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Crossite

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Colour:BlueHardness:6
Name:
Named in 1894 by Charles Palache for Charles Whitman Cross [September 1, 1854 Southampton near Amherst, Massachusetts - April 20, 1949 Chevy Chase, Maryland]. Cross was a petrologist the the United States geological Survey and was widely regarded as the greatest field petrologist of his generation. He was important in classifying igneous rocks, etc.
Isostructural with:Amphibole Supergroup


A discontinued amphibole name.
Intermediate between the riebeckite group and the glaucophane group.

Originally described from North Berkeley, Alameda Co., California, USA.

Classification of Crossite

IMA status:Discredited 1997
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.20.4

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
20 : Aluminosilicates of Fe, Mg and alkalis
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Physical Properties of Crossite

Lustre:Vitreous
Colour:Blue
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):6

Optical Data of Crossite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.640 - 1.659 nβ = 1.645 - 1.666 nγ = 1.652 - 1.670
2V:Measured: 12° to 65°, Calculated: 72° to 82°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.012

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:very strong

Relationship of Crossite to other Species

Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.20.1Glaucophane
◻[Na
 
2
][Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
16.20.2Sodium-anthophyllite
16.20.3Sodium Gedrite
16.20.5Ferro-eckermannite
NaNa
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,
 
4
Al)Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
16.20.6Wonesite
(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
6
((Al,Si)
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
16.20.8Lennilenapeite
K
 
6-7
(Mg,Mn,Fe,Zn)
 
48
(Si,Al)
 
72
(O,OH)
 
216
· 16H
 
2
O
16.20.9Stilpnomelane
(K,Ca,Na)(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
(O,OH)
 
36
· nH
 
2
O
16.20.10Glauconite
(K,Na)(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mg)
 
2
(Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Crossite

Synonyms:
HeikkoliteHeikolite
Other Languages:
German:Crossit
Heikkolit
Heikolit
Russian:Кроссит
Simplified Chinese:青铝闪石
平康石
Spanish:Crossita
Heikkolita
Heikolita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Crossite

Reference List:

- +
Bernard E. Leake (1978): Nomenclature of amphiboles, American Mineralogist, Volume 63, pages 1023-1052

LEAKE, B.E.,WOOLLEY, A.R., ARPS, C.E.S., BIRCH, W.D., GILBERT, M.C., GRICE, J.D., HAWTHORNE, F.C., KATO, A.,KISCH, H.J., KRIVOVICHEV, V.G., LINTHOUT, K., LAIRD, J.,
MANDARINO, J.A., MARESCH, W.V., NICKEL, E.H., ROCK, N.M.S., SCHUMACHER, J.C., SMITH, D.C., STEPHENSON, N.C.N., UNGARETTI, L., WHITTAKER, E.J.W. & GUO,YOUZHI (1997): Nomenclature of amphiboles: report of the Subcommittee on Amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. Can. Mineral. 35, 219-246.

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  • Localities for Crossite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Abtenau
        • Rigaus
    Natural History Museum Vienna collection
        • Seydegg
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
      • Golling
        • Grabenbach area
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Styria
      • Bad Aussee
        • Wienern
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Omenica Mining Division
        • Pinchi Lake
    Ghent, E.D., Stout, M.Z., erdmer, P. (1990) Howieite in blueschists, Pinchi Lake, British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist, 28, 855-858.
    China
     
    • Heilongjiang Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Mudanjiang Prefecture
        • Muling Co.
    Huiwen Ye, Xingzhou Zhang, and Yuwen Zhou (1994): Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology 39(4)
    Huiwen Ye, Xingzhou Zhang, and Yuwen Zhou (1994): Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology 39(4)
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Ngari Prefecture
        • Gêrzê Co. (Gaize Co.)
    Kapp, P., Yin, A., Manning, C.E., Murphy, M., Harrison, T.M., Spurlin, M., Lin, D., Xiguang, D., and Cunming, W. (2000): Geology 28(1), 19-22.
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
    Gao Jiu, Klemd, R., Zhang Lifei, Wang Su, and Xiao Xiong (1999): Journal of Metamorphic Geology 17(6), 621-636.
        • Tekesi Co. (Tekes Co.)
          • Kekesu river valley
    Jun Gao, Guoqi He, Maosong Li, Xuchang Xiao, Yaoqing Tang, Jun Wang, and Min Zhao (1995): Tectonophysics 250(1-3), 151-168
        • Zhaosu Co.
    Xin Liu, Wen Su, Jun Gao, Jilei Li, and Tuo Jiang (2013): Acta Petrologica Sinica 29(5), 1675-1684
    Lifei Zhang, Jun Gao, Ekebair, S., and Zongxiu Wang (2001): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 44(1), 85-96.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Kraslice (Graslitz)
    Beran, P.: Mineralogie ložiska Cu (Ag, Au, Co) rud Tisová u Kraslic. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1997, roč. 4-5, s. 65-77.
    France
     
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Hautes-Alpes
        • Saint-Véran area
    R. Pierrot, P. Picot, P.A. Poulain, "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France : Hautes-Alpes", BRGM, 1972
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Kykládes Prefecture
        • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
          • Sifnos Island
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 619-634.
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 607-623.
    • Peloponnese Department (Peloponnisos)
      • Lakonia Prefecture (Laconia)
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 343-366.
    • South Aegean Department
      • Dodekánisos Prefecture (Dodekánissa)
        • Dodecanese Islands
          • Arki Island (Arkioi)
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 527-537.
    • Sterea Hellas Department
      • Évvoia Prefecture
    P. Xypolias, I. Iliopoulos, V. Chatzaras, and S. Kokkalas (2012) Subduction- and exhumation-related structures in the Cycladic Blueschists: Insights from south Evia Island (Aegean region, Greece)TECTONICS, VOL. 31, 22pp
    Hungary
     
    • Vas Co.
      • Vas Hill
        • Felsõcsatár (Felsöcsatár)
    Szakáll & Gatter: Hun. Min.Spec., 1993
    India
     
    • Rajasthan (Rajputana)
      • Jaipur Division
    Sarkar, S. C., Bhattacharyya, P. K., and Mukherjee, A. D., 1980, Evolution of the Sulfide Ores of Saladipura, Rajasthan, India, Economic Geology, 75:1152-1167.
    Italy
     
    • Aosta Valley
      • Saint-Marcel
    Martin, S., Tartarotti, P. (1989): Polyphase HP metamorphism in the ophiolitic glaucophanites of the lower St. Marcel valley (Aosta, Italy). Ofioliti, 14, 135-156
    Martin, S., Tartarotti, P. (1989): Polyphase HP metamorphism in the ophiolitic glaucophanites of the lower St. Marcel valley (Aosta, Italy). Ofioliti, 14, 135-156.
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
    Antofilli, Borgo, Palenzona, 1985. I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. Edizioni Melita, La Spezia.
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
    Wilhelm, O (1921): Beitrag zur Glaukofananfrage von Graubünden. Eclogae geol. Helv., 16, 482-485. Zurflüh, E. (1961): Zur Geologie der Monte Spluga. Mitt. Geol. Inst. ETH Zürich, Serie C, 83, 117 pp.
    Jamaica
     
    • Saint Thomas Parish
      • Union Hill
    Geol. Soc. of America Bulletin, V 97, N 1, pp. 48-60, 1986.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku Region
        • Yamaguchi Prefecture
          • Iwakuni City
    Nishimura, Y. (1971) Regional metamorphism of the Nishiki-cho district, southwest Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, Series C (geology and mineralogy), 6, #3, 203-268.
    • Shikoku Island
      • Kochi Prefecture
        • Kochi City
          • Rendai
    Mineralogical Journal Vol. 13 (1986) , No. 6 pp368-375
      • Tokushima prefecture
        • Yoshinogawa City
          • Yamakawa-cho
    Banno, S. (1959) Journ. Geol. Soc. Japan, 65, 658.
    New Zealand
     
    • South Island
      • Otago
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
      • West Coast (Westland)
        • South Westland
    A. F Cooper (1971) Carbonatites and Fenitization Associated with a Lamprophyric Dike-Swarm Intrusive into Schists of the New Zealand Geosyncline. GSA Bulletin 82:1327-1340
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Rimavská Sobota Co.
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    • Košice Region
      • Košice Co.
    C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry of lost Mindat data).
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry of lost Mindat data).
    South Korea
     
    • Gangwon-do (Kangwon-do; Gang'weondo)
    Handbook of Mineralogy
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Zermatt - Saas Fee area
        • Saas Valley
          • Saas Almagell
    Christian Bracke Collection
    Taiwan
     
    • Taiwan Province
      • Hualien Co.
        • Juishuei
    Turkey
     
    • Eastern Anatolia Region
      • Bingöl Province
    Econ Geol (1984) 79:354-371
    Econ Geol (1984) 79:354-371
    Econ Geol (1984) 79:354-371
    • Marmara Region
      • Bursa Province
        • Tavşanlı Zone
    Okay, A.I. (2002): Journal of Metamorphic Geology 20, 757-768.
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Yukon-Koyukuk Borough
        • Iditarod District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • California
      • Alameda Co.
        • Berkeley
    Smith, J. P. (1906) The paragenesis of the minerals in glaucophane bearing rocks of California. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Volume 45:183-242.
    Palache, Charles (1894b), On a rock from the vicinity of Berleley containing a new soda amphibole: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 1: 181, 185; Washington, H.S. (1901), A chemical study of the glaucophane schists: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 11: 47-52; Switzer, George S. (1951b) Mineralogy of the California glaucophane schists. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 161: 57; Borg, Iris Y. (1967), Optical properties and cell parameters in the glaucophane-riebeckite series: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 15: 67.
      • Contra Costa Co.
        • San Pablo
    Palache, Charles (1894b), On a rock from the vicinity of Berkeley containing a new soda amphibole: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 1: 184; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 344; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 474.
      • Los Angeles Co.
        • Palos Verdes Estates
    Reed, Ralph Daniel (1928), A siliceous shale formation from southern California: Journal of Geology: 36: 347; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 69, 200.
        • San Pedro
    Woodford, A.O. (1924), The Catalina metamorphic facies of the Franciscan series: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 15: 49-68; [… (abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 33: 98 (1926)]: 54; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 69.
        • Santa Catalina Island
          • Escondido Canyon
    Bailey, Edgar H. (1941a), Mineralogy, petrology and geology of Santa Catalina Island, California: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University: 61-62; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 485.
    Bailey, Edgar H. (1941a), Mineralogy, petrology and geology of Santa Catalina Island, California: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University: 71; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 403.
      • Marin Co.
        • Angel Island State Park
    Bloxam, T.W. (1960), Jadeite rocks and glaucophane schists from Angel Island, San Francisco Bay, California: American Journal of Science: 258: 558-560; Coleman, R.G. & J.R. Clark (1968), Pyroxenes in the blueschist facies of California: American Journal of Science: 266: 44; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 403.
      • Mendocino Co.
        • Coastal Range
          • Laytonville
    Chesterman, C.W. (1966b), Mineralogy of the Laytonville quarry, Mendocino County, California, in: Geology of Northern California: California Division Mines & Geol. Bulletin 190: 503, 506; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 403.; Robert Muir Wood (1982) The Laytonville Quarry (Mendocino County California) Exotic Block: Iron-rich Blueschist-Facies Subduction-Zone Metamorphism. Mineralogical Magazine 45:87-99.
          • McClure Place
            • Jumpoff Creek
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 69; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 403.
      • Orange Co.
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 69 (based on a p.c. to Murdoch & Webb from Jenni); Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 403.
      • San Benito Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • New Idria District
            • Picacho Peak
              • Clear Creek area
                • Hernandez
                  • Clear Creek
    William S. Wise (1982) Strontiojoaquinite and bario-orthojoaquinite: two new members of the joaquinite group . American Mineralogist 67:809-816.
    Joseph F. Cooper Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A.Hadley (2003) Minerology of the Victor Claim, Clear Creek Area, New Idria District, San Benito County, California.
            • San Benito River headwaters area
              • Dallas Gem Mine area
    Wise, W.S & Gill, R.H. (1977): Minerals of the Benitoite Gem mine. Mineralogical Record 8, 442-452; William S. Wise (1982) Strontiojoaquinite and bario-orthojoaquinite: two new members of the joaquinite group . American Mineralogist 67:809-81
    Ernst, W.G. (1965) Mineral paragenesis in Franciscan metamorphic rocks, Panoche Pass, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin: 76: 887; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 404.
    Woodford, A.O. (1925), The San Onofre breccia; its nature and origin: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin 15: 186; Reed, Ralph Daniel (1928), A siliceous shale formation from southern California: Journal of Geology: 36: 347; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 69, 70.
        • Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton
          • San Onofre Mountain
    Woodford, A.O. (1925), The San Onofre breccia; its nature and origin: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin 15: 159-280; [… (abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 33: 109 (1926)]: 186; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 309.
      • Sonoma Co.
        • Coast Range
          • Cazadero
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 433, 493.
    Coleman, R.G. & D.E. Lee (1963), Glaucophane-bearing metamorphic rocks of the Cazadero area, California: Jour. Petrol.: 4: 260; Coleman, R.G. & J.J. Papike (1968), Alkali amphiboles from the blueshchists of Cazadero, California: Jour. Petr.: 9: 109, 111, 113-118; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 404.
    • Colorado
      • Custer Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Teller Co.
    Min Rec 36:2 pp143-185
    • Minnesota
      • St. Louis Co.
        • Vermilion River Mines
    55TH INSTITUTE ON LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY (2009) PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 55 p. 23-24
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