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Digenite

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Formula:
Cu9S5
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Grey to greyish black, ...
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
Named in 1844 by August Breithaupt from Greek διγενηζ digenus = of two origins, because it is related to chalcocite and covellite
Chalcocite-Digenite Group.

Note: Many of the reported associations of digenite and djurleite, identified by powder diffraction, could be anilite and djurleite, as anilite transforms to digenite during grinding.

A recent study showed the existence of a complete solid-solution series between high digenite [cubic, high-temperature digenite] and berzelianite (Pirard & Hatert, 2008).


Classification of Digenite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.BA.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au
2.4.7.3

2 : SULFIDES
4 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
3.1.3

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu

Occurrences of Digenite

Type Occurrence of Digenite

Physical Properties of Digenite

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Grey to greyish black, turning bluish on exposure to air
Streak:
Greyish black
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=86 - 106 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{111} on synthetic material
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
5.546 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.706 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Digenite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.92Å, c = 48Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 12.245
Unit Cell Volume:
V 638.77 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
15
Morphology:
Pseudocubic crystals (rare) to 3 cm, usually as intergrowths with other copper sulphides.
Comment:
Above 73°C, cubic with space group Fm-3m, a = 5.57 Å, Z = 4.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.21 (40)
3.05 (10)
2.79 (40)
2.17 (10)
1.973 (100)
1.686 (30)
1.139 (20)

Optical Data of Digenite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Mostly isotropic.
Colour in reflected light:
Blue

Chemical Properties of Digenite

Formula:
Cu9S5
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe

Relationship of Digenite to other Species

Structurally related to group(s):
2.BA.05ChalcociteCu2S
2.BA.05DjurleiteCu31S16
2.BA.05GeeriteCu8S5
2.BA.05RoxbyiteCu9S5
2.BA.10AniliteCu7S4
2.BA.15BorniteCu5FeS4
2.BA.20BellidoiteCu2Se
2.BA.20BerzelianiteCu2Se
2.BA.25AthabascaiteCu5Se4
2.BA.25UmangiteCu3Se2
2.BA.30RickarditeCu7Te5
2.BA.30WeissiteCu2-xTe
2.BA.35AcanthiteAg2S
2.BA.40MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
2.BA.40StromeyeriteAgCuS
2.BA.40dUM2003-13-S:AgAuCuAg6AuCu2S5
2.BA.45JalpaiteAg3CuS2
2.BA.45SelenojalpaiteAg3CuSe2
2.BA.50EucairiteAgCuSe
2.BA.55AguilariteAg4SeS
2.BA.55NaumanniteAg2Se
2.BA.60CervelleiteAg4TeS
2.BA.60HessiteAg2Te
2.BA.60ChenguodaiteAg9Fe3+Te2S4
2.BA.65Henryite(Cu,Ag)3+xTe2 , with x ~ 0.40
2.BA.65StütziteAg5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36
2.BA.70ArgyroditeAg8GeS6
2.BA.70CanfielditeAg8SnS6
2.BA.70Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6
2.BA.75FischesseriteAg3AuSe2
2.BA.75Penzhinite(Ag,Cu)4Au(S,Se)4
2.BA.75PetrovskaiteAuAg(S,Se)
2.BA.75PetziteAg3AuTe2
2.BA.75UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2
2.BA.80Bezsmertnovite(Au,Ag)4Cu(Te,Pb)
2.BA.80BilibinskitePbCu2Au3Te2
2.BA.80Bogdanovite(Au,Te,Pb)3(Cu,Fe)
3.1.1ChalcociteCu2S
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu9S5
3.1.6SpionkopiteCu39S28
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5
3.1.8CovelliteCuS
3.1.9BerzelianiteCu2Se
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2Se
3.1.11UmangiteCu3Se2
3.1.12YarrowiteCu9S8
3.1.13AthabascaiteCu5Se4
3.1.14KlockmanniteCuSe
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2
3.1.16WeissiteCu2-xTe
3.1.17RickarditeCu7Te5
3.1.18VulcaniteCuTe
3.1.19BambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2
3.1.20LautiteCuAsS
3.1.21MgriiteCu3AsSe3
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3
3.1.23BorniteCu5FeS4
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8
3.1.25ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
3.1.26MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
3.1.29IdaiteCu5FeS6
3.1.30NukundamiteCu3.4Fe0.6S4
3.1.31PutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2
3.1.32Orickite2CuFeS2 · H2O
3.1.33EskeborniteCuFeSe2
3.1.34Chaméanite(Cu,Fe)4As(Se,S)4
3.1.35TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16

Other Names for Digenite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Copper ore

References for Digenite

Reference List:
Breithaupt, A. (1844) Zwei neue Kupfer enthaltende Mineralien aus der Ordnung der Glanze.- Poggendorffs Annalen der Physik und Chemie: 61, 671-675.

American Mineralogist (1942): 27: 712-716.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 180-182.

American Mineralogist (1958): 43: 230-242.

Pósfai, M. & Buseck, P. R. (1994) Djurleite, digenite, and chalcocite: Intergrowths and transformations. American Mineralogist, 79, 308-315.

Pirard, C. & Hatert, F. (2008) The sulfides and selenides of the Musonoi Mine, Kolwezi, Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Canadian Mineralogist 46, 219-231.

Internet Links for Digenite

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http://www.mindat.org/min-1291.html
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Specimens:
The following Digenite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Digenite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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