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Cronstedtite

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Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
Formula:
Fe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Black, dark brown-black, ...
Hardness:
Name:
After Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1722-1765), Swedish chemist and mineralogist who discovered nickel, scheelite and coined the term zeolite. Cronstedt's mineralogical books revolutionized mineralogy and he is sometimes regarded as the father of modern mineralogy.
Several polytypes are known.

Classification of Cronstedtite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8/H.27-120
9.ED.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
D : Phyllosilicates with kaolinite layers composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.1.4.7

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
1 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
14.19.7

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
19 : Silicates of Fe
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First Recorded Occurrence of Cronstedtite

Year of Discovery:
1821

Occurrences of Cronstedtite

Geological Setting:
Low temperature hydrothermal mineral.

Physical Properties of Cronstedtite

Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Black, dark brown-black, green-black
Streak:
Dark olive-green
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Elastic
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {001}
Density:
3.34 - 3.35 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Cronstedtite

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.09 (100)
3.54 (85)
2.722 (50)
2.439 (40)
2.305 (16)
1.680 (16)
1.586 (40)

Optical Data of Cronstedtite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.720 nβ = 1.800 nγ = 1.800
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.080
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r < v moderate
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
In brown and blacks

Chemical Properties of Cronstedtite

Formula:
Fe22+Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Al,Ca

Relationship of Cronstedtite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Baumite(Mg,Al,Mn,Zn,Fe)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
Caryopilite(Mn,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Clinochrysotile
DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
GreenaliteFe2-3(Si2O5)(OH)4
HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
KellyiteMn22+Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8
NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Népouite(Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Orthochrysotile
Parachrysotile
PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Webskyite
9.ED.05DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.05KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.05NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.05Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.10HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
9.ED.10Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
9.ED.15AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
9.ED.15Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4
9.ED.15Caryopilite(Mn,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15GreenaliteFe2-3(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15KellyiteMn22+Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
9.ED.15LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8
9.ED.15Népouite(Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
9.ED.15GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
9.ED.20Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
9.ED.20ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O (x < 1)
9.ED.20ImogoliteAl2SiO3(OH)4
9.ED.20Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2O
9.ED.25BismutoferriteFe23+Bi(SiO4)2(OH)
9.ED.25ChapmaniteFe23+Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)
14.19.1FayaliteFe22+SiO4
14.19.2FerrosiliteFeSiO3
14.19.3LaihuniteFe2+Fe23+(SiO4)2
14.19.4Ferro-anthophyllite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.19.5FerripyrophylliteFe23+(Si4O10)(OH)2
14.19.6GreenaliteFe2-3(Si2O5)(OH)4
14.19.8HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O

Other Names for Cronstedtite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Cronstedtite

Reference List:
Steadman, R. and Nuttall, P.M. (1963): Polymorphism in cronstedtite. Acta Crystallographica, 16, 1-8.

Mineralogical Record (1988): 19: 169.

Smrčok, L'., Ďurovič, S., Petříček, V. and Weiss, Z. (1994): Refinement of the crystal structure of cronstedtite-3T. Clays and Clay Minerals, 42, 544-551.

Jiří Hybler, Václav Petříček, Slavomil Ďurovič and Ĺubomír Smrčok (2000): Refinement of the Crystal Structure of Cronstedtite-1T. Clays and Clay Minerals 48, 331-338.

Hybler, J. (2014): Refinement of cronstedtite-1M. Acta Crystallogr. B70, 963-972.


Internet Links for Cronstedtite

Localities for Cronstedtite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Armenia
 
  • Erevan Province (Yerevan)
Nazarov, M. A., Brandstätter, F., Kurat, G., Spettel, B. & Palme, H. ( 1994) Chemistry of Carbonaceous Xenoliths from the Erevan Howardite: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXV, Abstracts: 981-982 (March 1994)
Australia
 
  • Victoria
    • City of Greater Shepparton
      • Murchison
Michael Zolensky & James L. Gooding (1987). Mineralogical variations within the matrices of CM carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritics 22, #4, 544-545. (Dec 1987).
  • Western Australia
    • Cue Shire
      • Madoonga Station
MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, MARCH 1982, VOL, 46, PP. 127-30
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
      • Persenbeug-Gottsdorf
        • Loja
Löffler, E. & Kolitsch, U. (2011): Die Mineralien der Loja bei Persenbeug, Niederösterreich (I). Mineralien-Welt. 22 (3): 73-84
  • Salzburg
    • Lungau
      • Murwinkel
        • Rotgülden
          • Lower Rotgülden lake
[Lapis 1993:5 p.13-28]
Bolivia
 
  • La Paz Department
    • Inquisivi Province
      • Colquiri
Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
  • Oruro Department
    • Dalence Province
      • Huanuni
[MinRec 32:472]; Min Rec 34 (2003), 155
  • Potosí Department
    • Rafael Bustillo Province (Bustillos Province)
      • Llallagua
Mineralogical Record: 32: 474.;Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
C. Lemanski, Jr. (7076CL).
Am Min 47 (1962), 781
        • Březové Hory ore region (Birkenberg)
          • Březové Hory deposit
[Bull.N.M.Praha 2002, 10, p.43-77]
    • Pardubice Region
Novák, F., Jansa, J.: Parageneze nerostů s helvínem z chvaletického ložiska. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1965, roč. 10, č. 1, s. 75-79.
Denmark
 
  • Sjælland Region
Henning Haack et al., (2012). Maribo— A new CM fall from Denmark. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 (1) 30-50. (Jan 2012)
France
 
  • Alsace
    • Haut-Rhin
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Aude
      • Carcassonne
        • Mas-Cabardès
          • Salsigne
Le Règne Minéral, Hors série (3), 36-54; Cooper, Michael P.(1997) What’s New in Minerals, Munich Show 1996. Mineralogical Record 28:137
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Leonberg
        • Pfaffenreuth
F. Müller: "Bayerns steinreiche Ecke", 2nd. ed. (1984), pp. 29-32
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Gernrode
        • Hagental
Lapis 15(7/8), 38-40 (1990)
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Hungary
 
  • Pest Co.
    • Börzsöny Mts
      • Nagybörzsöny (Deutsch Pilsen; Deutschpilsen)
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Sestri Levante
Carbone, C. , Marescotti, P., Cabella, R., Lucchetti, G. (2002): Sulfide alteration and related secondary minerals from the Libiola mine (Eastern Liguria, Italy). Poster at the 82° SIMP Congress , Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 18-20/09/2002. Abstract in Plinius 28 , 88-89.
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Torre di Santa Maria
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
  • Piedmont
    • Torino Province
      • Canavese District
        • Chiusella Valley
          • Traversella
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
        • Léssolo
          • Cálea
"Le miniere di Brosso" I.Campostrini 2001 - ed. Museo Regionale Torino
  • Sardinia
    • Sassari Province
      • Porto Torres
Stara, P. & Conti-Vecchi, G. (1991): Minerali della Sardegna. Edizioni Della Torre, Cagliari, 276 pp.
  • Veneto
    • Belluno Province
      • Auronzo di Cadore
Ara, D., Sanna, L., Rossi, A., Galli, E., & De Waele, J. (2013). Minerali secondari in ambiente sotterraneo: la miniera dell’Argentiera (Sardegna nord-occidentale).
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Betpakdala Desert (Bet-Pak-Dal Desert)
Jeremolenko, V. (2002): Kara-Oba: Mineralogische Perle der Betpak-Ebene bei Dzhambul, Kasachstan. Lapis 27 (4), 13-34 + 50
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
      • Santa Eulalia District
        • East Camp
Panczner (1987): 77-395.
        • West Camp
          • Francisco Portillo
Panczner (1987):94-366.
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Langangen
        • Rønningen (Skredderrønningen)
Andersen, F., Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. Mineralien-Welt 7(4), 21-100; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
Peru
 
  • Huánuco Department
    • Dos de Mayo Province
      • Huallanca District
Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
Romania
 
  • Maramureș Co.
    • Baia Mare (Nagybánya)
A specimen in the British Museum-Rock Currier
Huber, P. & Muresan,I. (1996): Die Erzlagerstätte Herja - Eisen-, Blei- und Antimonminerale aus der Erzlagerstätte Herja (Herzsabánya). Lapis, 21 (7), 27ff. (in German)
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Rimavská Sobota Co.
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
      • Nižná Slaná (Niedersalz; Alsósajó)
Martin Števko-unpublished, PXRD confirmed
      • Rožňava (Rosenau; Rozsnyó)
- Varček, C., Vascoucelos, J. M., Petrova, R., Fejdi, P. (1990): Cronstedtit (Fe2+Fe3+)SiFe3+O5(OH)4 zo žily Klement, Rožňava. Miner. Slov., 22, 565-567.
South Africa
 
  • Western Cape Province
    • Cape Winelands District
      • Ceres
        • Koue Bokkeveld Mtn
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV (2003); Thomas J. Zega & Peter R. Buseck (2003). Fine-grained-rim mineralogy of the Cold Bokkeveld CM chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, #9, 1711-1721. (May 2003.)
Spain
 
  • Murcia
    • La Unión
      • Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión
        • La Peraleja
Calvo, M. (1996). Mineralogía. La Unión. Bocamina, 2, 14-35
    • Sierra de Cartagena
      • La Unión
http://danweinrich.com/s_present.php?mode=present&archives=1&srch_at_auction=on&srch_archived=on&srch_when=now&srch_status_time=&srch_status_n=&srch_status_units=w&srch_sidp=&srch_name=&srch_mineral=&srch_locality=portman&srch_description=&srch_size=&srch_excoll=&search=Search
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Camborne - Redruth - St Day District
        • Kea
          • Baldhu
Hey's Mineral Index 3rd ed.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Mount's Bay District
        • Paul
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • St Austell District
        • Lostwithiel
Hogg, T. (1825): A Manual of Mineralogy. Polyblank Publishers (London), p. 60; Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 2, pp. 517-518
Ukraine
 
  • Mykolayiv Oblast' (Nikolajev; Nikolayev; Nikolaev)
Ian D. R. MacKinnon (1980). Analytical Electron Microscopy of Matrix Phases in Murchison and Mighei (Abstract). Meteoritics 15, p. 328.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Mohave Co.
      • Aquarius Mts (Aquarius Range; Peacock Range)
Heinrich, E. Wm. (1960), AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 167: 12-18; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 194, 303; Kauffman, A.J., Jr. & Jaffe, H.W. (1946), Chevkinite (tscheffkinite) from AZ, Am.Min.: 31:582-588.
Kauffman and Jaffe (1946): 582; Heinrich, E.Wm. (1960), AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 167: 19.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Trumbull
        • Long Hill
Hoadley, Charles W. (1918): An American Occurrence of Cronstedtite. American Mineralogist: 3:6.; Manchester, James G. (1931): The Minerals of New York City and Its Environs. Afferton Press. 168 p.
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Kentucky
    • Calloway Co.
Theodore E Bunch & S. Chang (1980) Carbonaceous chondrites--II. Carbonaceous chondrite phyllosilicates and light element geochemistry as indicators of parent body processes and surface conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44, 1543-1578.
  • Nevada
    • Elko Co.
      • Cornucopia District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Yemen
 
  • Hadramawt Governorate
Zolensky, M. & A.Ivanov, Chemie der Erde 63,185-246(2003)
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