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Cooperite

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Formula:
PtS
System:TetragonalColour:Steel gray
Hardness:4 - 5
Name:Named after R.A. Cooper, South Africa, who first described the mineral.
Dimorph of:Braggite


Cooperite in difference from Braggite contains only negligible admixtures of Pd and Ni.

Classification of Cooperite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/C.25-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.CC.35b

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
C : With Ni, Fe, Co, PGE, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:2.8.5.1

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.12.44

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals
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Type Occurrence of Cooperite

Co-type Localities:Mokopane (Potgietersrus), Waterberg District, Bushveld Complex, Limpopo Province, South Africa
Rustenburg Town & Townlands Mine, Rustenburg (Rustenburg District), Western Bushveld Complex, North West Province, South Africa
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Harvard University 101935
Year of Discovery:1928
Geological Setting of type material:Norites

Physical Properties of Cooperite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Steel gray
Hardness (Mohs):4 - 5
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=743 - 1018 kg/mm2
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
On {011}
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):9.5 g/cm3
Density (calculated):10.2 g/cm3

Crystallography of Cooperite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P42/mmc {P42/m 2/m 2/c}
Space Group Setting:P42/mmc
Cell Parameters:a = 3.4700Å, c = 6.1096Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.761
Unit Cell Volume:V 73.57 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Distorted crystal fragments, irregular grains to 1.5mm
Twinning:Occasionally

Optical Data of Cooperite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong, greenish gray to whitish yellow to brown gray and brown
Colour in reflected light:Brownish
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:From white to creamy white to bluish white

Chemical Properties of Cooperite

Formula:
PtS
Idealised Formula:
PtS
Essential elements:Pt, S
All elements listed in formula:Pt, S

Relationship of Cooperite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.CC.UM2007-26-S:CuFeIrNiPtRh
(Ir,Cu,Ni,Pt,Rh,Fe)
 
9
S
 
11
2.CC.05Achavalite
(Fe,Cu)Se
2.CC.05Breithauptite
NiSb
2.CC.05Freboldite
CoSe
2.CC.05Kotulskite
Pd(Te,Bi)
2.CC.05Langisite
(Co,Ni)As
2.CC.05Nickeline
NiAs
2.CC.05Sederholmite
beta-NiSe
2.CC.05Sobolevskite
Pd(Bi,Te)
2.CC.05Stumpflite
Pt(Sb,Bi)
2.CC.05Sudburyite
(Pd,Ni)Sb
2.CC.05Jaipurite
CoS
2.CC.05Zlatogorite
NiCuSb
 
2
2.CC.10Pyrrhotite
Fe
 
1-x
S (x = 0 to 0.17)
2.CC.10Smythite
(Fe,Ni)
 
3+x
S
 
4
(x=0-0.3)
2.CC.10Troilite
FeS
2.CC.15Cherepanovite
RhAs
2.CC.15Modderite
(Co,Fe)As
2.CC.15Ruthenarsenite
(Ru,Ni)As
2.CC.15Westerveldite
(Fe,Ni,Co)As
2.CC.20Millerite
NiS
2.CC.20Mäkinenite
γ-NiSe
2.CC.20UM1990-38-S:CuFeIrNiPtRh
(Ir,Pt,Ni,Fe)S
2.CC.25Mackinawite
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
2.CC.30Hexatestibiopanickelite
(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
2.CC.30Vavřínite
Ni
 
2
SbTe
 
2
2.CC.35aBraggite
(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
2.CC.35aVysotskite
(Pd,Ni)S
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.12.1Seinäjokite
(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)
 
2
3.12.2Laurite
RuS
 
2
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite
(Ru,Ni)As
3.12.4Anduoite
(Ru,Os)As
 
2
3.12.5Ruarsite
(Ru,Os)AsS
3.12.6Xingzhongite
(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.7Rhodplumsite
Rh
 
3
Pb
 
2
S
 
2
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite
(Cu,Fe)Rh
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.9Konderite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)
 
8
S
 
16
3.12.10Bowieite
(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
2
S
 
3
3.12.11Cherepanovite
RhAs
3.12.12Hollingworthite
(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
3.12.13Vysotskite
(Pd,Ni)S
3.12.14Vasilite
(Pd,Cu)
 
16
(S,Te)
 
7
3.12.15Palladseite
Pd
 
17
Se
 
15
3.12.16Oosterboschite
(Pd,Cu)
 
7
Se
 
5
3.12.17Telluropalladinite
Pd
 
9
Te
 
4
3.12.18Temagamite
Pd
 
3
HgTe
 
3
3.12.19Sopcheite
Ag
 
4
Pd
 
3
Te
 
4
3.12.20Michenerite
PdBiTe
3.12.21Kotulskite
Pd(Te,Bi)
3.12.22Telargpalite
(Pd,Ag)
 
3
(Te,Bi)
3.12.23Merenskyite
(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)
 
2
3.12.24Palladoarsenide
Pd
 
2
As
3.12.25Stillwaterite
Pd
 
8
As
 
3
3.12.26Atheneite
Pd
 
2
As
 
0.75
Hg
 
0.25
3.12.27Majakite
PdNiAs
3.12.28Palarstanide
Pd
 
8
(As,Sn)
 
3
3.12.29Arsenopalladinite
Pd
 
8
(As,Sb)
 
3
3.12.30Vincentite
Pd
 
3
As
3.12.31Palladobismutharsenide
Pd
 
2
(As,Bi)
3.12.32Stibiopalladinite
Pd
 
5
Sb
 
2
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite
(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
3.12.34Sudburyite
(Pd,Ni)Sb
3.12.35Testibiopalladite
PdTe(Sb,Te)
3.12.36Borovskite
Pd
 
3
SbTe
 
4
3.12.37Isomertieite
Pd
 
11
Sb
 
2
As
 
2
3.12.38Mertieite-I
Pd
 
11
(Sb,As)
 
4
3.12.39Mertieite-II
Pd
 
8
(Sb,As)
 
3
3.12.40Sobolevskite
Pd(Bi,Te)
3.12.41Froodite
α-PdBi
 
2
3.12.42Polarite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
3.12.43Urvantsevite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
 
2
3.12.45Braggite
(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
3.12.46Kharaelakhite
(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
3.12.47Malanite
Cu(Pt
3+
 
,Ir
3+
 
)
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.48Moncheite
(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)
 
2
3.12.49Maslovite
PtBiTe
3.12.50Sperrylite
PtAs
 
2
3.12.51Platarsite
(Pt,Rh,Ru)AsS
3.12.52Geversite
PtSb
 
2
3.12.53Daomanite
CuPtAsS
 
2
3.12.54Genkinite
(Pt,Pd,Rh)
 
4
Sb
 
3
3.12.55Stumpflite
Pt(Sb,Bi)
3.12.56Insizwaite
Pt(Bi,Sb)
 
2
3.12.57Erlichmanite
OsS
 
2
3.12.58Omeiite
(Os,Ru)As
 
2
3.12.59Osarsite
(Os,Ru)AsS
3.12.60Kashinite
(Ir,Rh)
 
2
S
 
3
3.12.61Inaglyite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Ir,Pt)
 
8
S
 
16
3.12.62Cuproiridsite
(Cu,Fe)Ir
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.63Iridarsenite
(Ir,Ru)As
 
2
3.12.64Irarsite
(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
3.12.65Tolovkite
IrSbS

Other Names for Cooperite

Synonyms:
Cooperite (of Wartenweiler)
Other Languages:
German:Cooperit
Russian:Куперит
Simplified Chinese:硫铂矿
Spanish:Cooperita
Traditional Chinese:硫鉑礦

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Platinum ore.

References for Cooperite

Reference List:

- +
Wartenweiler (discussion of paper by Cooper)(1928), Journal of Chem. Met. Mining Soc. South Africa: 28: 281.

American Mineralogist (1929): 14: 339.

Bannister and Hey (1932), Mineralogical Magazine: 23: 188.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 258-259.

Cabri, L.J., Laflamme, J.H.G., Stewart, J.M., Turner, K., and Skinner, B.J. (1978) On cooperite, braggite, and vysotskite. American Mineralogist: 63: 832-839.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 258-259.

Journal of the Chemical, Metallurgical and Mineralogical Society of South Africa: 28: 281-283.

Internet Links for Cooperite

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  • Localities for Cooperite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Cunningham Co.
        • Fifield
    5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
    • Western Australia
      • Roebourne Shire
        • Karratha
    HOATSON,DM, WALLACE,DA, SUN,S-S, MACIAS,LF, SIMPSON,CJ and KEAYS,RR (1992) Petrology and platinum-group-element geochemistry of Archaean layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, west Pilbara block, Western Australia. AGSO Bull. 242, 319pp. plus map.
    Brazil
     
    • Pará
      • Carajás mineral province
        • Curionópolis
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
    Bulgaria
     
    • Blagoevgrad Oblast
    Цинцов, З. (1998). Състав, разпространение и транспорт на минералите на елементите от групата на платината в алувиалните седименти на Благоевградския грабен. Сп. БГД, 59(2), 59-65.
    • Burgas Oblast (Bourgas Oblast)
      • Kameno Obshtina
    Atanasov, A. V. (1990). Vasilite,(Pd, Cu) 16 (S, Te) 7, a new mineral species from Novoseltsi, Bulgaria. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 687-689.
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Liard Mining Division
        • Dease Lake
    Canadian Mineralogist (2005): 43: 1705.
      • Nanaimo Mining Division
        • Vancouver Island
          • Comox District
      • Similkameen Mining Division
    Nixon, G.T., Cabri, L.J., and Laflamme, J.H.G. (1990) Platinum-group-element mineralizaton in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist: 28, 503-535.
    Nixon, G. T., Cabri, L. J., & Laflamme, J. G. (1990). Platinum-group-element mineralization in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 503-535.
    • Québec
      • Chaudière-Appalaches
        • Les Appalaches RCM
          • Thetford Mines
    Corrivaux, L. & Laflamme, J.H. G. (1990) Minéralogie des éléments du group du platin dans les chromitites de l'ophiolite de Thetford Mines, Québec. Canadian Mineralogist 28, 579-595.
    • Yukon Territory
      • Whitehorse Mining District
        • Kluane District
    Yana Fedortchouk, William LeBarge, Andrei Y. Barkov, Luca Fedele, Robert J. Bodnar, and Robert F. Martin (2010) Platinum-group minerals from a placer deposit in Burwash Creek, Kluane area, Yukon Territory, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist (June 2010), 48(3):583-596
    China
     
    • Hebei Province
      • Chengde Prefecture
        • Chengde Co.
          • Damiao village
    Yu Zuxiang (1997): Acta Geologia Sinica 71(4), 329-331.
        • Fengning Co.
    Yu Zuxiang (1982): Bull. Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 4, 78–81.; Bilun Luo (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(3), 11-15
    Yu Zuxiang, Lin Shujen, Chao Pao, Fang Chingsung, and Huang Chishun (1974): Acta Geologica Sinica 48(2), 202-218
    Yu Zuxiang, Lin Shujen, Chao Pao, Fang Chingsung, and Huang Chishun (1974): Acta Geologica Sinica 48(2), 202-218; Bilun Luo (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(3), 11-15
        • Longhua Co.
    Keqiao Chen, Huifang Yang, Letian Ma, and Zhizhong Peng (1981): Dizhi Pinglun 27, 107-115
        • Luan River valley (Luanhe valley)
    Yu Zuxiang (1997): Acta Geologica Sinica 71(4), 486-490.
        • Xinglong Co.
    Yu Zuxiang (1996): Acta Geologica Sinica 70(4), 309-314.
      • Tangshan Prefecture
        • Zunhua Co.
          • Malan river valley
    Yu Zuxiang, Lin Shujen, Chao Pao, Fang Chingsung, and Huang Chishun (1974): Acta Geologica Sinica 48(2), 202-218; Yu Zuxiang (1981): Geological Review 27, 55-71.
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Hohhot League (Huhehaote Prefecture)
        • Wuchuan Co.
    Guojun Liu and Jianping Wang (2004): Geology and Prospecting 40(1), 17-20
    • Yunnan Province
      • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
        • Midu Co.
    Bilun Luo (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(3), 11-15; Min Liu (2002): Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources 10(5), 28-32; Huanbin Song, Mingqin He, Shangzhong Zhang, and Fenghuang Yi (2008): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 27, 104-108; Shengwei Wang, Xiaoming Sun, Zhenwen Liao, Bangguo Zhou, Maojin Luo, Yang Guo, Xiaofang Jiang, Huaping Zhu, Dong Ma, and Zhanwu Shen (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(6), 1259-1276
    Colombia
     
    • Chocó Department
      • Mun. de Condoto
    Stribrny, B., Wellmer, F.-W., Burgath, K.-P., Oberthür, T., Tarkian, M., and Pfeiffer, T. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 260-281.
    Ecuador
     
    • Esmeraldas Province
    Weiser, T. and Schmidt-Thome, M. (1993) Platinum-group minerals from the Santiago river, Esmeraldas province, Ecuador. Canadian Mineralogist, 31, 61-73.
    Finland
     
    Törroos Ragnar, Johanson Bo, Kojonen Kar, 1998. Alluvial nuggets of platinum group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological survey of Finland, Special Paper; Törnroos, Ragnar, Johanson, Bo, Kojonen, Kari 1998. Alluvial nuggets of Platinum-group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 26
      • Inari
        • Lemmenjoki
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Pt-Pd selenides from river placers, northern Finland; Kari K. Kojonen, Andrew M. McDonald, Chris J. Stanley, and Bo Johanson (2011) Törnroosite, Pd11As2Te2, A New Mineral Species Related to Isomertieite from Miessijoki, Finnish Lapland, Finland. Can Mineral 49:1643-1651
      • Penikat complex
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:1126-1136; Huhtelin, T. A., Alapieti, T. T., & Lahtinen, J. J. (1990). The Paasivaara PGE reef in the Penikat layered intrusion, northern Finland. Mineralogy and Petrology, 42(1-4), 57-70.; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
      • Sodankylä
    Törmänen, T. and Iljina, M., 2008. The Kevitsa intrusion and associated Ni-Cu-PGE deposit. in Ojala, J. and Iljina, M., (eds.). Metallogeny and tectonic evolution of the Northern Fennoscandian Shield : field trip guidebook. 33 IGC excursion No 15, August 15th – 21st 2008., pp 58-66.; Gervilla, F., Kojonen, K. and Merkle, R.K.W., 2005. Platinum-group minerals in the Proterozoic Keivitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion, Sodankylä, northern Finland. Extended Abstract, 10th International Platinum Symposium, Abstract volume
    33 IGC excursion No 15, August 15th – 21st 2008; Lips, ALW (2006) A review of non-ferrous mineral deposits in Europe - Finalised initial database BRGM/RP -54957 - FR
    Greece
     
    • Epirus Department (Ipeiros)
      • Pindos Mtn
        • Pindos ophiolite complex
    Argirios Kapsiotis, Tassos A. Grammatikopoulos, Basilios Tsikouras, Konstantin Hatzipanagiotou, Federica Zaccarini und Giorgio Garuti (2011): Mineralogy, composition and PGM of chromitites from Pefki, Pindos ophiolite complex (NW Greece): evidence for progressively elevated fAs conditions in the upper mantle sequence. Mineralogy and Petrology 101, 129-150.
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Sorachi Province
    Stum & Tarkin (1976) Economic Geology, 71, 1451-1460.
    Madagascar
     
    • Toamasina Province (Tamatave)
      • Eastern Region (Atsinanana Region)
        • Antanambao Manampotsy District
    Legendre, O., and Augé, T. (1992): Alluvial platinum-group minerals from the Manampotsy area, east Madagascar. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 39, 389-404
        • Vatomandry District
          • Sahafary
    Augé, T. & Legendre, O. (1992): Pt-Fe nuggets from alluvial deposits in eastern Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 983-1004
    Mongolia
     
    • Uvs Aimag
    Oyunchimeg, T., Izokh, A.E., Vishnevsky, A.V., and Kalugin, V.M. (2009): Russian Geology and Geophysics 50(10), 863-872.
    Oyunchimeg, T., Izokh, A.E., Vishnevsky, A.V., and Kalugin, V.M. (2009): Russian Geology and Geophysics 50(10), 863-872.
    New Caledonia
     
    • Southern Province
      • Ouen Island
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in chromitite schlieren from the ouen island, new caledonia ophiolite
      • Pirogues River
    Economic Geology: 89: 1454-1468
    New Zealand
     
    • South Island
      • Southland
    5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
        • Orepuki
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
        • Southland District
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    Norway
     
    • Finnmark
      • Karasjok
    Bjørlykke, H. (1966): De alluviale gullforekomster i indre Finnmark. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse 236, 66p; Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68 p. 31
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Bodaibo
            • Lena Gold District
              • Kropotkinsky ore cluster
    - Distler V.V., Yudovskaya M.A., Razvozhaeva E.A., e.a. (2003) New data on platinum mineralization of gold ores of deposit Sukhoi Log (Lena gold mining area, Russia), - Geochimiya (Geochemistry), 393(4), p. 524-527 (in Rus.); Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Aldan Shield
    Mineralogical Magazine 68:871 -- 885
      • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
        • Taimyr Peninsula
          • Putoran Plateau
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
              • Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Chukotskii Autonomous Okrug
        • Kolyma area
          • Bol'shoi Anyui River Basin
            • Baimka River
              • Aluchinskii Massif (Aluchin horst)
    Gornostayev, S.S., Crocket, J.H., Mochalov, A.G., and Lajoki, K.V.O. (1999) The platinum-group minerals of the Baimka placer deposits, Aluchin horst, Russian Far East. Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1117-1129.
        • Pekul'nei Range
          • Northern Pekul'nei River
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
    Tony Nikischer specimen; Sidorov, E. G., Tolstykh, N. D., Podlipsky, M. Y., & Pakhomov, I. O. (2004). Placer PGE minerals from the Filippa clinopyroxenite-dunite massif (Kamchatka). Geologiya i Geofizika (Russian Geology and Geophysics), 45(9), 1128-1144.
    [CanMin 38 p1251-1264 "The association of platinum-group minerals in placers of the Pustaya River, Kamchatka, Russia"]
      • Khabarovskiy Kray
        • Ayan-Maya district
          • Aldan shield
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    P.M. Kartashov data
      • Primorskiy Kray
        • Khanka lake
    Shcheka G.G., Vrzhosek A.A., Lehmann B., Tolstykh N.D. (2004) Associations of platinum-group minerals from the Zolotaya gold placiers, Primorye, Russian Far East, - Can. Miner., v.42, pp. 583-599.
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
    Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Monche-Tundra
    http://www.duke.edu/~boudreau/9thPtSymposium/Grokhovskaya_Abstract.pdf
    Yury L. Voytekhovsky, Yury N. Neradovsky (2008) The Cu-Ni-PGE and Cr deposits of the Monchegorsk area, the Kola Peninsula, Russia. 33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
    Chashchin, V. V., & Petrov, S. V. (2013). Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(5), 357-382.
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
    9th International platinum symposium Chromite-PGE mineralization in the Uktus Alaskan-Type Complex (Central Urals,)
      • Southern Urals
        • Bashkortostan Republic (Bashkiria Republic)
    F. Zaccarini et al. , The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 42, pp. 545-562 (2004).
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    S.N. Britvin, N.S. Rudashevsky, A.N. Bogdanova, D.K. Shcherbachev (2001) Miassite Rh17S15, a new mineral from a placer of the Miass River, Urals. Zap. Vseross. Mineral. Obshch., 130(2), 41–45 (in Russian, English abs.).
    Sierra Leone
     
    • Western Area
      • Guma Water
    Applied Earth Science, Volume 110, Number 1, 2001 , pp. 45-58(14); John F.W. Bowles, Hazel M. Prichard and Peter C.Fisher (2002) Platinum-group minerals (PGM) in the Freetown Complex, Sierra Leone. 9th Platinum symposium
    South Africa
     
    • Eastern Cape Province
      • Alfred Nzo District
        • Insizwa
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Free State Province
    Minerals of South Africa
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Limpopo Province
    www.bgr.de/b423/oberthuer_ptconf_pgm_bushveld.pdf.
        • Burgersfort
          • Sekhukhuneland
    Minerals of South Africa
    Minerals of South Africa
    The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
        • Waterberg District
    American Mineralogist, Volume 63 , pages 832-839, 1978
    Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.
    Cabri, L. J. & Chen, T.T. (1976) : Stibiopalladinite from the type locality. American Mineralogist. 61, 1249-1254
      • Eastern Bushveld Complex
        • Merensky Reef
    Minerals of South Africa; Schwellnus, J. S. I., Hiemstra, S. A., & Gasparrini, E. (1976). The Merensky reef at the Atok platinum mine and its environs. Economic Geology, 71(1), 249-260.
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Eastern Bushveld Complex
        • Lydenburg
    Minerals of South Africa
      • Witwatersrand field
        • West Rand
    http://www.unileoben.ac.at/~buero62/minpet/malitch/4IASMalitch.pdf
    • North West Province
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Pilanesberg Alkaline Complex
          • Pilanesberg Mtn
    Minerals of South Africa
        • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
    Minerals of South Africa
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, pg 199;
    ourn.Chem.Metall.Mining Soc.S.Africa,(1928) 28, 281-283
    Minerals of South Africa
    Minerals of South Africa; Brynard, H. J., De Villiers, J. P. R., & Viljoen, E. A. (1976). A mineralogical investigation of the Merensky Reef at the Western Platinum mine, near Marikana, South Africa. Economic Geology, 71(7), 1299-1307.
    Spain
     
    • Galicia
      • A Coruña (La Coruña)
        • Cariño (Ortigueira)
          • Cabo Ortegal complex
    Madon, M., Gil, J.I., Via, J. and Girardeau, J. (1991). Characterization and thermodynamic properties of andradite, Ca3Fe2Si3O12. American Mineralogist, 76:1249-1260.; Moreno, T., Lunar, R., Prichard, H.M., Monterrubio, S. and Ortega, L. (1999) Platinum-group element mineralization in chromitites from the ultramafic massifs of the Cabo Ortegal complex. Geogaceta, 25:135-138.; Moreno, T., Gibbons, W., Lunar, R., Prichard, H.M., Monterrubio, S. and García-izquierdo, B. (2002) Concentraciones de cromita y elementos del grupo del platino en las rocas ultramáficas del complejo de Cabo Ortegal (NO de España): implicaciones tectónicas. Bol. Soc. Esp. Min., 25:129-144.; García, B., Lunar, R. and Capote, R. (2002). Difusión de Al-Cr en espinelas durante la deformación en rocas ultramáficas de los complejos de Cabo Ortegal (NO de España) y de BraganÇa (NE de Portugal). Bol. Soc. Esp. Min., 25A:37-44.
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Rum
    Power, M.R., Pirrie, D., Andersen, J.C.O., and Butcher, A.R. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 762-775.
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Bethel Borough
        • Goodnews Bay
          • Salmon River - Red Mountain District
    Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
    • California
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • Hoopa Indian Reservation
            • Pekwuteu
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 63.
      • Mariposa Co.
        • West Belt
          • Hornitos District
            • Quartzburg
              • Quartzburg School
    Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
      • Merced Co.
        • Snelling District
          • Snelling
            • Merced River
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 63.
      • Stanislaus Co.
        • Hughson
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 64.
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 64.
    • Montana
      • Stillwater Co.
        • Nye
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    Canadian Mineralogist; August 2006; v. 44; no. 4; p. 895-903; Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
          • Blakely Creek
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
          • J-M Reef (Howland Reef)
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 23, pp."149-162(1 985)
          • Lost Mountain
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
    • Wyoming
      • Albany Co.
        • Lake Owen Complex
    5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Masvingo
      • Chiredzi Mining District (Hartley Mining District)
        • Chiredzi
    Chusi Li, Ripley, E.M., Oberthür, T., Miller, Jr., J.D., and Joslin, G.D. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 97-110.; Stribrny, B., Wellmer, F.-W., Burgath, K.-P., Oberthür, T., Tarkian, M., and Pfeiffer, T. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 260-281.; Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342
    Oberthür, T., Weiser, T. W., Gast, L., & Kojonen, K. (2003). Geochemistry and mineralogy of platinum-group elements at Hartley Platinum Mine, Zimbabwe. Mineralium Deposita, 38(3), 327-343.
    • Midlands
      • Shurugwi District (Selukwe District)
    Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342
      • Zvishavane District
        • Zvishavane (Shabani; Shabanie; Shavani)
    Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342; Nashwa, Velaphi Moses. "The flotation of high talc-containing ore from the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe." (2008). MS Thesis
    Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Buchholz, P., & Locmelis, M. (2013). The oxidized ores of the Main Sulphide Zone, Great Dyke, Zimbabwe: turning resources into minable reserves-mineralogy is the key. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 113(3), 00-00.
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