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Diamond

This page kindly sponsored by reserved
Formula:
C
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Colourless, yellowish to ...
Lustre:
Adamantine, Greasy
Hardness:
10
Name:
From Greek "adamas", 'invincible'. First known use by Manlius (A.D. 16) and Pliny (A.D. 100).
Diamond is the hardest natural substance known. It is formed deep in the mantle, and is only brought to the surface via kimberlite pipes, lamprophyres, eclogites and other rocks that originate deep within the mantle. It is also found in alluvial deposits, along with quartz, corundum, zircon and other minerals, derived from such rocks, and in certain meteorites.

The formation processes of the variety carbonado are unclear.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Diamond.

Classification of Diamond

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
1.CB.10a

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
C : Metalloids and Nonmetals
B : Carbon-silicon family
Dana 7th ed.:
1.3.5.1
1.3.6.1

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
3 : Semi-metals and non-metals
1.24

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-1282.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Occurrences of Diamond

Geological Setting:
Deep mantle-derived rocks such as kimberlites, lamprophyrs and others. With decreasing pressure the diamonds dissolve back into the rock. To occur and survive in a metastable state at the surface they must arrive from depth quickly and very often crystals show dissolution features because the transport to the surface is not quick enough.
Since diamond is extremely hard, it survives in alluvia.

Physical Properties of Diamond

Adamantine, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Colourless, yellowish to yellow, brown, black, blue, green or red, pink, champagne-tan, cognac-brown, lilac (very rare)
Streak:
none
Hardness (Mohs):
10
Hardness Data:
Mohs hardness reference species
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect octahedral {111}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
3.5 - 3.53 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.515 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Diamond

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fd3m
Space Group Setting:
Fd3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.5595Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 45.10 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Octahedral crystals also dodecahedrons, cubes, tetrahedral. Often has curved faces
Twinning:
macle is a spinel twin {111}

Crystallographic forms of Diamond

Crystal Atlas:
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Diamond no.15 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Diamond no.107 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Diamond no.108 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Diamond no.124 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Wyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York. Crystal Structures 1:7-83.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database

Optical Data of Diamond

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
nα = 2.435
Birefringence:
Strain birefringence common (Raman and Rendall, 1944; Lang 1967).
Max Birefringence:
δ = 2.435 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
Strong
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Diamond

Formula:
C
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
CAS Registry number:
7782-40-3

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society

Relationship of Diamond to other Species

1.1CopperCu
1.2SilverAg
1.5GoldAu
1.6AuricuprideCu3Au
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCu
1.8ZincZn
1.9CadmiumCd
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZn
1.12MercuryHg
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2
1.18LuanheiteAg3Hg
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2
1.20IndiumIn
1.21AluminiumAl
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)Al
1.25GraphiteC
1.26ChaoiteC
1.27LonsdaleiteC
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSn
1.30LeadPb
1.31AnyuiiteAu(Pb,Sb)2
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3
1.33ArsenicAs
1.34ArsenolampriteAs
1.35PaxiteCuAs2
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2
1.37DomeykiteCu3As
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7
1.41AntimonySb
1.42StibarsenAsSb
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3As
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2
1.48DyscrasiteAg3Sb
1.49BismuthBi
1.50MaldoniteAu2Bi
1.51SulphurS8
1.52RosickýiteS
1.53SeleniumSe
1.54TelluriumTe
1.55ChromiumCr
1.56RheniumRe
1.57IronFe
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-x
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNi
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)
1.64TetrataeniteFeNi
1.65AwaruiteNi3Fe
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHg
1.68PaolovitePd2Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2
1.70CabriitePd2CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3Sn
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite(Pd,Pt,Au)3(Pb,Sn)
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82PlatinumPt
1.83HongshiitePtCu
1.84NiggliitePtSn
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFe
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFe
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNi
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)

Other Names for Diamond

Name in Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Diamant
Arabic:ألماس
Basque:Diamante
Belarusian:Алмаз
Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa):Алмаз
Bosnian (Latin Script):Dijamant
Bulgarian:Диамант
Catalan:Diamant
Croatian:Dijamant
Czech:Diamant
Danish:Diamant
Dutch:Diamant
Esperanto:Diamanto
Estonian:Teemant
Faroese:Diamantar
Finnish:Timantti
French:Diamant
Galician:Diamante
Hebrew:יהלום
Hungarian:Gyémánt
Icelandic:Demantur
Indonesian:Intan
Italian:Diamante
Latvian:Dimants
Lithuanian:Deimantas
Lojban:krilytabno
Lombard:Diamaant
Macedonian:Дијамант
Malay:Berlian
Malayalam:വജ്രം
Marathi:हिरा
Mongolian (Cyrillic Script):Алмааз
Norwegian (Bokmål):Diamant
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Diamant
Persian:الماس
Polish:Diament
Portuguese:Diamante
Romanian:Diamant
Russian:Алмаз
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Дијамант
Serbo-Croatian:Dijamant
Simplified Chinese:金刚石
Slovak:Diamant
Slovenian:Diamant
Spanish:Diamante
Swahili:Almasi
Swedish:Diamant
Tagalog:Diyamante
Traditional Chinese:鑽石
Turkish:Elmas
Ukrainian:Алмаз
Vietnamese:Kim cương

Other Information

Some - blue, also phosphorescent
Electrical:
Triboelectric
Thermal Behaviour:
Greatest themal conductivity known. A sizeable stone held in the hand feels cold, hence the slang name "ice"
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Cutting and grinding due to extreme hardness. Used for window on Venera space craft to photograph Venus' surface.

References for Diamond

Reference List:
Goeppert, H.R. (1864) Ueber Einschlusse im Diamont. Haarlem: De Erven Loosjes.

Emmanuel, H. (1867) Diamonds and Precious Stones; Their History, Value, and Distinguishing Characteristics, 266pp., London.

Lindley, A.F., Capt. (1873) Adamantia - The Truth about the South African Diamond Fields. WH&L Collingridge, London.

Richmond, J.F. (1873) Diamonds, Unpolished and Polished. New York: Nelson & Phillips.

Dieulafait, Louis (1874) Diamonds and Precious Stones. London: Blackie & Son.

Reunert, Theodore (1893) Diamonds and Gold in South Africa. London: E. Stanford.

Bonney, T.G., Prof., editor (1897). Papers and Notes (of H.C. Lewis) on the Genesis and Matrix of the Diamond. Longmans, Green & Co., London, New York and Bombay.

Williams, Gardner F. (1902) The Diamond Mines of South Africa - Some Account of their Rise and Development.

Crookes, Wm. (1909) Diamonds. London; Harper Brothers, first edition.

Cattelle, W.R. (1911) The Diamond. New York, John Lane Co.

Fersmann, A. von and Goldschmidt, V. (1911) Der Diamant, 274pp. and atlas Heidelberg.

Smith, M.N. (1913) Diamonds, Pearls, and Precious Stones. Boston: Griffith-Stillings Press.

Laufer, berthold (1915) The Diamond - A Study in Chinese and Hellenistic Flklore. Chicago: Field Museum.

Wade, F.B. (1916) Diamonds - A Study of the Factors that Govern their Value. New York: Knickerbocker Press.

Sutton, J.R. (1928) Diamond, a descriptive treatise. 114 pp., London: Murby & Co..

Farrington, O.C. (1929) Famous Diamonds. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History Geology Leaflet 10.

Palache, C. (1932), American Mineralogist: 17: 360.

Williams, Alpheus F. (1932) The Genesis of the Diamond. 2 volumes, 636 pp. London.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 146-151.

Raman, C.V., Rendall, G.R. (1944) Birefringence patterns in diamond. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science, A19, 265-273.

Fersman, A.E. (1955) (A Treatise on the Diamond) Kristallgrafiya Almaza Redaktsiya Kommentarri Akadeika. Izdatelstvo Akademii: Nauk, CCCP.

du Plessis, J.H. (1961) Diamonds are Dangerous. New York: John Day Co., first edition.

Tolansky, S. (1962) The History and Use of Diamond. London: Methuen & Co.

Champion, F.C. (1963) Electronic Properties of Diamonds. Butterworths, London, 132pp.

Berman, E. (1965) Physical Properties of Diamond, Oxford, Clarendon Press

Van der laan, H.L. (1965) Te Sierra Leone Diamonds. Oxford: University Press.

McIver, J.R. (1966) Gems, Minerals and Diamonds in South Africa.

Lang, A.R. (1967) Causes of Birefringence in Diamond. Nature, 213, 248-251.

Chrenko, R., McDonald, R., and Darrow, K. (1967) Infra-red spectrum of diamond coat. Nature: 214: 474-476.

Meen, V.B. and Tushingham, A.D. (1968) Crown Jewels of Iran, University of Toronto Press, 159pp.

Lenzen, Godehard (1970) The History of Diamond Production and the Diamond Trade. New York: Praeger Pub.

Bardet, M.G. (1973-1977), Géologie du diamant, Volumes 1 thru 3, Orléans.

Giardini, A.A., Hurst, V.J., Melton, C.E., John, C., and Stormer, J. (1974) Biotite as a primary inclusion in diamond: Its nature and significance American Mineralogist: 59: 783-789.

Smith, N.R. (1974) User's Guide to Industrial Diamonds. London: Hutchinson Benham.

Prinz, M., Manson, D.V., Hlava, P.F., and Keil, K. (1975) Inclusions in diamonds: Garnet Iherzolite and eclogite assemblages Pysics and Chemistry of the Earth: 9: 797-815.

Treasures of the USSR Diamond Fund (1975) (in Russian with limited English).

Orlov, Y.L. (1977): The mineralogy of diamond. Wiley & Sons, 235 pp.

Bruton, Eric (1978) Diamonds. Radnor: Chlton 2nd. edition

Gurney, J.J., Harris, J.W., and Rickard, R.S. (1979) Silicate and oxide inclusions in diamonds from the Finsch kimberlite pipe. In F.R. Boyd and H.O.A. Meyer, Eds., Kimberlites, Diatremes and Diamonds: their Geology and Petrology and Geochemistry, Vol. 1: 1-15. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.

Pollak, Isaac, G.G. (1979) The World of the Diamond, 2nd. printing. Exposition Press, Hicksville, New York, 127 pp.

Legrand, Jacques, et al (1980) Diamonds Myth, Magic and Reality. Crown Publishers, Inc., New York.

Newton, C.M. (1980) A Barrel of Diamonds. New York: published by the author.

Devlin, Stuart (undated) From the Diamonds of Argyle to the Champagne Jewels of Stuart Devlin (Goldsmith to the Queen). Sing Lee Pfrinting Fty., Ltd. Hong Kong.

Lang, A.R. and Walmsley, J.C. (1983) Apatite inclusions in natural diamond coat. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 9: 6-8.

Milledge, H., Mendelssohn, M., Woods, P., Seal, M., Pillinger, C., Mattey, D., Carr, L., and Wright, I. (1984) Isotopic variations in diamond in relation to cathodluminescence. Acta Crystallographica, Section A: Foundations of Crystallography: 40: 255.

Sunagawa, I. (1984) Morphology of natural and synthetic diamond crystals. In I. Sunagawa, Ed., Materials Science of the Earth's Interior: 303-330. Terra Scientific, Tokyo.

Grelick, G.R. (1985) Diamond, Ruby, Emerald, and Sapphire Facts.

Meyer, H.O.A. and McCallum, M.E. (1986) Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Sloan kimberlites, Colorado. Journal of Geology: 94: 600-612.

Meyer, H.O.A. (1987) Inclusions in diamond. In P.H. Nixon, Ed., Mantle Xenoliths: 501-522. Wiley, New York.

Navon, O., Hutcheon, I.D., Rossman, G.R., and Wasserberg, G.J. (1988) Mantle-Derived Fluids in Diamond Microinclusions. Nature: 335: 784-789.

Sobolev, N.V. and Shatsky, V.S. (1990) Diamond inclusions in garnets from metamorphic rocks: a new environment for diamond formation. Nature: 343: 742-746.

Guthrie, G.D., Veblen, D.R., Navon, O., and Rossman, G.R. (1991) Submicrometer fluid inclusions in turbid-diamond coats. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 105(1-3): 1-12.

Harlow, G.E. and Veblen, D.R. (1991) Potassium in clinopyroxene inclusions from diamonds. Science: 251: 652-655.

Navon, O. (1991) High internal-pressures in diamond fluid inclusions determined by infrared-absorption. Nature: 353: 746-748.

Gems & Gemmology (1992): 28: 234-254.

Harris, J. (1992) Diamond Geology. In J. Field, Ed., The Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamonds, vol. 58A(A-K): 384-385. Academic Press, U.K.

Walmsley, J.C. and Lang, A.R. (1992a) On submicrometer inclusions in diamond coat: Crystallography and composition of ankerites and related rhombohedral carbonates. Mineralogical Magazine: 56: 533-543.

Walmsley, J.C. and Lang, A.R. (1992b) Oriented biotite inclusions in diamond coat. Mineralogical Magazine: 56: 108-111.

Harris, Harvey (1994) Fancy Color Diamonds. Fancoldi Registered Trust, Lichtenstein.

Schrauder, M. and Navon, O. (1994) Hydrous and carbonatitic mantle fluids in fibrous diamonds from Jwaneng, Botswana. Geochmica et Cosmochimica Acta: 58: 761-771.

Bulanova, G.P. (1995) The formation of diamond. Journal of Geochemical Exploration: 53(1-3): 1-23.

Shatsky, V.S., Sobolev, N.V., and Vavilov, M.A. (1995) Diamond-bearing metamorphic rocks of the Kokchetav massif (Northern Kazakhstan). In R.G. Coleman and X. Wang, Eds., Ultrahigh Pressure Metamorphism: 427-455. Cambridge University Press, U.K.

Marshall, J.M. (1996) Diamonds Magnified. Nappanee Evangel Press, second edition.

Schrauder, M., Koeberl, C., and Navon, O. (1996) Trace element analyses of fluid-bearing diamonds from Jwaneng, Botswana, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 60: 4711-4724.

Sobolev, N., Kaminsky, F., Griffin, W., Yefimova, E., Win, T., Ryan, C., and Botkunov, A. (1997) Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Sputnik kimberlite pipe, Yakutia. Lithos: 39: 135-157.

Navon, O. (1999) Formation of diamonds in the earth's mantle. In J. Gurney, S. Richardson, and D. Bell, Eds., Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference: 584-604. Red Roof Designs, Cape Town.

Taylor, L.A., Keller, R.A., Snyder, G.A., Wang, W.Y., Carlson, W.D., Hauri, E.H., McCandless, T., Kim, K.R., Sopbolev, N.V., and Bezborodov, S.M. (2000) Diamonds and their mineral inclusions, and what they tell us: A detailed "pull-apart" of a diamondiferous eclogite. International Geology Review: 42: 959-983.

Kaminsky, Felix V. and Galina K. Khachatryan (2001) Characteristics of nitrogen and other impurities in diamond, as revealed by infrared absorption data. Canadian Mineralogist: 39(6): 1733-1745.

Izraeli, E.S., Harris, J.W., and Navon, O. (2001) Brine inclusions in diamonds: a new upper mantle fluid. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 18: 323-332.

Kendall, Leo P. (2001) Diamonds Famous & Fatal, The History, Mystery & Lore of the World's Most Precious Gem, Baricade Books, Fort Lee, NJ, 236 pp. (IBN 1-56980-202-5)

Hermann, J. (2003) Experimental evidence for diamond-facies metamorphism in the Dora-Maira massif. Lithos: 70: 163-182.

Klein-BenDavid, O., Izraeli, E.S., and Navon, O. (2003a) Volatile-rich brine and melt in Canadian diamonds. 8th. International Kimberlite Conference, Extended abstracts, FLA_0109, 22-27 June 2003, Victoria, Canada.

Klein-BenDavid, O., Logvinova, A.M., Izraeli, E., Sobolev, N.V., and Navon, O. (2003b) Sulfide melt inclusions in Yubileinayan (Yakutia) diamonds. 8th. International Kimberlite Conference, Extended abstracts, FLA_0111, 22-27 June 2003, Victoria, Canada.

Logvinova, A.M., Klein-BenDavid, O., Izraeli E.S., Navon, O., and Sobolev, N.V. (2003) Microinclusions in fibrous diamonds from Yubilenaya kimberlite pipe (Yakutia). In 8th International Kimberlite Conference, Extended abstracts, FLA_0025, 22-27 June 2003, Victoria, Canada.

Navon, O., Izraeli, E.S., and Klein-BenDavid, O. (2003) Fluid inclusions in diamonds: the Carbonatitic connection. 8th International Kimberlite Conference, Extended abstracts, FLA_0107, 22-27 June 2003, Victoria, Canada.

Izraeli, E.S., Harris, J.W., and Navon, O. (2004) Fluid and mineral inclusions in cloudy diamonds from Koffiefontein, South Africa Geochmica et Cosmochimica Acta: 68: 2561-2575.

Klein-BenDavid, O., Izraeli, E.S., Hauri, E., and Navon, O. (2004) Mantle fluid evolution - tale of one diamond. Lithos: 77: 243-253.

Hwang, S.-L., Shen, P., Chu, H.-T., Yui, T.-F., Liou, J.G., Sobolev, N.V., and Shatsky, V.S. (2005) Crust-derived potassic fluid in metamorphic microdiamond. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 231: 295.

Klein-BenDavid, O., Wirth, R., and Navon, O. (2006) TEM imaging and analysis of microinclusions in diamonds: A close look at diamond-growing fluids. American Mineralogist: 91: 353-365.

J. Garai, S. E. Haggerty, S. Rekhi & M. Chance (2006): Infrared Absorption Investigations Confirm the Extraterrestrial Origin of Carbonado-Diamonds. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 653, L153-L156. [http://www.fiu.edu/~jgara002/research%20statement/carbonado/carbonado-2006.pdf]

J. J. Gurney, H. H. Helmstaedt, S. H. Richardson, and S. B. Shirey (2010): Diamonds through Time. Economic Geology 105, 689-712.

Tappert, R. & Tappert, M. C. (2011): Diamonds in Nature: a guide to rough diamonds. Springer, 142 pp.

Shkodzinsky V. S. (2011): Nature of different compositions of inclusions in diamond. Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society) 140, 92-99 (in Russian).

Steven B. Shirey and James E. Shigley (2013): Recent Advances in Understanding the Geology of Diamonds. Gems & Gemology 49, 188-222.

Nasdala, L., Grambole, D., Wildner, M., Gigler, A.M., Hainschwang, T., Zaitsev, A.M., Harris, J.W., Milledge, J., Schulze, D.J., Hofmeister, W. & Balmer, W.A. (2013): Radio-colouration of diamond: a spectroscopic study. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 165, 843–861.

Internet Links for Diamond

Specimens:
The following Diamond specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Diamond

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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