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Conichalcite

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Formula:
CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Green, yellow-green, ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named by August Breithaupt and Carl Julius Fritzsche in 1849 from the Greek κουία for "konis" (powder) and χαλκος for "chalkos" (copper) in allusion to its composition and appearance of the mineral at times.
Adelite-Descloizite Group. An end member in the Austinite-Conichalcite Series, the Cobaltaustinite-Conichalcite Series, the Conichalcite-Duftite Series, and the Conichalcite-Tangeite Series.

Arsenate analogue of hermannroseite.

A secondary mineral found in the oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Classification of Conichalcite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.BH.35

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
H : With medium-sized and large cations, (OH,etc.):RO4 = 1:1
41.5.1.2

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
5 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
20.1.12

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
1 : Arsenates of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Conichalcite

Year of Discovery:
1849

Occurrences of Conichalcite

Geological Setting:
An uncommon alteration product in the oxidation zone of copper deposits. Typically an alteration product of enargite.

Physical Properties of Conichalcite

Sub-Vitreous, Greasy, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Green, yellow-green, greenish yellow; light green to yellowish green in transmitted light.
Streak:
Light green
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4.33 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.29 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Density of the fibrous material ranges down to about 4.1.

Crystallography of Conichalcite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
2 2 2 - Disphenoidal
Space Group:
P21 21 21
Space Group Setting:
P21 21 21
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.393(1) Å, b = 9.220(1) Å, c = 5.830(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.802 : 1 : 0.632
Unit Cell Volume:
V 397.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Typically radial fibrous aggregates, botyroidal to reniform crusts, massive, rarely equant crystals are short prismatic [010].
Twinning:
Rare on {001}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.10 (50)
3.14 (90)
2.84 (100)
2.59 (100)
2.56 (50)
1.720 (60)
1.609 (70)
Comments:
Also ICDD 37-448, 11-306

Optical Data of Conichalcite

Type:
Biaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 1.778 - 1.800 nβ = 1.795 - 1.831 nγ = 1.801 - 1.846
Birefringence:
0.034
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.023 - 0.046
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
Strong r < v to r < v moderate
Optical Extinction:
XYZ = cba
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Nearly colorless or green Y = Light greenish or yellowish green Z = Pale bluish or blue-green
Comments:
Data for pleochroism relates to Bristol (left) and Bisbee (right).

Chemical Properties of Conichalcite

Formula:
CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Mg,P,V,Zn

Relationship of Conichalcite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Tangeite (see here)
Forms a series with Austinite (see here)
Forms a series with Cobaltaustinite (see here)
Forms a series with Duftite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AdeliteCaMg(AsO4)(OH)
ArsendescloizitePbZn(AsO4)(OH)
AustiniteCaZn(AsO4)(OH)
ČechitePb(Fe2+,Mn2+)(VO4)(OH)
CobaltaustiniteCaCo(AsO4)(OH)
DescloizitePb(Zn,Cu)(VO4)(OH)
DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
GabrielsonitePbFe(AsO4)(OH)
GottlobiteCaMg(VO4,AsO4)(OH)
HermannroseiteCaCu(PO4)(OH)
MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
NickelaustiniteCa(Ni,Zn)(AsO4)(OH)
PyrobelonitePbMn2+(VO4)(OH)
TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
8.BH.05ThadeuiteCa(Mg,Fe2+)3(PO4)2(OH,F)2
8.BH.10DurangiteNaAl(AsO4)F
8.BH.10IsokiteCaMg(PO4)F
8.BH.10LacroixiteNaAl(PO4)F
8.BH.10MaxwelliteNaFe3+(AsO4)F
8.BH.10PanasqueiraiteCaMg(PO4)(OH,F)
8.BH.10TilasiteCaMg(AsO4)F
8.BH.15DrugmanitePb(Fe3+,Al)2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.20Bjarebyite(Ba,Sr)(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2Al2(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BH.20CirroliteCa3Al2(PO4)3(OH)3 (?)
8.BH.20KulaniteBa(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2(Al,Fe3+)2(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BH.20PenikisiteBa(Mg,Fe2+,Ca)2Al2(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BH.20PerloffiteBa(Mn2+,Fe2+)2Fe23+(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BH.20JohntomaiteBaFe22+Fe23+(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BH.25Bertossaite(Li,Na)2(Ca,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al4(PO4)4(OH,F)4
8.BH.25Palermoite(Li,Na)2(Sr,Ca)Al4(PO4)4(OH)4
8.BH.30CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.30SewarditeCaFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.35AdeliteCaMg(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35ArsendescloizitePbZn(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35AustiniteCaZn(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35CobaltaustiniteCaCo(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35GabrielsonitePbFe(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35NickelaustiniteCa(Ni,Zn)(AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
8.BH.35GottlobiteCaMg(VO4,AsO4)(OH)
8.BH.35HermannroseiteCaCu(PO4)(OH)
8.BH.40ČechitePb(Fe2+,Mn2+)(VO4)(OH)
8.BH.40DescloizitePb(Zn,Cu)(VO4)(OH)
8.BH.40MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
8.BH.40PyrobelonitePbMn2+(VO4)(OH)
8.BH.45BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.45VésigniéiteBaCu3(VO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.50PaganoiteNiBi(AsO4)O
8.BH.55JagoweriteBaAl2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BH.60Attakolite(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)4(HPO4,PO4)3(SiO4,PO4)(OH)4
8.BH.65LeningraditePbCu3(VO4)2Cl
20.1.1LammeriteCu3(AsO4)2
20.1.2OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
20.1.3ClinoclaseCu3(AsO4)(OH)3
20.1.4CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.5CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.6Chlorotile (of Frenzel)
20.1.7GeminiteCu(HAsO4) · H2O
20.1.8EuchroiteCu2(AsO4)(OH) · 3H2O
20.1.9StrashimiriteCu8(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 5H2O
20.1.10ArhbariteCu2Mg(AsO4)(OH)3
20.1.11LindackeriteCuCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 8-9H2O
20.1.13LiroconiteCu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
20.1.14CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
20.1.15ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.16ArthuriteCuFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O

Other Names for Conichalcite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Easily soluble in HCl or HNO3.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Conichalcite

Reference List:
Breithaupt and Fritzsche (1849) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 77: 139 (as Konichalcit).

Fritzsche (1849) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 77: 180.

Hillebrand (1883) Proceedings of the Colorado Science Society: 1: 114.

Michel (1909) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 32: 50.

Morozewicz, J. (1918): Staszicite, a new mineral from the copper mine at Miedzianka. Rull. intern. acad. sci. Cracovie, Class A: Sci. Math. (1918), 4-16. [see also Mineralog. Abstr. 2, 51] (as Staszycyt [Staszicite]).

Palache, C. and Shannon (1920) American Mineralogist: 5: 155 (as Higginsite).

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 60.

Gillson (1926) American Mineralogist: 11: 109.

Strunz, H. (1939): Mineralien der Descloizitgruppe. Konichalcit, Staszizit, Austinit, Duftit, Aräoxen, Volborthit, Pyrobelonit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig (A) 101, 496-506.

Richmond (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 441.

Fisher (1944) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 105: 268.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 806-809.

Canadian Mineralogist (1969): 7: 561-577.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 125.

Reddy, B.J.; Frost, R.L.; Martens, W.N. (2005): Characterization of conichalcite by SEM, FTIR, Raman and electronic reflectance spectroscopy. Mineralogical Magazine 69, 155-168.

Henderson, R.R., H. Yang, R. T. Downs and R. A. Jenkins (2008) Redetermination of conichalcite, CaCuAsO4)(OH), Acta Crystallographica, E64, i53-i54.

T. Djordjević and U. Kolitsch (2008): Conichalcite revisited: Structural and chemical characterisation of a sample from the Maria Catalina mine, Copiapó Province, Chile. Poster, Annual Meeting of the DMG, Berlin, Germany, September 14-17, 2008; CD with abstracts, Abs. no. 331.

Sakai, S., Yoshiasa, A., Sugiyama and Miyawaki, R. (2009): Crystal structure and chemistry of conichalcite, CaCu(AsO4)(OH). Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 104, 125-131.

Internet Links for Conichalcite

Specimens:
The following Conichalcite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Conichalcite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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