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Connellite

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Formula:
Cu
 
19
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
System:HexagonalColour:Blue, blue-green; blue ...
Lustre:Sub-VitreousHardness:3
Name:Named by by James Dwight Dana in 1850 in honor of Arthur Connell [November 30, 1794 Edinburgh, Scotland - October 31, 1863], professor of chemistry at St Andrew's University, Edinburgh, Scotland, who first studied the mineral.
Isostructural with:Buttgenbachite


Connellite-Buttgenbachite Series.

A relatively uncommon secondary copper mineral.

Classification of Connellite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/D.03-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.DA.25

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
Dana 8th edition ID:31.1.1.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:26.5

26 : Sulphates with Halide
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Type Occurrence of Connellite

Type Locality:Wheal Providence, Providence Mines, Carbis Bay, St Ives, St Ives District, Cornwall, England, UK
General Appearance of Type Material:Blue acicular crystals in divergent clusters, usually < 1 mm.
Year of Discovery:1850

Physical Properties of Connellite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Blue, blue-green; blue in transmitted light.
Streak:Pale green-blue
Hardness (Mohs):3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Splintery
Density (measured):3.36 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.46 g/cm3
Comment:Am Min 57: 426 (1972) structure

Crystallography of Connellite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6 m2 - Ditrigonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P62c
Space Group Setting:P62c
Cell Parameters:a = 15.78Å, c = 9.10Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.577
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,962.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals acicular [0001] and striated [0001]; radiating groups of needles; felted aggregates.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
13.7 (80)
7.89 (100)
5.46 (20)
5.17 (30)
3.22 (20)
2.73 (40)
2.49 (30)
2.28 (40)
Comments:ICDD 35-538

Optical Data of Connellite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.724 - 1.746 nε = 1.738 - 1.758
Birefringence:0.026
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.014

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Connellite

Formula:
Cu
 
19
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4·3H2O
Essential elements:Cl, Cu, H, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Cl, Cu, H, O, S

Relationship of Connellite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Buttgenbachite (see here)
Common Associates:
MalachiteCupriteAzuriteSpangolite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.DA.05Melanothallite
Cu
 
2
Cl
 
2
O
3.DA.10aAtacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10bBotallackite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10bClinoatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10aHibbingite
Fe
2+
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10aKempite
Mn
2+
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10cParatacamite
Cu
 
3
(Cu,Zn)(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10bBelloite
Cu(OH)Cl
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cKapellasite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cGillardite
Cu
 
3
Ni(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cHaydeeite
Cu
 
3
Mg(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10dAnatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.15Claringbullite
Cu
 
4
(OH)
 
7
Cl · nH
 
2
O
3.DA.15Barlowite
Cu
 
4
BrF(OH)
 
6
3.DA.20Simonkolleite
Zn
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· H
 
2
O
3.DA.25Buttgenbachite
Cu
 
19
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.30Abhurite
Sn
 
21
Cl
 
16
(OH)
 
14
O
 
6
3.DA.35Ponomarevite
K
 
4
Cu
 
4
Cl
 
10
O
3.DA.40Anthonyite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
3.DA.40Calumetite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.45Khaidarkanite
Na
 
0.34
Cu
 
4
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
14
F
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.50Bobkingite
Cu
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.55Avdoninite
K
 
2
Cu
 
5
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
8
· H
 
2
O
3.DA.60Droninoite
Ni
 
6
Fe
2+
3
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
26.1Kogarkoite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)F
26.2Sulphohalite
Na
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
FCl
26.3Schairerite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(F,Cl)
26.4Galeite
Na
 
15
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
F
 
4
Cl
26.6Chlorothionite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)Cl
 
2
26.7Kamchatkite
KCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
OCl
26.8Spangolite
Cu
 
6
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
Cl · 3H
 
2
O
26.9Aubertite
CuAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl · 14H
 
2
O
26.10Magnesioaubertite
(Mg,Cu)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl · 14H
 
2
O
26.11Svyazhinite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 14H
 
2
O
26.12D'Ansite
Na
 
21
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
10
Cl
 
3
26.13Anhydrokainite
KMg(SO
 
4
)Cl
26.14Kainite
KMg(SO
 
4
)Cl · 3H
 
2
O
26.15Mosesite
(Hg
 
2
N)(Cl,SO
 
4
,MoO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
26.16Kleinite
(Hg
 
2
N)(Cl,SO
 
4
) · nH
 
2
O
26.17Wilcoxite
MgAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 17H
 
2
O
26.18Creedite
Ca
 
3
SO
 
4
Al
 
2
F
 
8
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
26.19Lannonite
Mg
 
2
Ca
 
4
Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
F
 
8
· 24H
 
2
O
26.20Chukhrovite-(Y)
Ca
 
3
(Y,Ce)[F|SO
 
4
|(AlF
 
6
)
 
2
] · 10H
 
2
O
26.21Chukhrovite-(Ce)
Ca
 
3
(Ce,Y)[F|SO
 
4
|(AlF
 
6
)
 
2
] · 10H
 
2
O
26.22Grandreefite
Pb
 
2
(SO
 
4
)F
 
2
26.23Pseudograndreefite
Pb
 
6
(SO
 
4
)F
 
10
26.24Sundiusite
Pb
 
10
(SO
 
4
)O
 
8
Cl
 
2
26.25Caracolite
Na
 
3
Pb
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
26.26Mammothite
Pb
 
6
Cu
 
4
AlSb
5+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
26.27Atlasovite
K(BiO)Cu
 
6
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
O
 
3
Cl
26.28Xitieshanite
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)Cl · 6H
 
2
O
26.29Nabokoite
KCu
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(Te
4+
 
O
 
3
)OCl

Other Names for Connellite

Synonyms:
Carbonatian ConnelliteCeruleofibriteFooteiteSulphato-chloride of CopperTallingite
Other Languages:
Catalan:Connellita
German:Connellit
Footeit
Tallingit
Italian:Connellite
Russian:Коннеллит
Simplified Chinese:氯铜矾
Spanish:Connellita
Footeita
Tallingita
Traditional Chinese:氯銅礬

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Other Information:Soluble in acids and in ammonium hydroxide. Insoluble in water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Connellite

Reference List:

- +
Rashleigh (1802) Brit. Min.: 2: 13, Pl. 12, figs. 1, 6 (as Copper ore of an azure-blue color, composed of needle crystals).

Connell (1847) Report of the British Association (as Sulphato-chloride of Copper).

Dana, J.D. (1850) System of Mineralogy, 3rd. Edition, New York.

Maskelyne (1863) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 25: 39.

Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science: 40: 82.

Koenig (1891) Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia: 291 (as Footeite).

Koenig (1891) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 19: 601 (as Footeite).

Palache, C. and Merwin (1909) American Journal of Science: 28: 537.

Pelloux (1912) Ann. mus. civico stor. nat. Genova: 5: 205.

Ford and Bradley (1915) American Journal of Science: 39: 670.

Buttgenbach (1926) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 50: B35.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 572-573.

McLean, W.J. & J.W. Anthony (1972), The disordered ‘zeolite-like’ structure of connellite, American Mineralogist: 57: 426-438.

Internet Links for Connellite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Connellite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Connellite

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