, 254.
        • Mushroom Rock
Jackson, Abraham Wendell, Jr. (1886), Mineralogical contributions: California Academy of Science, 1st. series, Bulletin 4: 358-374; […(abstract): Neues Jahrb., 1888: 179-181]: 358; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 46; Campbell, M.R. (1902), Reconnaissance of the borax deposits of Death Valley and Mojave Desert: USGS Bulletin 200, 23 pp.: 16; Engineering and Mining Journal (Engineering & Mining Journal) (1907), General mining news: 83: 781; Foshag, William Frederick (1924a), Famous mineral localities: Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 9: 8; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and A.C. Vlisidis (1970) Wardsmithite 5CaO • MgO •12B2O3 •30H2O, a new borate mineral from the Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 55: 351; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 290.
        • Furnace Creek Ranch
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 342.
        • Ryan
Am Min (1931), 16:338-341
Rogers, Austin Flint (1919a), Colemanite pseudomorphs after inyoite from Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 4: 135-139; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 246.
Foshag, William Frederick (1931b), Probertite from Ryan, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 338-341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
Mineralogical Record: 20(5): 387; Mineralogical Record: 27: 35-40.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Anonymous (1963), California Division of Mines and Geology, Mineral Information Service: California Mineral Production 1962: 16(1): 9; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154, 377; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246, 255.
Rock Currier, Collected them in the mine.; Rock Currier
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1916b), Inyoite and meyerhofferite, two new calcium borates: USGS Bulletin 610: 35; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & A.C. Vlisidis (1961), Nobleite, another new hydrous calcium borate from the Death Valley region, California: American Mineralogist: 46: 560-571; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 228; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & H. Almond (1959), Gowerite, a new hydrous calcium borate from Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 44: 911-919; American Mineralogist: 55: 349-357; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375; www.mineralsocal.org.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 256.
          • Mouth of Corkscrew Canyon area
Foshag, William Frederick (1939), New Mineral names – priceite: American Mineralogist: 24: 728; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295.
Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and A.C. Vlisidis (1970) Wardsmithite 5CaO • MgO •12B2O3 •30H2O, a new borate mineral from the Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 55: 349-357.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Foshag, William Frederick (1931b), Probertite from Ryan, California: American Mineralogist: 16: 338-341; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295, 376; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 246.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Travertine Point
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Twenty Mule Team Canyon
American Mineralogist (1979): 64(3-4): 369-375.; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister & H. Almond (1959), Gowerite, a new hydrous calcium borate from Death Valley, California: American Mineralogist: 44: 911-919; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore, et al (1965), American Mineralogist: 65: 629-640.
Am Min 64:3-4 pp 369-375; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
McAllister, James Franklin (1961), Sborgite in the Furnace Creek area, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 129: 300-301; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 259.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Greenwater Range
Pemberton, H. Earl (1978) Hydroboracite from the Furnace Creek formation. Mineralogical Record: 9: 246.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10188167.
        • Ryon summit
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Resting Spring Range
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1926b), Note on a colemanite deposit near Shoshone, California, with a sketch of the geology of a part of Amargosa Valley: USGS Bulletin 785: 63; Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: 11; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 249.
      • Saratoga District (Tecopa Mountain District; Shoshone District ?)
        • Dublin Hills
          • Shoshone
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 63, 72; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153, 376.; Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: 11. Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 153.
Nolan, Thomas Brennan (1964), Geological Survey Research 1963, Summary of investigations: USGS PP 475-A: A-11; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295, 377.
    • Kern Co.
      • Kramer District
www.mineralsocal.org
Yale, Charles G. & Hoyt S. Gale (1913), Borax: Mineral Resources of the United States, 1912, part 2; Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1926a), Borate deposits in the Kramer district, Kern County, California: USGS Bulletin 785-C: 47; Christ, C.L. & R.M. Garrels (1959), Relations among sodium borate hydrates at the Kramer deposit, Boron, California: American Journal of Science: 257: 516; Bowser, C.J. & F.W. Dickson (1961), Chemical zonation of the borates of Kramer, California, In: J.L. Rau (ed.), Second Symposium on Salt: 1: 122-132, Northern Ohio Geological Society; Obert, L. and Long, A.E. (1962) Underground borate mining, Kern County, California. US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 6110, 67 pp.: 1-12; Bowser, C.J. (1965a), Geochemistry and petrology of the sodium borates in the non-marine evaporative environment: Unpublished Ph.. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 307 pp.: 9; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1930), Borate minerals from the Kramer district, Mohave Desert, California: USGS PP 158-I: 138; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 168 (photo 4-5), 249; Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Soc. of California, Montebello, CA): 34; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 102; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 147, 149, 151.
Richard Dale Collection; Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 36, No. 2, 131-136, 1988.
    • Los Angeles Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
        • Tick Canyon
          • Tick Canyon Borate deposit
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 348; Rocks & Minerals: 11: 156.; Kramer, H.C. & R.D. Allen (1956), A restudy of bakerite, priceite, and veatchite, American Mineralogist: 41: 689-700; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1911), Neocolemanite, a variety of colemanite, and howlite from Lang, Los Angeles County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Science Bulletin: 6: 179; Hutchinson, A. (1912), On the identity of neocolemanite with colemanite: Mineralogical Magazine: 16: 239-246; Merrill, Frederick James Hamilton (1919), Los Angeles, Orange and Riverside Counties: California Mining Bureau Report 15: 480; Armstrong, V.L. & Edwin V. Van Anringe (1948), Tick Canyon field trip: reprinted from Grieger’s “Encyclopedia and Super-Catalog of the Lapidary and Jewelry Arts,” Pasadena; Gay, T.E. and Hoffman, S.R. (1954) Mines and mineral deposits of Los Angeles County, California. California Journal of Mines and Geology: 50: 506-508; Oakeshott, Gordon Blaisdell (1958) Geology and mineral deposits of San Fernando quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California. California Division of Mines Bulletin 172, 147 pp.: 11-12; Masimer, G.E. (1966) Tick Canyon revisited. Gems and Minerals: 347: 22; Pemberton, H. Earl (1968) The minerals of the Sterling borax mine, Los Angeles County, California. Mineral Explorer 3, No. 1, 10 pp.: 4-5; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 250.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Amargosa River
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 377.
      • Avawatz Mts (Avawatz Range)
        • Cave Spring
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 60; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 854; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
      • Barstow
        • Lead Mountain
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
      • Cady Mts
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Madsen, B.M. (1970) Core logs of three test holes in Cenozoic lake deposits near Hector, California. USGS Bulletin 1296, 43 pp.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 250.
      • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
        • Calico District (Daggett District)
          • Borate
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 418.
          • Daggett
Eakle, Arthur Starr (1902), Colemanite from southern California: University of California, Department of Geological Science Bulletin: 3: 31-50; Erwin, H.D. & D.L. Gardner (1940), Notes on the geology of a portion of the Calico Mountains, San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division Mines (Report 36): 36: 264; Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 49): 49(1-2): 223-225; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 250.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
      • Death Valley National Park
        • Death Valley
          • Owlshead Mts
            • Owl Hole Springs
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
      • East Kramer District
        • Kramer
          • East Kramer Borate area (East Kramer Colemanite area)
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Fort Irwin area
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Kramer-Four Corners area
Am Min 49:543-555
      • Lone Star Range
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 774-899; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 27: 394]: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
      • Lone Willow Spring area
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 12; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
      • Owlshead Mts
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62, 102; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 855; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 295.
      • San Bernardino Mts
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
      • Slate Range
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 63; Cloudman, H.C., F.J.H. Merrill & E. Huguenin (1919), San Bernardino County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 856; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
Collection of NHM, Vienna
    • Ventura Co.
      • San Emigdio Mts
        • Ojai
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Sespe Frazier Roadless Area Review & Evaluation (RARE) II Area
          • Frazier Mountain District (Fraser Mountain District)
            • Frazier Park area
              • Mount Pinos
Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1914a), The origin of colemanite deposits: USGS PP 85: 5; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1914c), Borate deposits in Ventura County, California: USGS Bulletin 540: 440; Tucker, W. Burling & Reid J. Sampson (1932), Ventura County: California Mining Bureau. Report 28: 259-262; Carman, M.F., Jr. (1964), Geology of the Lockwood Valley area, Kern and Ventura Counties, California California Division Mines & Geology, Special Report 81; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 250.
        • Ventura County Borate District (Stauffer District)
          • Lake of the Woods area
            • Lockwood Valley
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 70; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1914a), The origin of colemanite deposits: USGS PP 85: 5; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1914c), Borate deposits in Ventura County, California: USGS Bulletin 540: 440; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Muddy Mts
        • Muddy Mountains District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.; Stephen B. Castor (1990) Borates in the Muddy Mountains, Clark County NBMG Nevada Geology
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Stephen B. Castor (1990) Borates in the Muddy Mountains, Clark County NBMG Nevada Geolog
Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min.Encylopaedia, p.133
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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