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Crookesite

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Formula:
Cu
 
7
(Tl, Ag)Se
 
4
Formely considered (Cu,Tl,Ag)2Se.
System:TetragonalColour:Lead Grey
Lustre:MetallicHardness:2½ - 3
Name:
For British scientist, Sir William Crookes (1832-1919), who discovered thallium in 1861.
This page provides mineralogical data about Crookesite.

Classification of Crookesite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/B.03-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.BD.50

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
D : With Hg, Tl
Dana 8th edition ID:2.4.12.1

2 : SULFIDES
4 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.5.12

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
5 : Sulphides etc. of Hg and Tl
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Type Occurrence of Crookesite

Type Locality:Skrikerum Mine (Skrickerum Mine), Valdemarsvik, Östergötland, Sweden
Year of Discovery:1866
Geological Setting of type material:Hydrothermal deposits

Physical Properties of Crookesite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Lead Grey
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=92 - 123 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Two at right angles
Density (measured):6.90 g/cm3
Density (calculated):7.443 g/cm3

Crystallography of Crookesite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Cell Parameters:a = 10.435Å, c = 3.954Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.379
Unit Cell Volume:V 430.55 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Disseminated specks and in veinlets.

Optical Data of Crookesite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Weak but distinct in brownish tones

Chemical Properties of Crookesite

Formula:
Cu
 
7
(Tl, Ag)Se
 
4


Formely considered (Cu,Tl,Ag)2Se.
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu7(Tl, Ag)Se4
Essential elements:Cu, Se, Tl
All elements listed in formula:Ag, Cu, Se, Tl
Common Impurities:Fe

Relationship of Crookesite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.BD.UM2004-33-S:AgCuHgSe
(Ag,Cu)
 
8
Hg
 
3
(S,Se)
 
7
2.BD.05Imiterite
Ag
 
2
HgS
 
2
2.BD.10Gortdrumite
(Cu,Fe)
 
6
Hg
 
2
S
 
5
2.BD.15Balkanite
Cu
 
9
Ag
 
5
HgS
 
8
2.BD.15Danielsite
(Cu,Ag)
 
14
HgS
 
8
2.BD.20Donharrisite
Ni
 
8
Hg
 
3
S
 
9
2.BD.25Carlinite
Tl
 
2
S
2.BD.30Bukovite
Tl
 
2
(Cu,Fe)
 
4
Se
 
4
2.BD.30Murunskite
K
 
2
(Cu,Fe)
 
4
S
 
4
2.BD.30Thalcusite
Tl
 
2
Cu
 
3
FeS
 
4
2.BD.35Rohaite
(Tl,Pb,K)
 
2
Cu
 
8.7
Sb
 
2
S
 
4
2.BD.40Chalcothallite
Tl
 
2
(Cu,Fe)
 
6
SbS
 
4
2.BD.45Sabatierite
Cu
 
6
TlSe
 
4
2.BD.55Brodtkorbite
Cu
 
2
HgSe
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.5.1Cinnabar
HgS
3.5.2Hypercinnabar
HgS
3.5.3Metacinnabar
HgS
3.5.4Imiterite
Ag
 
2
HgS
 
2
3.5.5Tiemannite
HgSe
3.5.6Balkanite
Cu
 
9
Ag
 
5
HgS
 
8
3.5.7Danielsite
(Cu,Ag)
 
14
HgS
 
8
3.5.8Coloradoite
HgTe
3.5.9Gortdrumite
(Cu,Fe)
 
6
Hg
 
2
S
 
5
3.5.10Polhemusite
(Zn,Hg)S
3.5.11Carlinite
Tl
 
2
S
3.5.13Sabatierite
Cu
 
6
TlSe
 
4
3.5.14Picotpaulite
TlFe
 
2
S
 
3
3.5.15Raguinite
TlFeS
 
2
3.5.16Thalcusite
Tl
 
2
Cu
 
3
FeS
 
4
3.5.17Bukovite
Tl
 
2
(Cu,Fe)
 
4
Se
 
4
3.5.18Gallite
CuGaS
 
2
3.5.19Roquesite
CuInS
 
2
3.5.20Indite
FeIn
 
2
S
 
4

Other Names for Crookesite

Other Languages:
German:Crookesit
Russian:Крукесит
Simplified Chinese:硒铊银铜矿
Spanish:Crookesita
Traditional Chinese:硒鉈銅銀礦

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Crookesite

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 183.

Johan, Z. (1987): Crookesite, TlCu7Se4; new data and isotypism with NH4Cu7S4. Compt. Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, 304, 1121–1124 (in French).

American Mineralogist (1988): 73: 933.

American Mineralogist (1989): 74: 1404.

Berger, R.A. (1987): Crookesite and sabatierite in a new light — a crystallographer’s comment. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 181, 241-249.

Eriksson L, Werner P E, Berger R, Meerschaut A (1991): Structure refinement of TlCu7Se4 from X-ray powder profile data. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 90, 61-68.

Internet Links for Crookesite

Search Engines:
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  • Look for Crookesite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Crookesite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Crookesite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Crookesite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • La Rioja
      • Sierra de Cacho
    de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Crosta, S. (2010). Reseña de la ubicación geográfica de los seleniuros de la Sierra de Umango, provincia de La Rioja. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 67(2), 272-279.
    Armenia
     
    Khachaturyan, E. A.. (1957): Mineralogy of pyrite ores in the Tanzut and Chibukhla deposits of the Armenian S.S.R. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Armyan. S.S.R., Ser. Geol. i Geograf. Nauk 10 (No. 3), 13-20.
    China
     
    • Anhui Province
      • Huaibei Prefecture
        • Suixi Co.
          • Sanpu ore field
    Yanjing Chen, Huayong Chen, Khin Zaw, Pirajno, F., and Zengjie Zhang (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31, 139-169.
    Yiming Zhao, Yinan Zhang, and Chengsi Bi (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 14, 227-249.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Nové Město na Moravě
    Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
        • Rožná deposit
    Vavřín, I.: Nové poznatky o selenidech Českého masívu. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 82-89. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
    Germany
     
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Bad Sachsa
          • Zorge
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
        • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
          • Rosenhof veins
            • Lerbach
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    Sweden
     
    • Östergötland
      • Valdemarsvik
    Am Min 35 (1950), 337; Sandström, F. (2007): Skrikerum. Litiofilen 24 (1), 22-38; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Switzerland
     
    • Aargau
      • Laufenburg
        • Kaisten
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 126.
      • Rheinfelden
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 126.
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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