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Cotunnite

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Formula:
PbCl
 
2
System:OrthorhombicColour:Colourless, white, light ...
Hardness:1½ - 2
Name:
After Domenico Cotugno (1736-1822), Professor of Anatomy, University of Naples.
This page provides mineralogical data about Cotunnite.

Classification of Cotunnite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/D.0-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.DC.85

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
Dana 8th edition ID:9.2.7.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
2 : AX2
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.8.4

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb
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Type Occurrence of Cotunnite

Type Locality:Mt Vesuvius, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy
Year of Discovery:1825

Occurrences of Cotunnite

Geological Setting:Alteration product of galena under arid, saline conditions.

Physical Properties of Cotunnite

Lustre:Adamantine, Silky, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless, white, light yellow, light green
Hardness (Mohs):1½ - 2
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Perfect
On {010}.
Fracture:Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):5.8 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.81 g/cm3

Crystallography of Cotunnite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 7.6222(5) Å, b = 9.0448(7) Å, c = 4.5348(4) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.843 : 1 : 0.501
Unit Cell Volume:V 312.63 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Usually flattened {010} and elongated [001]. Doubly terminated with equivalent faces unequally developed. Reentrant angles may be present in the prism zone due to oscillatory combination of {210} and {110}. Massive, granular.
Twinning:On {120} (artificial crystals).
Comment:Space group Pnam (non-standard setting)

Epitaxial Relationships of Cotunnite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Galena
PbS
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.057 (35)
3.890 (75)
3.810 (40)
3.579 (100)
2.776 (55)
2.510 (45)
2.096 (40)

Optical Data of Cotunnite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 2.199 nβ = 2.217 nγ = 2.260
2V:Measured: 67° , Calculated: 68°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.061

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Cotunnite

Formula:
PbCl
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:PbCl2
Essential elements:Cl, Pb
All elements listed in formula:Cl, Pb

Relationship of Cotunnite to other Species

Common Associates:
MatlockiteCerussiteAnglesite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.DC.05Laurionite
PbCl(OH)
3.DC.05Paralaurionite
PbCl(OH)
3.DC.10Fiedlerite
Pb
 
3
FCl
 
4
(OH) · H
 
2
O
3.DC.15Penfieldite
Pb
 
2
Cl
 
3
(OH)
3.DC.20Laurelite
Pb
 
7
F
 
12
Cl
 
2
3.DC.25Bismoclite
(BiO)Cl
3.DC.25Daubréeite
(BiO)(OH,Cl)
3.DC.25Matlockite
PbFCl
3.DC.25Rorisite
CaFCl
3.DC.25Zavaritskite
(BiO)F
3.DC.25Zhangpeishanite
BaFCl
3.DC.30Nadorite
PbSbClO
 
2
3.DC.30Perite
PbBiClO
 
2
3.DC.35Aravaipaite
Pb
 
3
F
 
3
[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
3.DC.37Calcioaravaipaite
PbCa
 
2
AlF
 
9
3.DC.40Thorikosite
Pb
 
3
Cl
 
2
(OH)(SbO
 
3
,AsO
 
3
)
3.DC.45Mereheadite
Pb
 
47
Cl
 
25
(OH)
 
13
O
 
24
(CO
 
3
)(BO
 
3
)
 
2
3.DC.50Blixite
Pb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
Cl
3.DC.55Pinalite
Pb
 
3
WO
 
5
Cl
 
2
3.DC.60Symesite
Pb
 
10
(SO
 
4
)O
 
7
Cl
 
4
· H
 
2
O
3.DC.65Ecdemite
Pb
 
6
Cl
 
4
(As
 
2
O
 
7
)
3.DC.65Heliophyllite
Pb
 
6
Cl
 
4
(As
 
2
O
 
7
)
3.DC.70Mendipite
Pb
 
3
Cl
 
2
O
 
2
3.DC.75Damaraite
Pb
 
3
Cl(OH)O
 
2
3.DC.80Onoratoite
Sb
 
8
Cl
 
2
O
 
11
3.DC.90Pseudocotunnite
K
 
2
PbCl
 
4
3.DC.95Barstowite
Pb
 
4
Cl
 
6
(CO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.8.1Abhurite
Sn
 
21
Cl
 
16
(OH)
 
14
O
 
6
8.8.2Matlockite
PbFCl
8.8.3Laurelite
Pb
 
7
F
 
12
Cl
 
2
8.8.5Mendipite
Pb
 
3
Cl
 
2
O
 
2
8.8.6Damaraite
Pb
 
3
Cl(OH)O
 
2
8.8.7Laurionite
PbCl(OH)
8.8.8Paralaurionite
PbCl(OH)
8.8.9Penfieldite
Pb
 
2
Cl
 
3
(OH)
8.8.10Fiedlerite
Pb
 
3
FCl
 
4
(OH) · H
 
2
O
8.8.11Blixite
Pb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
Cl
8.8.12Pseudocotunnite
K
 
2
PbCl
 
4
8.8.13Diaboleite
Pb
 
2
CuCl
 
2
(OH)
 
4
8.8.14Pseudoboleite
Pb
 
31
Cu
 
24
Cl
 
62
(OH)
 
48
8.8.15Chloroxiphite
Pb
 
3
CuO
 
2
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.8.17Bideauxite
Pb
 
2
AgCl
 
3
(F,OH)
 
2
8.8.18Boleite
KPb
 
26
Ag
 
9
Cu
 
24
(OH)
 
48
Cl
 
62
8.8.19Aravaipaite
Pb
 
3
F
 
3
[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
8.8.20Yedlinite
Pb
 
6
Cr
3+
 
Cl
 
6
(O,OH,H
 
2
O)
 
8
8.8.21Kolarite
PbTeCl
 
2
8.8.22Hematophanite
Pb
 
4
Fe
 
3
O
 
8
(OH,Cl)

Other Names for Cotunnite

Synonyms:
CottuniteLead chloride
Other Languages:
German:Chlorblei
Cotunnit
Italian:Cotunnia
Russian:Котуннит
Simplified Chinese:氯铅矿
Spanish:Cotunnita
Traditional Chinese:氯鉛礦

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Cotunnite

Reference List:

- +
Monticelli and Covelli (1825).

Kobell, Fr. Von (1830) Charakteristik der Mineralien. Part 1 (1830); part 2 (1831), Nürnberg: 2: 179.

Stöber (1895) Académie royale des sciences de Belgique, Brussels, Bull.: 30(3): 345.

Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 890.

Hintze, Carl (1912) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [2B]: 2350.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 2: 193.

Lorenz and Eitel (1915) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 91: 48.

Russell (1920) Mineralogical Magazine: 14: 64.

Bräkken and Harang (1928) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 68: 123.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 42-44.

Mineralogial Abstracts (1969): 69: 1075.

Soviet Physics – Crystallography (1976): 21: 38.

Internet Links for Cotunnite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Cotunnite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Cotunnite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
    Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Goldberg group
          • Kleine Fleiß valley
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Sudbury District
        • Levack Township
    Dare, S. A., Barnes, S. J., Prichard, H. M., & Fisher, P. C. (2014). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Cu-Rich Ores from the McCreedy East Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit (Sudbury, Canada): Implications for the Behavior of Platinum Group and Chalcophile Elements at the End of Crystallization of a Sulfide Liquid. Economic Geology, 109(2), 343-366.
      • Thunder Bay District
    Liferovich & Mitchell pers. comm. L. Horváth 2005: L. Horváth 2009
        • Seeley Lake Area
    EcoMetrix Reort for Stillwater Canada Inc, Marathon Project (2012) Table 4.1-3
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Sierra Gorda District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 44.
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Challacollo
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 44; J. Schlüter at al.: N. Jb. Min. Abh. 182(1):95-101 (2005)
    France
     
    • Alsace
      • Haut-Rhin
        • Ste Marie-aux-Mines (Markirch)
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", 1997
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Lozère
        • Mende
          • St Etienne-du-Valdonnez
    D. Gol (2009), Le Règne Minéral n°90
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    U. Kolitsch, J. Gröbner, F. Brandstätter and R. Bayerl (2010): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald (IV): Calcioandyrobertsit, Cotunnit, Gerhardtit, Khaidarkanit, Lukrahnit, Mckinstryit, Moolooit, Rhabdophan-(La), Rouait und Uricit. Lapis 35 (9), 22-27; 62 (in German).
    • Bavaria
      • Lower Bavaria
        • Röhrnbach
    Habel, M. (2009): Der Granodioritbruch der Fa. Josef Uhrmann OHG, Steinerleinbach bei Röhrnbach. Mineralien-Welt 20 (2), 66-86.
    • Hesse
      • Richelsdorf District
        • Süss
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Ruhr Coal Mining area
        • Essen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
        • Marl
          • Marl-Hüls
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Mansfeld Basin
        • Helbra
    XRD analysis (T. Witzke)
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
    No reference listed
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1981): Neufunde von Mineralen aus den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss, 32, 165-169.
          • Passa Limani area
    No reference listed
          • Sounion area
    Laurion The minerals in the ancient slags,page 74,in genaral all discribed minerals can occur at all the slag places mentioned in this book written by Piet gelaude Piet vsn Kalmthout and Christia Rewitzer
    India
     
    • Karnataka
      • Kolar District
        • Kolar Gold Fields
          • Central Schist Belt
    Genkin A D, Safonov Y G, Vasudev V N, Rao B K, Boronikhin V A, Vyalsov L N, Gorshkov A I, Mokhov A V (1985) Kolarite PbTeCl2 and radhakrishnaite PbTe3(Cl,S)2, new mineral species from the Kolar Gold Deposit, India, The Canadian Mineralogist, 23, 501-506
    Israel
     
    • Negev
      • Makhtesh Ramon area (Ramon crater area)
    Itamar, A. (1993): Hydrothermal alteration of quartz syenite in Shen Ramon, Israel: mineralogy, petrography and economic evaluation. Proc. Quadrenn. IAGOD Symp., 8th, 823-834.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Soviet Physics, Crystallography, volume 21, pp. 38(1976); Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 43; Lapis 1994:5 p.13-23,58.
    • Sicily
      • Messina Province
        • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
          • Lipari
            • Vulcano Island
    Campostrini I. et al - Vulcano: ein aussergewohnlicher Fundpunkt von neuen und seltenen Mineralien - MineralienWelt 2010 - nr.3 - p.40-57
    • Tuscany
      • Grosseto Province
        • Massa Marittima
    Lattanzi P. Tanelli G.,1978: Considerazioni genetiche sulla cotunnite del giacimento a pirite di Niccioleta (Toscana). 'Rend.Soc.Ital.Mineral.Petrol. 34 (1) Milano pp. 37-44 Brizzi G., Capperi M., Masotti A. - La miniera di pirite di Niccioleta, Massa Marittima (GR) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, Fasc. 4 (1989) e Fasc. 1 - 2(1990)
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
        • Piombino
    Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Waikato
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    Norway
     
    • Vest-Agder
      • Flekkefjord
        • Hidra (Hitterø)
    Griffin W. L., Nilsen, B. & Jensen, B, B (1977): Mineralogiske undersøkelser av tinntallerkener fra Hidra-vraket. Norsk Sjøfartsmuseums Årsberetning 1976, 111-114
    Peru
     
    • Ancash Department
      • Pallasca Province
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 44.
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Deva
    www.minerals-of-the-carpathians,2009
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
        • Tolbachik volcano
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
            • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Mandarino, J. A. (2003). New minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(3), 803-828.
            • Southern Breakthrough (South Breach)
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    Spain
     
    • Asturias
    José Rafael González López collection.
    Tunisia
     
    • Mahdia Governorate
      • Mahdia
    Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
    U.S. Virgin Islands
     
    Alminas, Henry V.; Foord, Eugene E.; Tucker, Robert E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands USGS Bulletin 2057 36p
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Agnes District
          • Crantock
    BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
        • Wendron & Falmouth District
          • Falmouth
            • Falmouth Harbour
    Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Devon
        • South Devon
          • Torquay
    No reference listed
      • Somerset
        • Cranmore
    Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46; Turner R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2007) Merehead Mineralogy - an Update. Russell Soc Newsletter, No 50, pp 17-18 (March 2007); Turner, R.W., (2006) A Mechanism for the formation of the Mineralised Mn Deposits at Merehead Quarry, Cranmore, Somerset, England. Min. Mag. vol. 70, no. 6, pp 629 - 653
    • Scotland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Dumfriesshire)
        • Wanlockhead
          • Wanlock Dod-Whytes Cleuch
    • Wales
      • Gwynedd (Caernarvonshire)
        • Lleyn Peninsula
          • Llanengan
            • Abersoch
    Hubbard, N. & Green, D.I., 2005. Cotunnite from Penrhyn Du Mine, Gwynedd, Wales. Journal of the Russell Society, 8(2), 106-107.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Mohave Co.
        • Grand Wash Cliffs
          • Bentley District
            • Grand Gulch
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 190; Hill, J.M. (1914b), The Grand Gulch Mining Region, Mohave Co., AZ, USGS Bull.580: 39-58; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Mineras of AZ: 44.
    • California
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Baker
          • Otto Mountain
    Collected by Bob Housley. SEM EDS analzyed.
    • Massachusetts
      • Hampshire Co.
        • Easthampton
    Shepard, C. U. (1866). Cotunnite at Southampton lead mine (American Journal of Science, 2nd series 47:247-48).
    • Utah
      • Juab Co.
        • East Tintic Mts
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
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