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Crocoite

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Formula:
Pb(CrO
 
4
)
System:MonoclinicColour:Orange, red, yellow; ...
Lustre:AdamantineHardness:2½ - 3
Name:Named from the Greek κρόκος "crocon" = saffron, alluding to the saffron-orange colour of its powder.


Crocoite is commonly found as crystals, usually as long prismatic crystals and more rarely as equant crystals, but are most often poorly terminated, and are usually of a bright hyacinth-red color, which are translucent and have an adamantine to vitreous lustre. When fine grained it can be bright yellow to orange, and some crystals are dark red.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Crocoite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Crocoite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/F.01-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.FA.20

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
F : Chromates
A : Without additional anions
Dana 7th edition ID:35.3.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:35.3.1.1

35 : ANHYDROUS CHROMATES
3 : AXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:27.2.5

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
2 : Chromates
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Type Occurrence of Crocoite

Type Locality:Tsvetnoi Mine, Uspenskaya Mt, Berezovskoe Au Deposit (Berezovsk Mines), Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod), Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk), Sverdlovskaya Oblast', Middle Urals, Urals Region, Russia
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Natural History Museum, Paris

Occurrences of Crocoite

Geological Setting:Uncommon secondary mineral in lead deposits associated with chromium bearing rocks.

Physical Properties of Crocoite

Lustre:Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Orange, red, yellow; orange-red in transmitted light.
Streak:Yellow-orange
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
Distinct on {110}, indistinct on {001} and {100}.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):5.97 - 6.02 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.97 g/cm3
Comment:6.06 (Dundas mat.); 6.12 (artificial mat.)

Crystallography of Crocoite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Cell Parameters:a = 7.12Å, b = 7.421Å, c = 6.8Å
β = 102.41°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.959 : 1 : 0.916
Unit Cell Volume:V 350.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals commonly prismatic [001] to acicular crystals with nearly square outline; elongated parallel to [_101]; pseudo-octahedral at times, with {111} {_111}, or acute rhombohedral with {110} {_hOl}. Faces usually smooth and brilliant; {110} commonly striated [001], and the steep orthodomes rounded or distorted. Crystals are often cavernous or hollow. Massive; imperfectly columnar to granular.
Crystal Atlas:
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Crocoite no.76 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Crocoite no.111 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Crocoite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 2.290(2) nβ = 2.360(2) nγ = 2.660(2)
2V:Measured: 57° , Calculated: 54°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.370

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:very strong r > v inclined
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:X= Red-orange
Y = b = Red-orange
Z ^c +5½° = Blood red

Chemical Properties of Crocoite

Formula:
Pb(CrO
 
4
)
Simplified for copy/paste:Pb(CrO4)
Essential elements:Cr, O, Pb
All elements listed in formula:Cr, O, Pb
Common Impurities:Zn,S

Relationship of Crocoite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.FA.05Tarapacáite
K
 
2
[CrO
 
4
]
7.FA.10Chromatite
Ca[CrO
 
4
]
7.FA.15Hashemite
Ba(Cr,S)O
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
27.2.1Tarapacáite
K
 
2
[CrO
 
4
]
27.2.2Lópezite
K
 
2
[Cr
 
2
O
 
7
]
27.2.3Chromatite
Ca[CrO
 
4
]
27.2.4Hashemite
Ba(Cr,S)O
 
4
27.2.6Phoenicochroite
Pb
 
2
(CrO
 
4
)O
27.2.7Santanaite
Pb
 
11
(CrO
 
4
)O
 
12
27.2.8Iranite
Pb
 
10
Cu(CrO
 
4
)
 
6
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2
27.2.9Hemihedrite
Pb
 
10
Zn(CrO
 
4
)
 
6
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH)
 
2

Other Names for Crocoite

Synonyms:
Beresofite (of Shepard)Beresowite (of Shepard)CallochromeChromate of leadCrocoisite
KollochromLehmanniteRed lead oreRed lead-ore from Beresov
Other Languages:
Catalan:Crocoita
Dutch:Crocoiet
French:Crocoïte
Crocoise
Minerai de plomb rouge
Plomb chromaté
Plombe rouge de Sibérie
German:Krokoit
Bleichromat
Bleiischer Chromspath
Chrombleispath
Chromsaures Blei
Crocoisit
Kallochrom
Krokoisit
Lehmannit
Rotbleierz
Rothes Bleierz
Italian:Crocoite
Japanese:紅鉛鉱
Latin:Minera plumbi rubra
Minera spathiforma rubra
Nova minera plumbi
Low Saxon:Krokoit
Russian:Крокоит
Simplified Chinese:铬铅矿
Slovak:Krokoit
Spanish:Crocoisita
Crocoita
Lehmannita

Other Information

Health Warning:Chromate minerals contain the carcinogenic and mutagenic chromate ion. Always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest. Do not pour chromate-containing solutions down the drain.

References for Crocoite

Reference List:

- +
Lomonosov (1763) Grundlagen der Metallurgie: 1: 44 (as Red lead-ore from Beresov)

Lehmann (1766) Nov. Comm. Ac. Petrop. (as Nova minera Plumbi).

Pallas (1770) Reise durch versch. Prov. russ. Reichs: 2: 235 (as Minerai de plomb rouge).

Werner, A.G. (1774) Von d. äusserlichen Kennzeichen d. Fossilien. Leipzig: 296 (as Rotbleierz and Rothes Bleierz).

Wallerius, J.G. (1775) Systema mineralogicum. Holmiae. vol. 2: 309 (as Minera Plumbi rubra).

Macquart (1789) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris: 36: 389 (as Plombe rouge de Sibérie).

Vauquelin (1794) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris: 45: 393 (as Plombe rouge de Sibérie).

Vauquelin (1798) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris: 46: 152, 311 (as Plombe rouge de Sibérie).

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.; also (1801), Paris: 3: 357 (as Plomb chromaté).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 1084 (as Kallochrom).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 669 (as Crocoise).

Kobell, Fr. Von (1838) Grundzüge der Mineralogie. Nürnberg: 282 (as Krokoisit).

Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Vol. 2: 262 (as Bleiischer Chromspath).

Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller. 8vo, London: 557 (as Lehmannite).

Shepard C.U. (1844) Treatise on Mineralogy. second edition: 121 (as Beresofite).

Dauber (1860) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Ber.: 42: 19.

Des Cloizeaux (1882) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 5: 103.

de Schulten (1904) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 27: 135.

Anderson, C. (1906) Mineralogical Notes: No. III - Axinite, petterdite, crocoite, datolite. Records of the Australian Museum: 6(3), 133-144.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 63.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 7: 130.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4030.

Brill (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 77: 506.

Gliszczynski (1939) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 101: 1.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.:646-649.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 176: 75-83.

Acta Crystallographica: 19: 287-289.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 167.

Mindat.org articles about Crocoite

Article entries:
Untold Story 40Richard Swierczek

Best Localities for Crocoite

Best of Species:Crocoite

Internet Links for Crocoite

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    Localities for Crocoite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Olary Province
        • Wadnaminga goldfield
    • Tasmania
      • Heazlewood district
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 348, 648; Bottrill.
        • Luina
    http://www.crocoite.com/mainadit/luina.htm
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 348, 648.
      • Waratah district
        • Magnet
    Dana 7:II:653.; Haupt, J., Bottrill, R.S., and Sorrell, S.P. 1995, The minerals of the Magnet Mine, Tasmania. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol 1 No 1, 3-19.
      • Zeehan district
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648; Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Australian Journal of Mineralogy (2006) 12: 59-90
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Bottrill, R.S., Williams, P., Dohnt, S., Sorrell, S. and Kemp, N.R. (submitted). Crocoite and associated minerals from Dundas and other locations in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Mineralogy.
    Bottrill et al, 2006'
    Australian Journal of Mineralogy (2006) 12: 59-90
    R. Bottrill, unpub. data; Australian Journal of Mineralogy (2006) 12: 59-90
    Min.Rec.: 20(5):393.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648; Bottrill et al., in prep
        • North Dundas
    Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania, R. Bottrill (in prep) Mineral resources Tasmania
        • Zeehan mineral field
          • Zeehan Queen mine ("Sylvester-Queen")
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    • Western Australia
      • Menzies Shire
        • Comet Vale
    Grguric, B. A., Pring, A., Bevan, A. W. R. and Downes, P. J. (2006): The minerals of Comet Vale, Western Australia. Austral. J. Mineral. 12, 9-23.
      • Westonia Shire
        • Westonia
    Simpson, E.S., (1948) Minerals of Western Australia. Volume 1-3. Government Printer, Perth.
    Austria
     
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Imst - Nassereith District
          • Nassereith
    Exel, R. (1993): Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs. Author's edition, 447 pp.
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648.
    Eberhard Reich info taken from old specimen label.
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Algoma District
        • Nicolet Township
    Sabina, Ann P. (1991) Rocks and Minerals for the Collector: Sudbury to Winnipeg, Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 49.
    Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49.
    Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49.
    Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.58
      • Thunder Bay District
        • Bomby Township
          • Hemlo gold deposit
    Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.86
    • Québec
      • Montréal
    TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L. and PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Sierra Gorda District
          • Caracoles
    maurizio dini collection - analysed material
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
    British Museum online catalogue 2007
    China
     
    • Gansu Province
      • Baiyin Prefecture
        • Baiyin District
          • Baiyinchang ore field
    Guoying Chen and Wanmao Li (1991): Journal of Lanzhou University, Natural Science Edition 27(2), 157-162
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
        • Swambo
    Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
    France
     
    • Aquitaine
      • Dordogne
        • Nontron
    Y. Laurent, J. Lougnon, R. Pierrot, H.J. Schubnel : "La Crocoïte de Nontron (Dordogne) et les Minéraux Associés", Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. Cristallogr., 1967, XC, N°3, 377-382
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Pontgibaud
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Var
        • Callas
    "Mines et Mineraux de la Provence Cristalline" - G.Mari
    Germany
     
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Eifel
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Saxony
      • Glauchau
        • Callenberg
    [MinRec 33:166]
    Italy
     
    • Piedmont
      • Torino Province
        • Lanzo Valleys
          • Balangero
    Prete, R. (1995): L'amiantifera di S. Vittore, Balangero, Torino. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1995, 313-333.
    Mexico
     
    • Jalisco
      • Mun. de Bolaños
        • Bolaños
    Panczner(1987):142-388.
    Panczner(1987):172.
    Panczner (1987):80-393; Dana 7:I:518.
    Panczner (1987): 172.
    Namibia
     
    • Otjozondjupa Region
      • Grootfontein District
        • Kombat
    Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
    Philippines
     
    F. Rutley: "Elements of Mineralogy", 12th Ed. (1900)
      • Bicol Region
        • Camarines Norte Province
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648.
    Romania
     
    • Bihor Co.
      • Nucet
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648.; www.minerals-of-the carpathians.eu (2009)
    Dana 6: 914.
    • Caraş-Severin Co.
      • Poiana Ruscă Mts
        • Rusca Montană Commune (Ruszkabánya; Russberg; Ruskberg)
    Rădulescu, D., Dimitrescu, R., 1966, Mineralogia Topografică a României, Ed. Academiei RSR, 1966, p.337
    Russia
     
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
            • Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 650; American Mineralogist: 73(11-12): 1493.; Cook, R. B. (2007). Crocoite: Dundas, Tasmania, Australia. Rocks & Minerals, 82(1), 50-54
    Cook, R. B. (2007). Crocoite: Dundas, Tasmania, Australia. Rocks & Minerals, 82(1), 50-54
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
                • Uspenskaya Mt
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Lomonosov (1763) Grundlagen der Metallurgie: 1: 44 (as Red lead-ore from Beresov); Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648, 650.; Cook, R. B. (2007). Crocoite: Dundas, Tasmania, Australia. Rocks & Minerals, 82(1), 50-54.
          • Nizhnii Tagil
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648.
          • Rezh District
    Sehrig, M. (2012): Krokoit aus dem Ural - nicht nur aus Beresovka. Lapis, 37 (12), 30-31 (in German).
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Verkhnii Ufalei
    Sehrig, M. (2012): Krokoit aus dem Ural - nicht nur aus Beresovka. Lapis, 37 (12), 30-31 (in German).
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Brezno Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
      • Revúca Co.
        • Jelšava
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Gert Sibande District
        • Carolina
    Minerals of South Africa
      • Nkangala District
        • Delmas
          • Argent
    Minerals of South Africa; Wight, Q. (2002). Through the'Scope: The Year in Micromounting: 2001 Was a Year of Change. Rocks & Minerals, 77(3), 181-189.
    Minerals of South Africa
    Minerals of South Africa
    Tajikistan
     
    • Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd; Viloyati Khodzhent; Viloyati Leninabad)
      • Kuraminskii Range
    Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • Callington District
          • Lezant
    Famous British Mineral Localities: Greystone Quarry, Lezant, Cornwall. N Elton, D Green, J Hooper & S Weiss. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals No 24, 2004, pp 9-28
    • Scotland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Dumfriesshire)
        • Wanlockhead
          • Wanlock Dod-Whytes Cleuch
    BMS Database
      • Strathclyde (Lanarkshire)
        • South Lanarkshire
          • Leadhills
            • Wanlock Dod
    BMS Database
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Gila Co.
        • Sierra Ancha Mts
          • Sierra Ancha District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 193.
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Big Horn Mts
          • Osborn District
            • Hummingbird Spring
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 193-194; Williams, S.A. (1968), Wickenburgite, a new mineral from Arizona, Am.Min.: 53: 1433-1438; Williams, S.A., et al (1970), A study of Phoenichchroite-Its structure and properties, Am.Min.: 55: 784-792.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 193; Silliman (1881); Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 193; Silliman, B. (1881), Mineralogical Notes, Amer. Jour. Sci.: 22: 198-205; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67.
        • Gillespie
          • Black Butte
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 194.
        • Vulture Mts
          • Vulture District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 193; Silliman, B. (1881), Mineralogical notes, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 22: 198-205; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 194; Williams, S.A. (1968), Wickenburgite, a new mineral from AZ, Am.Min.: 53: 1433-1438; Williams, S.A., et al (1970), A study of phoenicochroite-Its structure and properties, Am.MIn.:: 55: 784-792.
            • Vulture
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 193; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67; Silliman, B. (1881), Mineralogical notes, Amer. Jour. Sci.: 22: 198-205.
      • Pima Co.
        • Tohono O'odom (Papago) Indian Reservation
          • Comobabi Mts
            • Cababi District (Comobabi District)
              • Ko Vaya
                • Mildren Mine group
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 194; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 194; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Mammoth District
          • Tiger
            • St. Anthony deposit
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648.
      • Yavapai Co.
        • Black Rock District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 225.
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Darwin Hills
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp. (includes catalog of minerals of California pp. 63-410), and miscellaneous observations on mineral products): 114; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 163.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648.
    Hall, Wayne Everett & E.M. Mackevett (1958), Economic geology of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: Calif Division of Mines Special Report 51, 77 pp.: 18; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Riverside Co.
        • Hexie Mts
          • Fried Liver Wash
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 348, 648, 898.; Cal Div of Mines & Geo Bulletin 189 " Minerals of California"
    • Colorado
      • Gunnison Co.
        • Willow Creek District
    The Williamson Southern Group
    • North Carolina
    Genth,F.A and Kerr,W.C,1881, Minerals and Mineral Localities of North Carolina,Geologic Survey
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Manicaland
      • Mutare District (Umtali District)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 648.; Bartholomew, D. S. (1990). Base metal and industrial mineral deposits of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Geological Survey, Mineral Resources Survey No. 22
    Bartholomew, D. S. (1990). Base metal and industrial mineral deposits of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Geological Survey, Mineral Resources Survey No. 22
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