Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Connellite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Formula:
Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Blue, blue-green; blue ...
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous
Hardness:
3
Name:
Named by by James Dwight Dana in 1850 in honor of Arthur Connell [November 30, 1794 Edinburgh, Scotland - October 31, 1863], professor of chemistry at St Andrew's University, Edinburgh, Scotland, who first studied the mineral.
Isostructural with:
Connellite-Buttgenbachite Series.

A relatively uncommon secondary copper mineral.

Classification of Connellite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
3.DA.25

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
31.1.1.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
26.5

26 : Sulphates with Halide
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-1120.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

First Recorded Occurrence of Connellite

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
Blue acicular crystals in divergent clusters, usually < 1 mm.
Year of Discovery:
1850

Physical Properties of Connellite

Sub-Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Blue, blue-green; blue in transmitted light.
Streak:
Pale green-blue
Hardness (Mohs):
3
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Splintery
Density:
3.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.46 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Am Min 57: 426 (1972) structure

Crystallography of Connellite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6 m2 - Ditrigonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P62c
Space Group Setting:
P62c
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.78Å, c = 9.10Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.577
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,962.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals acicular [0001] and striated [0001]; radiating groups of needles; felted aggregates.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
13.7 (80)
7.89 (100)
5.46 (20)
5.17 (30)
3.22 (20)
2.73 (40)
2.49 (30)
2.28 (40)
Comments:
ICDD 35-538

Optical Data of Connellite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.724 - 1.746 nε = 1.738 - 1.758
Birefringence:
0.026
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.014
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Connellite

Formula:
Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Connellite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Buttgenbachite (see here)
3.DA.05MelanothalliteCu2Cl2O
3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10bBotallackiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10aHibbingiteFe22+(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10aKempiteMn22+(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10cParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)Cl
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10dAnatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2O
3.DA.25ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
3.DA.30AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6
3.DA.35PonomareviteK4Cu4Cl10O
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
3.DA.40CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2O
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2O
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2O
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe32+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
26.1KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
26.2SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
26.3SchaireriteNa3(SO4)(F,Cl)
26.4GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4Cl
26.6ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2
26.7KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OCl
26.8SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
26.9AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
26.10Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
26.11Svyazhinite(Mg,Mn2+,Ca)(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)2F · 14H2O
26.12D'AnsiteNa21Mg(SO4)10Cl3
26.13AnhydrokainiteKMg(SO4)Cl
26.14KainiteKMg(SO4)Cl · 3H2O
26.15Mosesite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4,MoO4) · H2O
26.16Kleinite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4) · nH2O
26.17WilcoxiteMgAl(SO4)2F · 17H2O
26.18CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
26.19LannoniteMg2Ca4Al4(SO4)8F8 · 24H2O
26.20Chukhrovite-(Y)Ca3(Y,Ce)[F|SO4|(AlF6)2] · 10H2O
26.21Chukhrovite-(Ce)Ca3(Ce,Y)[F|SO4|(AlF6)2] · 10H2O
26.22GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2
26.23PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10
26.24SundiusitePb10(SO4)O8Cl2
26.25CaracoliteNa3Pb2(SO4)3Cl
26.26MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2
26.27AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3Cl
26.28XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2O
26.29NabokoiteKCu7(SO4)5(Te4+O3)OCl

Other Names for Connellite

Name in Other Languages:
Catalan:Connellita
Italian:Connellite
Simplified Chinese:氯铜矾
Traditional Chinese:氯銅礬

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in acids and in ammonium hydroxide. Insoluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Connellite

Reference List:
Rashleigh (1802) Brit. Min.: 2: 13, Pl. 12, figs. 1, 6 (as Copper ore of an azure-blue color, composed of needle crystals).

Connell (1847) Report of the British Association (as Sulphato-chloride of Copper).

Dana, J.D. (1850) System of Mineralogy, 3rd. Edition, New York.

Maskelyne (1863) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 25: 39.

Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science: 40: 82.

Koenig (1891) Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia: 291 (as Footeite).

Koenig (1891) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 19: 601 (as Footeite).

Palache, C. and Merwin (1909) American Journal of Science: 28: 537.

Pelloux (1912) Ann. mus. civico stor. nat. Genova: 5: 205.

Ford and Bradley (1915) American Journal of Science: 39: 670.

Buttgenbach (1926) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 50: B35.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 572-573.

McLean, W.J. & J.W. Anthony (1972), The disordered ‘zeolite-like’ structure of connellite, American Mineralogist: 57: 426-438.

Internet Links for Connellite

Specimens:
The following Connellite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Connellite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Copyright © mindat.org 1993-2015, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: January 29, 2015 14:30:49 Page generated: January 27, 2015 00:28:23