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Crookesite

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William Crookes
Formula:
Cu7(Tl, Ag)Se4
Formely considered (Cu,Tl,Ag)2Se.
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Lead Grey
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
For British scientist, Sir William Crookes (1832-1919), who discovered thallium in 1861.
This page provides mineralogical data about Crookesite.

Classification of Crookesite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.BD.50

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
D : With Hg, Tl
2.4.12.1

2 : SULFIDES
4 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
3.5.12

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
5 : Sulphides etc. of Hg and Tl
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Type Occurrence of Crookesite

Year of Discovery:
1866
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Hydrothermal deposits

Physical Properties of Crookesite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Lead Grey
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=92 - 123 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Two at right angles
Density:
6.90 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.443 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Crookesite

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.435Å, c = 3.954Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.379
Unit Cell Volume:
V 430.55 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Disseminated specks and in veinlets.

Optical Data of Crookesite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak but distinct in brownish tones

Chemical Properties of Crookesite

Formula:
Cu7(Tl, Ag)Se4

Formely considered (Cu,Tl,Ag)2Se.
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe

Relationship of Crookesite to other Species

2.BD.UM2004-33-S:AgCuHgSe(Ag,Cu)8Hg3(S,Se)7
2.BD.05ImiteriteAg2HgS2
2.BD.10GortdrumiteCu18FeHg6S16
2.BD.15BalkaniteCu9Ag5HgS8
2.BD.15Danielsite(Cu,Ag)14HgS8
2.BD.20DonharrisiteNi8Hg3S9
2.BD.25CarliniteTl2S
2.BD.30BukoviteTl2(Cu,Fe)4Se4
2.BD.30MurunskiteK2(Cu,Fe)4S4
2.BD.30ThalcusiteTl2Cu3FeS4
2.BD.35Rohaite(Tl,Pb,K)2Cu8.7Sb2S4
2.BD.40ChalcothalliteTl2(Cu,Fe)6SbS4
2.BD.45SabatieriteCu6TlSe4
2.BD.55BrodtkorbiteCu2HgSe2
3.5.1CinnabarHgS
3.5.2HypercinnabarHgS
3.5.3MetacinnabarHgS
3.5.4ImiteriteAg2HgS2
3.5.5TiemanniteHgSe
3.5.6BalkaniteCu9Ag5HgS8
3.5.7Danielsite(Cu,Ag)14HgS8
3.5.8ColoradoiteHgTe
3.5.9GortdrumiteCu18FeHg6S16
3.5.10Polhemusite(Zn,Hg)S
3.5.11CarliniteTl2S
3.5.13SabatieriteCu6TlSe4
3.5.14PicotpauliteTlFe2S3
3.5.15RaguiniteTlFeS2
3.5.16ThalcusiteTl2Cu3FeS4
3.5.17BukoviteTl2(Cu,Fe)4Se4
3.5.18GalliteCuGaS2
3.5.19RoquesiteCuInS2
3.5.20InditeFeIn2S4

Other Names for Crookesite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Crookesit
Simplified Chinese:硒铊银铜矿
Spanish:Crookesita
Traditional Chinese:硒鉈銅銀礦

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Crookesite

Reference List:
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 183.

Johan, Z. (1987): Crookesite, TlCu7Se4; new data and isotypism with NH4Cu7S4. Compt. Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, 304, 1121–1124 (in French).

American Mineralogist (1988): 73: 933.

American Mineralogist (1989): 74: 1404.

Berger, R.A. (1987): Crookesite and sabatierite in a new light — a crystallographer’s comment. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 181, 241-249.

Eriksson L, Werner P E, Berger R, Meerschaut A (1991): Structure refinement of TlCu7Se4 from X-ray powder profile data. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 90, 61-68.

Internet Links for Crookesite

Localities for Crookesite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • La Rioja
    • General Lamadrid department
      • Villa Castelli
        • Sierra de Cacho
de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Crosta, S. (2010). Reseña de la ubicación geográfica de los seleniuros de la Sierra de Umango, provincia de La Rioja. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 67(2), 272-279.
Armenia
 
Khachaturyan, E. A.. (1957): Mineralogy of pyrite ores in the Tanzut and Chibukhla deposits of the Armenian S.S.R. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Armyan. S.S.R., Ser. Geol. i Geograf. Nauk 10 (No. 3), 13-20.
China
 
  • Anhui Province
    • Huaibei Prefecture
      • Suixi Co.
        • Sanpu ore field
Yanjing Chen, Huayong Chen, Khin Zaw, Pirajno, F., and Zengjie Zhang (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31, 139-169.
Yiming Zhao, Yinan Zhang, and Chengsi Bi (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 14, 227-249.
Czech Republic
 
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
      • Žďár nad Sázavou
        • Rožná deposit
Vavřín, I.: Nové poznatky o selenidech Českého masívu. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 82-89. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Bad Sachsa
        • Zorge
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Rosenhof veins
          • Lerbach
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
Sweden (TL)
 
  • Östergötland
    • Valdemarsvik
Am Min 35 (1950), 337; Sandström, F. (2007): Skrikerum. Litiofilen 24 (1), 22-38; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Switzerland
 
  • Aargau
    • Laufenburg
      • Kaisten
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 126.
    • Rheinfelden
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 126.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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