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Conichalcite

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Formula:
CaCu(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
System:OrthorhombicColour:Green, yellow-green, ...
Hardness:
Member of:Adelite-Descloizite Group
Name:Named by August Breithaupt and Carl Julius Fritzsche in 1849 from the Greek κουία for "konis" (powder) and χαλκος for "chalkos" (copper) in allusion to its composition and appearance of the mineral at times.


Adelite-Descloizite Group. An end member in the Austinite-Conichalcite Series, the Cobaltaustinite-Conichalcite Series, the Conichalcite-Duftite Series, and the Conichalcite-Tangeite Series.

Arsenate analogue of hermannroseite.

A secondary mineral found in the oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Classification of Conichalcite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/B.26-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.BH.35

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
H : With medium-sized and large cations, (OH,etc.):RO4 = 1:1
Dana 8th edition ID:41.5.1.2

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
5 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:20.1.12

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
1 : Arsenates of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Conichalcite

Type Locality:Hinojosa del Duque, Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain
Year of Discovery:1849

Occurrences of Conichalcite

Geological Setting:An uncommon alteration product in the oxidation zone of copper deposits. Typically an alteration product of enargite.

Physical Properties of Conichalcite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Greasy, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Green, yellow-green, greenish yellow; light green to yellowish green in transmitted light.
Streak:Light green
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):4.33 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.29 g/cm3
Comment:Density of the fibrous material ranges down to about 4.1.

Crystallography of Conichalcite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):2 2 2 - Disphenoidal
Space Group:P21 21 21
Space Group Setting:P21 21 21
Cell Parameters:a = 7.393(1) Å, b = 9.220(1) Å, c = 5.830(1) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.802 : 1 : 0.632
Unit Cell Volume:V 397.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Typically radial fibrous aggregates, botyroidal to reniform crusts, massive, rarely equant crystals are short prismatic [010].
Twinning:Rare on {001}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.10 (50)
3.14 (90)
2.84 (100)
2.59 (100)
2.56 (50)
1.720 (60)
1.609 (70)
Comments:Also ICDD 37-448, 11-306

Optical Data of Conichalcite

Type:Biaxial (+/-)
RI values: nα = 1.778 - 1.800 nβ = 1.795 - 1.831 nγ = 1.801 - 1.846
Birefringence:0.034
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.023 - 0.046

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:Strong r < v to r < v moderate
Optical Extinction:XYZ = cba
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X = Nearly colorless or green Y = Light greenish or yellowish green Z = Pale bluish or blue-green
Comments:Data for pleochroism relates to Bristol (left) and Bisbee (right).

Chemical Properties of Conichalcite

Formula:
CaCu(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Simplified for copy/paste:CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Essential elements:As, Ca, Cu, H, O
All elements listed in formula:As, Ca, Cu, H, O
Common Impurities:Mg,P,V,Zn

Relationship of Conichalcite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Tangeite (see here)
Forms a series with Austinite (see here)
Forms a series with Cobaltaustinite (see here)
Forms a series with Duftite (see here)
Member of:Adelite-Descloizite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Adelite
CaMg(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Arsendescloizite
PbZn(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Austinite
CaZn(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Čechite
Pb(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(VO
 
4
)(OH)
Cobaltaustinite
CaCo(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Descloizite
Pb(Zn,Cu)(VO
 
4
)(OH)
Duftite
PbCu(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Gabrielsonite
PbFe(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Gottlobite
CaMg(VO
 
4
,AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Hermannroseite
CaCu(PO
 
4
)(OH)
Mottramite
PbCu(VO
 
4
)(OH)
Nickelaustinite
Ca(Ni,Zn)(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Pyrobelonite
PbMn
2+
 
(VO
 
4
)(OH)
Tangeite
CaCu(VO
 
4
)(OH)
Common Associates:
OliveniteMalachiteLimoniteLibetheniteJarosite
ClinoclaseBrochantiteAzuriteAustinite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.BH.05Thadeuite
Ca(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
8.BH.10Durangite
NaAl(AsO
 
4
)F
8.BH.10Isokite
CaMg(PO
 
4
)F
8.BH.10Lacroixite
NaAl(PO
 
4
)F
8.BH.10Maxwellite
NaFe
3+
 
(AsO
 
4
)F
8.BH.10Panasqueiraite
CaMg(PO
 
4
)(OH,F)
8.BH.10Tilasite
CaMg(AsO
 
4
)F
8.BH.15Drugmanite
Pb(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BH.20Bjarebyite
(Ba,Sr)(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
8.BH.20Cirrolite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
(?)
8.BH.20Kulanite
Ba(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
8.BH.20Penikisite
Ba(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Ca)
 
2
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
8.BH.20Perloffite
Ba(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
8.BH.20Johntomaite
BaFe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
8.BH.25Bertossaite
(Li,Na)
 
2
(Ca,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH,F)
 
4
8.BH.25Palermoite
(Li,Na)
 
2
(Sr,Ca)Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
4
8.BH.30Carminite
PbFe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BH.30Sewardite
CaFe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BH.35Adelite
CaMg(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.35Arsendescloizite
PbZn(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.35Austinite
CaZn(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.35Cobaltaustinite
CaCo(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.35Duftite
PbCu(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.35Gabrielsonite
PbFe(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.35Nickelaustinite
Ca(Ni,Zn)(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.35Tangeite
CaCu(VO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.35Gottlobite
CaMg(VO
 
4
,AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.35Hermannroseite
CaCu(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.40Čechite
Pb(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(VO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.40Descloizite
Pb(Zn,Cu)(VO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.40Mottramite
PbCu(VO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.40Pyrobelonite
PbMn
2+
 
(VO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BH.45Bayldonite
PbCu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BH.45Vésigniéite
BaCu
 
3
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BH.50Paganoite
NiBi(AsO
 
4
)O
8.BH.55Jagowerite
BaAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BH.60Attakolite
(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)
 
4
(HPO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
8.BH.65Leningradite
PbCu
 
3
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
20.1.1Lammerite
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
20.1.2Olivenite
Cu
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
20.1.3Clinoclase
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
20.1.4Cornwallite
Cu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
20.1.5Cornubite
Cu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
20.1.6Chlorotile (of Frenzel)
20.1.7Geminite
Cu(HAsO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
20.1.8Euchroite
Cu
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH) · 3H
 
2
O
20.1.9Strashimirite
Cu
 
8
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
20.1.10Arhbarite
Cu
 
2
Mg(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
20.1.11Lindackerite
CuCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8-9H
 
2
O
20.1.13Liroconite
Cu
 
2
Al(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
20.1.14Ceruleite
Cu
 
2
Al
 
7
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
13
· 11.5H
 
2
O
20.1.15Chenevixite
Cu
 
2
Fe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
20.1.16Arthurite
CuFe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
,PO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O

Other Names for Conichalcite

Synonyms:
ConicalciteHigginsiteStaszicite
Other Languages:
German:Conichalcit
Konichalcit
Polish:Staszycyt
Russian:Конихальцит
Simplified Chinese:砷钙铜矿
绿水砷钙铜矿
Spanish:Conichalcita
Traditional Chinese:砷鈣銅石
綠水砷鈣銅礦

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Other Information:Easily soluble in HCl or HNO3.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Conichalcite

Reference List:

- +
Breithaupt and Fritzsche (1849) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 77: 139 (as Konichalcit).

Fritzsche (1849) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 77: 180.

Hillebrand (1883) Proceedings of the Colorado Science Society: 1: 114.

Michel (1909) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 32: 50.

Morozewicz, J. (1918): Staszicite, a new mineral from the copper mine at Miedzianka. Rull. intern. acad. sci. Cracovie, Class A: Sci. Math. (1918), 4-16. [see also Mineralog. Abstr. 2, 51] (as Staszycyt [Staszicite]).

Palache, C. and Shannon (1920) American Mineralogist: 5: 155 (as Higginsite).

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 60.

Gillson (1926) American Mineralogist: 11: 109.

Strunz, H. (1939): Mineralien der Descloizitgruppe. Konichalcit, Staszizit, Austinit, Duftit, Aräoxen, Volborthit, Pyrobelonit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig (A) 101, 496-506.

Richmond (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 441.

Fisher (1944) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 105: 268.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 806-809.

Canadian Mineralogist (1969): 7: 561-577.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 125.

Reddy, B.J.; Frost, R.L.; Martens, W.N. (2005): Characterization of conichalcite by SEM, FTIR, Raman and electronic reflectance spectroscopy. Mineralogical Magazine 69, 155-168.

Henderson, R.R., H. Yang, R. T. Downs and R. A. Jenkins (2008) Redetermination of conichalcite, CaCuAsO4)(OH), Acta Crystallographica, E64, i53-i54.

T. Djordjević and U. Kolitsch (2008): Conichalcite revisited: Structural and chemical characterisation of a sample from the Maria Catalina mine, Copiapó Province, Chile. Poster, Annual Meeting of the DMG, Berlin, Germany, September 14-17, 2008; CD with abstracts, Abs. no. 331.

Sakai, S., Yoshiasa, A., Sugiyama and Miyawaki, R. (2009): Crystal structure and chemistry of conichalcite, CaCu(AsO4)(OH). Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 104, 125-131.

Internet Links for Conichalcite

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    Localities for Conichalcite

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