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Cyanotrichite

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Formula:
Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Sky-blue, azure-blue
Lustre:
Silky
Hardness:
1 - 3
Name:
From the Greek κυανός for "blue" and θρίξ for "hair" in allusion to its colour and habit.
Cyanotrichite Group.
A secondary copper mineral found sparsely in the oxidation zones of copper-bearing ore bodies.
Cyanotrichite is closely related to Carbonatecyanotrichite, from which it is impossible to distinguish without XRD measurements (tests for carbonate are not conclusive). Improved powder data are recently given by Hager et al. (2009) who suggest that there is no evidence for solid solution between cyanotrichite and carbonate-cyanotrichite; it is also evident that some carbonate-cyanotrichite specimens contain no sulfate.
The nomenclature situation is still complicated because the crystal structures of neither mineral is presently known.

See also Unnamed (Cyanotrichite-related mineral).
Visually similar to Khaidarkanite.

Classification of Cyanotrichite

Approved
7.DE.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
E : With only medium-sized cations; unclassified
31.2.1.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)6(XO4)Zq·xH2O
25.2.20

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag
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Type Occurrence of Cyanotrichite

Year of Discovery:
1839

Physical Properties of Cyanotrichite

Silky
Colour:
Sky-blue, azure-blue
Streak:
Light blue
Hardness (Mohs):
1 - 3
Density:
2.76 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Comment:
A range from 2.737 (Morenci material) to 2.95 (Cap Garonne ?) exists in the literature.

Crystallography of Cyanotrichite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.16Å, b = 12.61Å, c = 2.9Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.806 : 1 : 0.23
Unit Cell Volume:
V 371.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Occurs as velvet-, wool- or cotton-like aggregates and coatings comprised of minute acicular crystals; also radial-fibrous or tufted.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
10.2 (100)
5.47 (50)
5.26 (80)
3.88 (90)
3.38 (35)
3.04 (40)
2.392 (35)
Comments:
Grandview mine, Arizona, USA (ICDD-PDF no. 11–131)

Optical Data of Cyanotrichite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.588 nβ = 1.617 nγ = 1.655
2V:
Measured: 82° , Calculated: 86°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.067
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = ┴ laths = Nearly colourless
Y = Light blue
Z = elongation = Bright blue

Chemical Properties of Cyanotrichite

Formula:
Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Cyanotrichite to other Species

Structurally related to group(s):
7.DE.05MangazeiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 3H2O
7.DE.10CarbonatecyanotrichiteCu4Al2(CO3,SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
7.DE.10UKI-1975-(SO:AlCu)(Cu, Al, SO4, H2O)
7.DE.15SchwertmanniteFe163+(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
7.DE.20TlalociteCu10Zn6(Te6+O4)2(Te4+O3)(OH)25Cl · 27H2O
7.DE.25UtahiteCu5Zn3(TeO4)4(OH)8 · 7H2O
7.DE.35CoquanditeSb6+xO8+x(SO4)(OH)x(H2O)1- x (x = 0.3)
7.DE.40OsakaiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 5H2O
7.DE.45WilcoxiteMgAl(SO4)2F · 17H2O
7.DE.50Stanleyite(V4+O)(SO4) · 6H2O
7.DE.55McalpineiteCu3(Te6+O6)
7.DE.60HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
7.DE.62VolaschioiteFe4(SO4)O2(OH)6 · 2H2O
7.DE.65ZaheriteAl12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2O
7.DE.70LautenthalitePbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
7.DE.75CamerolaiteCu6Al3(OH)18(H2O)2[Sb(OH)6](SO4)
25.2.1ChalcocyaniteCuSO4
25.2.2BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
25.2.3ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
25.2.4BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
25.2.5DolerophaniteCu2(SO4)O
25.2.6AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
25.2.7BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
25.2.8PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
25.2.9LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
25.2.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
25.2.11KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
25.2.12NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
25.2.13PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)Cl
25.2.14FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3O
25.2.15CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.2.16EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3O
25.2.17DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
25.2.18LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2O
25.2.19ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
25.2.21WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
25.2.22CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
25.2.23GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
25.2.24RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2O
25.2.26KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2
25.2.27Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2O
25.2.28ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6

Other Names for Cyanotrichite

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Cyanotrichite

Reference List:
Werner (1808): 62 (as Kupfersammeterz and Kupfersamterz).

Jameson, R. (1816) A System of Mineralogy. second edition, 3 volumes: 3: 153 (as Velvet Copper Ore).

Breithaupt, A. (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc. 1st. ed.: 168 (as Sammeterz).

Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc. 2nd. Ed.: 320 (as Sammeterz).

Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 587 (as Cyanotrichit).

Percy (1850) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 36: 100 (as Lettsomite).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 578-579.

Acta Univ. Carol., Prague, Geol. (1965): 149-155.

Gröbner, J. (1997): Mineralien der Cyanotrichit-Gruppe aus Fundorten in Österreich. - Mineralien-Welt 8 (3), 27-30.(in German)

Hager, S. L., Leverett, P. & Williams, P. A. (2009): Possible structural and chemical relationships in the cyanotrichite group. Canadian Mineralogist 47, 635-648.

Mills, S.J., Christy, A.G., Schnyder, C., Favreau, G., Price, J.R. (2015): The crystal structure of camerolaite and structural variation in the cyanotrichite family of merotypes. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 1527–1552.

Internet Links for Cyanotrichite

Specimens:
The following Cyanotrichite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Cyanotrichite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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