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Allanite-(Y)

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Formula:
{CaY}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Often slightly radioactive due to minor U and/or Th contents; therefore often metamict.
Colour:
Black
Hardness:
5½ - 6½
Name:
Re-named, but not described, in 1966 by Alfred Abraham Levinson using what is now called the Levinson Rule whereby REE-dominant minerals are named by their root mineral name olus chemical suffixes. Allanite was named in 1810 by Thomas Thomson for Thomas Allan (1777-1833), Scottish mineralogist, who first observed "allanite". The -(Y) suffix was later added by Levinson (1966) to designate the Y-dominant member of the allanite group.
Allanite Subgroup of the Epidote Group.
Black usually massive mineral. Resinous when fresh, but frequently dulled by hydrothermal alteration or weathering.

Classification of Allanite-(Y)

Approved
9.BG.05b

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
G : Sorosilicates with mixed SiO4 and Si2O7 groups; cations in octahedral [6] and greater coordination
58.2.1a.3

58 : SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
2 : Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
16.13.4

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
13 : Aluminosilicates of the rare earths
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Physical Properties of Allanite-(Y)

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Comment:
May be dull due to alteration
Colour:
Black
Streak:
Light gray
Hardness (Mohs):
5½ - 6½
Comment:
May be softer due to alteration
Tenacity:
Very brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
{001} imperfect, {100} and {110} both poor
Fracture:
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.5 - 4.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Comment:
Variable due to alteration

Crystallography of Allanite-(Y)

Morphology:
Usually massive, rarely found in euhedral crystals. Tabular to prismatic crystals typical of allanite sub-group, rarely as rod-like crystals in sprays.
Comment:
Unit cell dimensions unavailable, but should be near allanite-(Ce)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
Data not available(
Comments:
d-values should be similar to allanite sub-group. Unit cell has typical epidote pseudocell (2a, b, 2c)

Optical Data of Allanite-(Y)

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.715 - 1.791 nβ = 1.718 - 1.815 nγ = 1.733 - 1.822
2V:
Measured: 40° to 80°, Calculated: 50° to 56°
Birefringence:
0.02
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.018 - 0.031
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
distinct to strong
Optical Extinction:
Y=b, OAP || (010)

Chemical Properties of Allanite-(Y)

Formula:
{CaY}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)

Often slightly radioactive due to minor U and/or Th contents; therefore often metamict.
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Allanite-(Y) to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Allanite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Allanite-(Nd){CaNd}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Androsite-(Ce)(Mn2+REEAlAlMn2+(SiO4)3OH)
Dissakisite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Dissakisite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ferriakasakaite-(La)CaLaFe3+AlMn2+(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ferriallanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ferriallanite-(La){CaLa}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ferriandrosite-(Ce)(Mn2+REEFe3+AlMn2+(SiO4)3OH)
Ferriandrosite-(La)MnLaFe3+AlMn2+(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Manganiandrosite-(Ce){(Mn2+,Ca)(Ce,REE)}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Manganiandrosite-(La){Mn2+La}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Uedaite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unnamed (Ce- and Mn-analogue of Ferriakasakaite-(La)){Ca,(Ce,La,Nd),Mn2+}2(Mn3+,Fe3+,Al)Al(Mn2+,Mg)(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unnamed (Mg-analogue of Ferriallanite-(Ce)){CaCe}{(Fe3+,Al)Al(Mg,Fe2+)}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unnamed (Mn-analogue of Ferriakasakaite-(La)){CaLa}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unnamed (Mn-analogue of Ferriallanite-(Ce)){CaCe}{Fe3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vanadoallanite-(La){CaLa}{V3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vanadoandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{V3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bAllanite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05aClinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bDissakisite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Dollaseite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)F
9.BG.05aEpidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Epidote-(Pb){CaPb}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Khristovite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)F
9.BG.05Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bManganiandrosite-(La){Mn2+La}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Tawmawite{Ca2}{(Al,Fe3+,Cr)3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Manganipiemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Clinozoisite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Manganiandrosite-(Ce){(Mn2+,Ca)(Ce,REE)}{Mn3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Dissakisite-(La){CaLa}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Vanadoandrosite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{V3+AlMn2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Uedaite-(Ce){Mn2+Ce}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05Epidote-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bAllanite-(Nd){CaNd}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bFerriallanite-(La){CaLa}{Fe3+AlFe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.05bÅskagenite-(Nd){Mn2+Nd}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O2
9.BG.10Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
9.BG.15MacfalliteCa2(Mn3+,Al)3(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)3
9.BG.15SursassiteMn22+Al3(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)3
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20OkhotskiteCa2(Mn2+,Mg)(Mn3+,Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Fe3+)Ca2(Fe3+,Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)Ca2(Mn2+,Mg)(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.20ShuiskiteCa2(Mg,Al)(Cr,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · 2H2O
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Fe3+)Ca2(Fe3+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Pumpellyite-(Al)Ca2(Al,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20PoppiiteCa2(V3+,Fe3+,Mg)(V3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH,O)2 · H2O
9.BG.20Julgoldite-(Mg)Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)(Fe3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
9.BG.25GanomalitePb9Ca5Mn(Si2O7)4(SiO4)O
9.BG.30RustumiteCa10(Si2O7)2(SiO4)(OH)2Cl2
9.BG.35Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
9.BG.35WiluiteCa19(Al,Mg)13(B,☐,Al)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(O,OH)10
9.BG.35ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+(Al,Mn3+,Fe3+)10(Mg,Mn2+)2(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(OH)9
9.BG.35FluorvesuvianiteCa19(Al,Mg,Fe2+)13(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10O(F,OH)9
9.BG.40Vyuntspakhkite-(Y)(Y,Yb)4Al2.5-1.5(Si,Al)1.5-2.5(SiO4)4O(OH)7
9.BG.45DellaiteCa6(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2
9.BG.50Gatelite-(Ce)CaCe3Al2(Al,Mg)(Mg,Fe2+,Al)(Si2O7)(SiO4)3(O,F)(OH,O)2
9.BG.55Västmanlandite-(Ce)Ca(Ce,La)3Al2Mg2(Si2O7)(SiO4)3(OH)2F
16.13.1Vyuntspakhkite-(Y)(Y,Yb)4Al2.5-1.5(Si,Al)1.5-2.5(SiO4)4O(OH)7
16.13.2Törnebohmite-(Ce)(Ce,La)2Al(SiO4)2(OH)
16.13.3Törnebohmite-(La)(La,Ce)2Al(SiO4)2(OH)
16.13.5Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
16.13.6Dollaseite-(Ce){CaCe}{MgAlMg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)F
16.13.8Dissakisite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Mg}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)

Other Names for Allanite-(Y)

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:钇褐帘石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Allanite-(Y)

Reference List:
Frondel, J.W. (1964), Variation in some rare earths in allanite: American Mineralogist: 49: 1159-1177.

Dollase, W.A. (1971), Refinement of the crystal structures of epidote, allanite and hancockite: American Mineralogist: 56: 447-464.

Ercit, T.S. (2002): The mess that is “allanite”. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 1411-1419.

Armbruster, T., Bonazzi, P., Akasaka, M., Bermanec, V., Chopin, C., Gieré R., Heuss-Assbichler, S., Liebscher, A., Menchetti, S., Pan, Y., Pasero, M. (2006): Recommended nomenclature of epidote-group minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy, 18, 551-567

Internet Links for Allanite-(Y)

Localities for Allanite-(Y)

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Mukinbudin Shire
      • Mukinbudin
M. Jacobson, M. Calderwood, B. Grguric; Pegmatites of Western Australia; (Perth 2007)
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Dungannon Township
[Bancroft & District Mineral Collecting Guidebook]
    • Nipissing District
      • Murchison Township
Dana's New Mineralogy
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Rouyn-Noranda TE
Galley, A.G., Jonasson, I.R., and Watkinson, D.H. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 619-637.
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Val-des-Monts
          • Lac Saint-Pierre (Wakefield Lake)
Hogarth, D.D. (1972): The Evans-Lou pegmatite, Quebec: a unique yttrium-niobium-bismuth-vanadium mineral assemblage. Mineralogical Record, 3 (2), 69-77.
Finland
 
  • Lapland Region
    • Sodankylä
Al-Ani Thair 2012. Detailed SEM study on REE-bearing minerals of paragneisses Mäkärä and Vaulo, Northern Finland. Geologian Tutkimuslaitos arkistoraportti 73/2011.
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Alavus
P. Kartashov analytical data, J. Dyer material
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Marienberg District
C. Kersten (1845): Ueber das Vorkommen von Yttererde- und Ceroxydul-Silikaten im sächsischen Erzgebirge.- Poggendorffs Annalen der Physik und Chemie 63, 135-141 (confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis 1999, T. Witzke)
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Varese Province
      • Ceresio Valley
No reference listed
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Baveno
        • Oltrefiume
          • Mount Camoscio
Grill, E. (1935): I minerali del granito di Baveno, la fayalite. Periodico di Mineralogia, 129-133. - Gallitelli, P. (1936): Le miche del granito di Baveno. . Periodico di Mineralogia, 61-76 - Pagliani, G. (1948): Le Zeoliti del granito di Baveno. Periodico di Mineralogia, 175-188. - Ravagnani, D. (1974): I giacimenti uraniferi italiani - Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Ed., Milano, 188 pp. - min. Rec. 14 (3), 157-168 - Am. Min. 83, 1330-1334 (1998) - Am. Min. 84, 782-789 (1999). - Guastoni, A. & Pezzotta, F. (2004): Kristiansenite a Baveno, second ritrovamento Mondiale della specie. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2004, 247-251. - Guastoni, A., Demartin, F., Pezzotta, F. (2004): Sekaninaite delle pegmatiti granitiche di Feriolo e Baveno (VB). Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 145, 59-68. - Mineralogist americano (2005) 90, 1442-1452.
American Mineralogist, 84(5-6), 782-789
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Fukushima Prefecture
        • Kawamata
          • Iizaka Village (Iisaka)
Yamada et al (2004) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kouen-Youshi, 123.; Sueno, S., Matsuura, S., Bunno, M., & Kurosawa, M. (2002). Occurrence and crystal chemical features of protoferro-anthophyllite and protomangano-ferro-anthophyllite from Cheyenne Canyon and Cheyenne Mountain, USA and Hirukawa-mura, Suisho-yama, and Yokone-yama, Japan. Journal of mineralogical and petrological sciences, 97(4), 127-136.
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Modum
      • Snarum
G. Raade (pers. comm. to U. Kolitsch, May 2009)
  • Nordland
    • Tysfjord
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
Husdal, T. (2011): Tysfjordgranittens pegmatitter. Stein. 38 (4): 4-35
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Northern Karelia
        • Chupa pegmatite field
          • Chupa Bay
E.I. Semenov data
Spain
 
  • Madrid
Garcia G., Gonzalez C., Bueno A. (2004) - Cadalso de los Vidrios (Madrid), Bocamina, n° 14, pp: 12-46.
Sweden
 
  • Lappland
    • Jokkmokk
  • Småland
    • Vetlanda
      • Alseda
        • Slättåkra
Blomstrand 1878
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg district
P.M. Kartashov data; Armbuster, T. et al.(2006): Recommended nomenclature of epidote-group minerals.European Journal of Mineralogy. 18, 551-567
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Mohave Co.
      • Aquarius Mts (Aquarius Range; Peacock Range)
www.minresco.com/syst/a.htm
  • Colorado
    • Routt Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • New York
    • Essex Co.
Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:242
        • Moriah Township
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2005NE/finalprogram/abstract_83497.htm
  • Texas
    • Llano Co.
      • Bluffton
U.S.Geological Survey Bulletin 340 (1908): 286-294.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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