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Coquimbite

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Formula:
Fe
 
2-x
Al
 
x
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O, x ~0.5
System:TrigonalColour:Light violet to purple, ...
Hardness:
Member of:Coquimbite Group
Name:
Named in 1841 by August Breithaupt for the type locality in the province of Coquimbo, Chile
Dimorph of:Paracoquimbite


Visually indistinguishable from aluminocoquimbite.

Classification of Coquimbite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/C.08-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.CB.55

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 7th edition ID:29.8.3.1
Dana 8th edition ID:29.8.3.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
8 : A2(XO4)3·H2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.10.9

25 : Sulphates
10 : Sulphates of Fe alone
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Type Occurrence of Coquimbite

Type Locality:Coquimbo Region, Chile
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany 18558
Year of Discovery:1841

Occurrences of Coquimbite

Geological Setting:Secondary weathering zone of iron sulfide deposits in arid regions. Rarely in fumaroles.

Physical Properties of Coquimbite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Light violet to purple, Greenish white, Bluish white, Yellowish white, Brownish white
Streak:white
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Imperfect/Fair
fair/imperfect on [1011]
very poor/difficult on {1010}
Fracture:Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.11(1) g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.12 g/cm3
Comment:Dana, 7th ed. gives calculated density as 2.137.

Crystallography of Coquimbite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:P3 1c
Cell Parameters:a = 10.922(9) Å, c = 17.084(14) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.564
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,764.92 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Short prismatic [0001] with {1010} and {1120} to pyramidal crystals {1011}. Massive, granular.

Epitaxial Relationships of Coquimbite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Paracoquimbite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
Epitaxi Comments:Paracoquimbite in parallel position. Lamellar intergrowths on {0001}, or as scepter-like overgrowths.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
8.28 (80)
5.47 (60)
4.60 (60)
3.64 (60)
3.50 (50)
3.36 (100)
2.77 (50)
2.76 (80)
Comments:ICDD 44-1425

Optical Data of Coquimbite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.539 nε = 1.548
Birefringence:0.009
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.009

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Optical Extinction:Parallel
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Coquimbite

Formula:
Fe
 
2-x
Al
 
x
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O, x ~0.5
Simplified for copy/paste:Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3·9H2O, x ~0.5
Idealised Formula:
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
Essential elements:Al, Fe, H, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Al, Fe, H, O, S
Analytical Data:Soluble in cold water. Soluble in cold mineral acids. Heating a water solution causes decomposition of the solution with precipitation of hydrated ferric oxide.
Empirical Formula:
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
Common Impurities:Al

Relationship of Coquimbite to other Species

Member of:Coquimbite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Aluminocoquimbite
FeAl(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
Paracoquimbite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.CB.05Dwornikite
(Ni,Fe)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Gunningite
ZnSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Kieserite
MgSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Poitevinite
(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Szmikite
MnSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Szomolnokite
FeSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.05Cobaltkieserite
CoSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CB.07Sanderite
MgSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CB.10Bonattite
CuSO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Aplowite
(Co,Mn,Ni)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Boyleite
(Zn,Mg)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Ilesite
(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Rozenite
FeSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Starkeyite
MgSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Drobecite
CdSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.15Cranswickite
MgSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Chalcanthite
CuSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Jôkokuite
MnSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Pentahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.20Siderotil
FeSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Bianchite
(Zn,Fe)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite
(Mn,Mg)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Ferrohexahydrite
FeSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Hexahydrite
MgSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Moorhouseite
(Co,Ni,Mn)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite
(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.30Retgersite
NiSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Bieberite
CoSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Boothite
CuSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Mallardite
MnSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Melanterite
FeSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite
(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.35Alpersite
(Mg,Cu)[SO
 
4
] · 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Epsomite
MgSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Goslarite
ZnSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.40Morenosite
NiSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.45Alunogen
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 17H
 
2
O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogen
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CB.50Aluminocoquimbite
FeAl(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
7.CB.55Paracoquimbite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase
(H
 
5
O
 
2
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CB.60Kornelite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 7H
 
2
O
7.CB.65Quenstedtite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
7.CB.70Lausenite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
·6H
 
2
O
7.CB.75Lishizhenite
ZnFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
7.CB.75Römerite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
7.CB.80Ransomite
CuFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Apjohnite
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Bílinite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Dietrichite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Halotrichite
FeAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Pickeringite
MgAl
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Redingtonite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
·22H
 
2
O
7.CB.85Wupatkiite
(Co,Mg,Ni)Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
·22H
 
2
O
7.CB.90Meridianiite
MgSO
 
4
· 11H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.10.1Szomolnokite
FeSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.10.2Rozenite
FeSO
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
25.10.3Siderotil
FeSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
25.10.4Ferrohexahydrite
FeSO
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
25.10.5Melanterite
FeSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
25.10.6Rhomboclase
(H
 
5
O
 
2
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
25.10.7Lausenite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
·6H
 
2
O
25.10.8Kornelite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 7H
 
2
O
25.10.10Paracoquimbite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 9H
 
2
O
25.10.11Quenstedtite
Fe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
25.10.12Ferricopiapite
Fe
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
O(OH) · 20H
 
2
O
25.10.13Metahohmannite
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O · 4H
 
2
O
25.10.14Hohmannite
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O · 8H
 
2
O
25.10.15Butlerite
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
25.10.16Parabutlerite
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
25.10.17Amarantite
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O · 7H
 
2
O
25.10.18Fibroferrite
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)(OH) · 5H
 
2
O
25.10.19Hydroniumjarosite
(H
 
3
O)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.10.20Römerite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 14H
 
2
O
25.10.21Bílinite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 22H
 
2
O
25.10.22Copiapite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
2
· 20H
 
2
O

Other Names for Coquimbite

Synonyms:
Blakeite (of Dana)
Other Languages:
German:Coquimbit
Neutrales schwefelsaures Eisenoxyd
Russian:Кокимбит
Simplified Chinese:针绿矾
Spanish:Coquimbita
Varieties:
Aluminous Coquimbite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent in UV
Other Information:Soluble in cold water; soluble in acids, astringent taste, efforesces in dry air as a white powder.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Coquimbite

Reference List:

- +
Rose (1833) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig (as Neutrales schwefelsaures Eisenoxyd).

Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Vol. 2: 100.

Arzruni (1879) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 3: 516.

Linck (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 7.

Collins (1923) Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 32 (Serrano analysis).

Scharizer (1927) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 65: 339.

Lausen (1928) American Mineralogist: 13: 215.

Hintze, Carl (1889) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4401.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 956.

Ungemach (1935) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 58: 165.

Bandy (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 729 (Henderson analysis).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 532-534.

American Mineralogist: 55: 1534-1540.

American Mineralogist: 56: 1567-1572.

Demartin, F., Castellano, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., Campostrini, I. (2010): Aluminum-for-iron substitution, hydrogen bonding, and a novel structure-type in coquimbite-like minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 323-333.

J. Majzlan, T. Đjorđjević, U. Kolitsch & J. Schefer (2010): Hydrogen bonding in coquimbite, nominally Fe2(SO4)3•9H2O, and the relationship between coquimbite and paracoquimbite. Mineral. Petrol. 100, 241-248.

Frost, R.L., Žigovečki Gobac, Ž., López, A., Xi, Y., Scholz, R., Lana, C., Fernandes Lima, R.M. (2014): Characterization of the sulphate mineral coquimbite, a secondary iron sulphate from Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru – Using infrared, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1063, 251-258.

Internet Links for Coquimbite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
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    Localities for Coquimbite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • San Juan
      • La Alcaparrosa
    Demartin, F., Castellano, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., Campostrini, I. (2010): Aluminum-for-iron substitution, hydrogen bonding, and a novel structure-type in coquimbite-like minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 323-333.
    Australia
     
    • Queensland
    [MinRec 19 p469-490 - "Sielecki, R: The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field"]
        • Mount Isa district
    Sielecki, R. (1988) The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 19, pg. 469-490.
    • South Australia
      • Olary Province
        • Mingary
          • Pine Creek - Mutooroo area
    Noble R.J, Just J, Johnson J. E. (1983), Catalogue of South Australian Minerals - 1983, Govenment Printer, South Australia.
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Leoben
        • Galgenberg
    Annalen 1999, p.11-22
      • Leutschach
    Taucher, J. (1992); Exel, R. (1993)
    Belgium
     
    • Hainaut Province (Henegouwen; Hennegau)
      • Mons
        • Blaton
    Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
    • Walloon Brabant Province
      • Rebecq
        • Quenast
    Histoire, industrie, geologie des Carrières de Quenast. Claude Pire, 1993
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Daniel Campos Province
        • San Pablo de Napa
    Alfredo Petrov collection
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
    Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
        • Mejillones
          • Mejillones peninsula
    Collected by myself
    Some of the Sulphates has been identified and confirmed by Dr Tony Kampf and Dr. Stuart Mills, LAC Musuem, CA, USA
        • Sierra Gorda District
          • Caracoles
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 457, 605, 620.
    Malcherek, T. & Schlüter, J. (2010): Anatacamite from La Vendida mine, Sierra Gorda, Atacama desert, Chile: a triclinic polymorph of Cu2(OH)3Cl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 187, 307-312.
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Cerritos Bayos
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 533; Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Kampf, A.R.; Mills, S.J.; Housley, R.M.; Williams, P.A.; Dini, M. (2012): Alcaparrosaite, K3Ti4+Fe3+(SO4)4O(H2O)2, a new hydrophobic Ti4+ sulfate from Alcaparrosa, Chile. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 851-861.
          • Chuquicamata District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 533.
            • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 533; Uwe Kolitsch (SXRD)
    • Atacama Region
      • Copiapó Province
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 533.
    AM 55 (1970), 534
    China
     
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Wuhai League (Wuhai Prefecture)
        • Wuda District
          • Wuda Coal mining area
    American Mineralogist: 90: 1729-1739.
    Am Min 90:1729-1739
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
          • Xitieshan
    Wanmao Li, Guoying Chen, and Zhizhong Peng (1986): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 6(2), 109-114
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
        • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
    Yingxia Xu, Kezhang Qin, Kuishou Ding, Yu Miao, Tonghui Fang, Xingwang Xu, and He Sun (2007): Mineral Deposits 26(1), 58-69; Kezhang Qin, Kuishou Ding, Yingxia Xu, Yu Miao, Tonghui Fang, and Xingwang Xu (2008): Acta Petrologica Sinica 24(5), 1112-1122
    Cyprus
     
    • Nicosia District (Lefkoşa District; Lefkosia District)
      • Skouriotissa
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 533.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
    France
     
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Hautes-Alpes
        • La Chapelle-en-Valgaudemar (La Chapelle-en-Valgaudémar)
    Bourgoin, V., Favreau, G., Boulliard, J.-C. (2011): Jas Roux: un gisement exceptionnel à minéraux de thallium. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2011, 2-91.
      • Var
        • Tanneron
    Mari G. (2002), La mine de Fontsante (Var), Le Règne Minéral, n°43, pp: 38-60
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Goslar
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 533.
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Ruhr Coal Mining area
        • Herne
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Saxony
      • Dresden
        • Freital
    Witzke, T. (2012): Neubestimmungen von Fundstellen in Sachsen: Pyracmonit, Philipsbornit, Mottramit, Mansfieldit, Hydrocerussit und weitere. Aufschluss, 63, 295-300.
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
    Schnorrer, G. & Breitenbach, H. (1996): Lavrion: Neufunde aus dem antiken Bergbau und in historischen Schlacken. Lapis, 21 (1), 45-48; 62.
    Hungary
     
    • Baranya Co.
      • Mecsek Mtns
        • Pécs
    • Heves Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Parádfürdő
    ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997; Sánoor Szakáll, Mária Foldvári, Gábor Papp, Péter Kovács-pálffy, Árpád Kovács (1997) Secondary Sulphate Minerals From Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-petrographica, Szeged, Xxxviii, Supplementum, 7-63.
        • Recsk
    ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997; Sánoor Szakáll, Mária Foldvári, Gábor Papp, Péter Kovács-pálffy, Árpád Kovács (1997) Secondary Sulphate Minerals From Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-petrographica, Szeged, Xxxviii, Supplementum, 7-63.
    Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
    Iran
     
    • Kerman Province
      • Pariz
    Khorasanipour, M., Tangestani, M. H., Naseh, R., & Hajmohammadi, H. (2011). Hydrochemistry, mineralogy and chemical fractionation of mine and processing wastes associated with porphyry copper mines: a case study from the Sarcheshmeh mine, SE Iran. Applied Geochemistry, 26(5), 714-730.
    • Yazd Province
      • Saghand (Sagand; Saqand)
    Bariand, P., Cesbron, F. & Berthelon, J. P. (1977): Iron sulfates of Saghand near Yazd (Iran). Memoire Hors-Série de la Société Géologique de France 8, 77-85.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
        • Naples Province
          • Phlegrean Fields
            • Pozzuoli
    De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
    • Sicily
      • Messina Province
        • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
          • Lipari
            • Vulcano Island
              • Porto Levante
    PANICHI U. (1924): Contributo allo studio dei minerali dell'Isola di Vulcano. - Memorie della Società Italiana delle Scienze (detta dei XL) - serie 3 - 19, 3-55.
    P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44; Demartin, F., Castellano, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., Campostrini, I. (2010): Aluminum-for-iron substitution, hydrogen bonding, and a novel structure-type in coquimbite-like minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 323-333.
    • Tuscany
      • Grosseto Province
        • Gavorrano
    Capperi M., Nannoni R., Brizzi G., 1996. Gavorrano e le sue miniere. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 20.
        • Massa Marittima
    Brizzi G., Capperi M., Masotti A. - La miniera di pirite di Niccioleta, Massa Marittima (GR) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, Fasc. 4 (1989) e Fasc. 1 - 2(1990)
        • Montieri
    Brizzi G., Masotti A., 1989. Campiano: un vanto d'Italia. La miniera e i suoi minerali. Riv. Miner. Ital., 12: 1-20.
        • Scansano
          • Pereta
    Brizzi, G. & Meli, R. (1995): La miniera antimonifera di Pereta con un cenno a quella solfo-cinabrifera di Zolfiere in comune di Scansano (GR). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 19:, 217-240.
      • Livorno Province
        • Elba Island
          • Capoliveri
    J. Göske, T. Witzke, H. Pöllmann, S. Stöber (1997) - Neufunde von Sekundarmineralen in der Lagerstatte Calamita/Insel Elba - Der Aufschluss, 48: 305-313.
      • Lucca Province
        • Apuan Alps
          • Pietrasanta
            • Valdicastello Carducci
    Christian V. Mavris collection
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Hidaka Province
        • Monbetsu (Mombetsu)
    A. Petrov specimen; Sakurai (K.), Kato (A.), Fujiyama (I.), and Imayoshi (T.), 1958. Journ. Min. Soc. Japan, 3, 772-7
      • Kameda Peninsula
        • Nanae
    Y. Okazaki collection
    Morocco
     
    • Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz Region
      • Marrakech Prefecture
        • Marrakech
    Rachid Hakkou, Mostafa Benzaazoua and Bruno Bussière (2008): Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization. Mine Water and the Environment, 27, 145-159.
    Peru
     
    • Arequipa Department
    Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
    • Ayacucho Department
      • Lucanas Province
        • Huachuas
    Hyršl, J. (2010): Ein Neufund fantastischer Sulfate in der Mina Javier. Mineralien-Welt 21 (3), 68-71 (in German).
    • Junín Department
      • Yauli Province
    Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
    • La Libertad Department
      • Otuzco Province
    Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
    • Lima Department
    Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
    Portugal
     
    • Aveiro District
      • Albergaria-a-Velha
        • Branca
    Marques de Sá, J. & Leal Gomes, C. (2010): Les mines de cuivre et nickel de Palhal et Telhadela, Albergaria-a-Velha, Aveiro, Portugal. Le Règne Minéral, 92, 36-47.
    • Beja District
      • Mértola
        • Corte do Pinto
    Lapis, 35 (2010), #11, 9.
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Deva
    Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 85:1-6
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
    Lapis, 35 (2010), #11, 10.
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    Saint Kitts and Nevis
     
    • Nevis
      • Jessup Village
    C. Osborne Hutton (1970) Coquimbite from Nevis, West Indies. Mineralogical Magazine 37:939-941
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Banská Štiavnica Co.
      • Revúca Co.
        • Sirk
    Grecula,P. et al., 1995: Ložiska nerastných surovín Slovenského rudohoria. Zväz.1, Bratislava, 834 s
    • Košice Region
      • Gelnica Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 531; Duda, Rejl, Slivka: "Mineralien", 1991
    South Africa
     
    • KwaZulu-Natal Province
      • eThekwini District
        • Westville
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Limpopo Province
      • Bushveld Complex
        • Waterberg District
          • Rooiberg tin field
    Minerals of South Africa
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Huelva
        • Almonaster la Real
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 533.
        • Minas de Riotinto
          • Rio Tinto Mines (Riotinto Mines)
    Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
        • Nerva
    Romero, A., I. Gonzalez & E. Galan (2006): The role of efflorescent sulfates in the storage of trace elements in stream waters polluted by acid mine-drainage: the case of Pena del Hierro, southwestern Spain. Canadian Mineralogist 44, 1431-1446.
    Lapis, 35 (2010), #11, 9.
    • Catalonia
      • Barcelona
        • Barcelonès
          • Barcelona city
            • Collserola mountain range
              • Santa Creu d'Olorda
    Mata i Perelló, J.M. (1990): Els minerals de Catalunya. Institut d´Estudis Catalans
    Switzerland
     
    • Ticino (Tessin)
      • Lago Maggiore
        • Brissago
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 122.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Le Trient Valley
        • Les Marécottes
    - Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
      • Martigny
        • Mont Chemin
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 121.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
            • Bisbee
              • Calumet and Arizona group of claims (Calumet and Arizona Mining Company group of claims)
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 297; Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 7.
    Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 7.
              • Queen Hill
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 531; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 184, 186, 415; Merwin, H.E. & E. Posnjak (1937), Sulphate encrustations in the Copper Queen mine, Bisbee, AZ, Am.Min.: 22: 567-571; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 59, 62.
      • Pima Co.
        • Sierrita Mts
          • Pima District (Olive District; Mineral Hill District; Twin Buttes District)
            • San Xavier
              • Mission complex
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 186.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Pinal Mts
          • Pioneer District
            • Superior
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 186.
      • Yavapai Co.
        • Black Hills (Black Hill Range)
          • Verde District
            • Jerome
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 186; Lausen, C. (1928), Hydrous sulphates formed under fumerolic conditions at the United Verde mine, AmMin: 13: 203-229; Anderson, C.A. (1927), Voltaite from Jerome, AZ, Am.Min.: 12: 287-290; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 63.
    • California
      • Calaveras Co.
        • Foothill Copper Belt
          • Telegraph City
    Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1867a), A notice of the peculiar mode of the occurrence of gold and silver in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, and especially at Whiskey Hill, in Placer County, and Quail Hill, in Calaveras County, California: California Academy of Natural Sciences Proceedings: 3: 351; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 159.
      • Contra Costa Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • Clayton
            • Mount Diablo State Park
              • Mount Diablo (Mt Diablo)
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 263, 273.
      • Inyo Co.
        • Coso Mts (Coso Range)
          • Coso District (New Coso District)
            • Coso Hot Springs
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 273.
    www.mineralsocal.org
        • Darwin area
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 159.
      • Lake Co.
        • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
          • Clear Lake Oaks
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1886), Sixth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 6 part 1, 145 pp.: 104; White, D.E. & C.E. Roberson (1962), Sulphur Bank, California: Geological Society of America Buddington Memorial Volume: Petrologic studies: 407; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 273; www.mineralsocal.org.
      • Napa Co.
        • Knoxville District
          • Knoxville
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 533; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1901), Mineralogical notes; with chemical analyses by W.T. Schaller: University of California, Department of Geological Science Bulletin: 2: 322; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 273; www.mineralsocal.org
        • Mayacmas Mts (Mayacamas Mts)
          • Calistoga District (Silverado District)
            • Calistoga
              • Twin Peaks
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 324; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 271.
      • Placer Co.
        • Lincoln
    Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1867a), A notice of the peculiar mode of the occurrence of gold and silver in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, and especially at Whiskey Hill, in Placer County, and Quail Hill, in Calaveras County, California: California Academy of Natural Sciences Proceedings: 3: 351; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 293.
          • Clipper Gap
    Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1867a), A notice of the peculiar mode of the occurrence of gold and silver in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, and especially at Whiskey Hill, in Placer County, and Quail Hill, in Calaveras County, California: California Academy of Natural Sciences Proceedings: 3: 350-351; Browne, J.R. (1869), Report of J. Ross Browne on the mineral resources of the states and territories west of the Rocky Mountains (US Treasury Dept.), 674 pp., H.H. Bancroft and Co., San Francisco [reprint of 2]: 111; Logan, Clarence August (1936), Gold mines of Placer County: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division Mines (Report 32): 32(1): 40; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 273.
      • San Bernardino Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 616.
          • Calico District (Daggett District)
            • Yermo
              • Mule Canyon
    Foshag, William Frederick (1931c), Krausite, a new sulphate from California: American Mineralogist: 16: 352-360; Moller, W.P. (1963) Sulfur Hole. Mineralogist: 31, part 1, N. 3: 12-16; part 2, No. 4: 13; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 273; Joseph F. Cooper, Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A. Hadley, and William P. Moller (2001) The Sulfur Hole, Calico District, San Bernardino County, California
      • Shasta Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • West Shasta Copper - Zinc District
            • Iron Mountain [town]
              • Iron Mountain
    Mineralogical Record 22:381-382; Nordstrom, D. K. and Alpers, C. N. (1999): Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restauration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 96, 3455-3462.; Majzlan, J., Alpers, C. N., Koch, C. B., McCleskey, R. B., Myneni, S. C., & Neil, J. M. (2011). Vibrational, X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California. Chemical Geology, 284(3), 296-305.
    Jamieson, H. E., Robinson, C., Alpers, C. N., McCleskey, R. B., Nordstrom, D. K., & Peterson, R. C. (2005). Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California. Chemical Geology, 215(1), 387-405.
      • Trinity Co.
        • Coastal Range
          • Island Mountain
            • Moose Peak
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 522; Landon, Robert Emmanuel (1927), Roemerite from California: American Mineralogist: 12: 279; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 273.
    • Colorado
      • Eagle Co.
    USGS PP 1017(Lovering,1978)
          • Battle Mountain
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
          • Gilman
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Gilpin Co.
        • Central City District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Mesa Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Georgia
      • Lincoln Co.
    Collected by Julian Gray 21 September 2010. Confirmed by XRD at the University of Georgia.
    • Indiana
      • Spencer Co.
        • Maxville
    Erd, R. C. and S.S. Greenburg (1960) Minerals of Indiana. Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 18 73pp
    • Montana
      • Silver Bow Co.
        • Butte District (Summit Valley District)
          • Butte
    The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
    • Nebraska
      • Jefferson Co.
        • Fairbury
    Chemical Geology Volume 215, Issues 1-4, 15 February 2005, Pages 433-452
    • Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Goldfield District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
          • Goldfield
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Washoe Co.
        • Steamboat Springs District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Utah
      • Emery Co.
        • San Rafael District (San Rafael Swell)
          • Calf Mesa
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Min Rec 19:331-338
      • Utah Co.
        • East Tintic Mts
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Virginia
        • Southern Section-Blue Ridge Province
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Louisa Co.
        • Gold-Pyrite Belt
          • Mineral
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Wise Co.
        • Big Stone Gap
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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