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Dioptase

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Formula:
CuSiO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
System:TrigonalColour:Emerald Green, blue-green
Lustre:VitreousHardness:5
Name:Named in 1797 by Hauy from the Greek for "through" and "to see" in allusion to the visibility of internal cleavage planes.


Bright emerald-green modified rhombohedral crystals, usually less than 0.75 cm in size.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Dioptase. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Dioptase

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/E.21-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.CJ.30

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
J : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings (sechser-Einfachringe), without insular complex anions
Dana 7th edition ID:61.1.3.1
Dana 8th edition ID:61.1.3.1

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
1 : Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.2.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
2 : Silicates of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Dioptase

Type Locality:Altyn-Tyube dioptase deposit (Altyn-Tube), Altyn-Tyube area, Kirghiz Steppes (Asiatic Steppes), Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast'), Kazakhstan
Year of Discovery:1797
Geological Setting of type material:A secondary mineral in the oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Occurrences of Dioptase

Geological Setting:In the oxidized zone of some copper deposits.

Physical Properties of Dioptase

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Emerald Green, blue-green
Streak:Green
Hardness (Mohs):5
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {1011}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.28 - 3.35 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.296 g/cm3

Crystallography of Dioptase

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:R3
Cell Parameters:a = 14.566Å, c = 7.778Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.534
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,429.15 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:18
Morphology:Long to short prismatic [0001], dominant forms {1120}, and {0221}, {1341}.
Twinning:On {1011}, uncommon.
Crystal Atlas:
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Dioptase no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Dioptase no.17 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Structure
  Reference
Ribbe P H Gibbs G V Hamil M (1977) A refinement of the structure of dioptase, Cu6[Si6O18]*6H2O Note: sample is from Reneville, Congo. American Mineralogist 62:807-811.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
7.29 (80)
4.90 (40)
4.06 (40)
2.60 (100)
2.44 (40)
2.11 (50)
1.506 (40)
1.420 (50)

Optical Data of Dioptase

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.652 - 1.658 nε = 1.704 - 1.710
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.052

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:O>E

Chemical Properties of Dioptase

Formula:
CuSiO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:CuSiO3·H2O
Essential elements:Cu, H, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Cu, H, O, Si

Relationship of Dioptase to other Species

Common Associates:
WulfeniteQuartzMimetiteMalachiteHemimorphite
FluoriteChrysocollaCerussite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.CJ.05Bazzite
Be
 
3
Sc
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.05Beryl
Be
 
3
Al
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.05Indialite
Mg
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.05Stoppaniite
Be
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
) · H
 
2
O
9.CJ.10Cordierite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.10Sekaninaite
(Fe,Mg)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
5
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.15aCombeite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
 
0.5
9.CJ.15bImandrite
Na
 
12
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
 
2
9.CJ.15aKazakovite
Na
 
6
Mn
2+
 
Ti(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.15cKoashvite
Na
 
6
(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si
 
6
O
 
18
· H
 
2
O
9.CJ.15aLovozerite
Na
 
2
Ca(Zr,Ti)(Si
 
6
O
 
12
)[(OH)
 
4
O
 
2
] · H
 
2
O
9.CJ.15aTisinalite
Na
 
3
H
 
3
(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi
 
6
(O,OH)
 
18
· 2H
 
2
O
9.CJ.15aZirsinalite
Na
 
6
(Ca,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Zr(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.15aLitvinskite
Na
 
2
(◻,Na,Mn)ZrSi
 
6
O
 
12
(OH,O)
 
6
9.CJ.15aKapustinite
Na
 
5
(Na,Mn
2+
 
)
 
<1
Zr(H
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
9.CJ.25Baratovite
KCa
 
7
(Ti,Zr)
 
2
Li
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
36
F
 
2
9.CJ.25Katayamalite
KCa
 
7
Ti
 
2
Li
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
36
(OH)
 
2
9.CJ.25Aleksandrovite
KCa
 
7
Sn
 
2
Li
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
36
F
 
2
9.CJ.35Kostylevite
K
 
2
Zr(Si
 
3
O
 
9
) · H
 
2
O
9.CJ.40Petarasite
Na
 
5
Zr
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)(Cl,OH) · 2H
 
2
O
9.CJ.45Gerenite-(Y)
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(Y,REE)
 
3
Si
 
6
O
 
18
· 2H
 
2
O
9.CJ.50Odintsovite
K
 
2
Na
 
4
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
Be
 
4
Si
 
12
O
 
38
9.CJ.55Mathewrogersite
Pb
 
7
FeAl
 
3
GeSi
 
12
O
 
36
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
6
9.CJ.60Pezzottaite
Cs(Be
 
2
Li)Al
 
2
(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.2.2Shattuckite
Cu
 
5
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
14.2.3Plancheite
Cu
 
8
(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
4
· H
 
2
O
14.2.4Gilalite
Cu
 
5
Si
 
6
O
 
17
· 7H
 
2
O
14.2.5Chrysocolla
Cu
 
2-x
Al
 
x
(H
 
2-x
Si
 
2
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O (x < 1)
14.2.6Litidionite
CuNaKSi
 
4
O
 
10
14.2.7Reinhardbraunsite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
14.2.8Cuprorivaite
CaCu[Si
 
4
O
 
10
]
14.2.9Kinoite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
2
(H
 
2
O)
 
2
[Si
 
3
O
 
10
]
14.2.10Stringhamite
CaCu(SiO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
14.2.11Apachite
Cu
 
9
Si
 
10
O
 
29
· 11H
 
2
O

Other Names for Dioptase

Synonyms:
AchiriteAchriteAschiriteAshiriteDioptasite
Emerald-copperEmerald-malachiteEmeraudineKirghisiteKupfergrün crystallisirtes
Rhombohedral Emerald MalachiteSmaragdo-chalcite (of Mohs)
Other Languages:
Croatian:Dioptas
Dutch:Dioptaas
Finnish:Dioptaasi
French:Dioptase
German:Dioptas
Achirit
Achrit
Aschirit
Dioptasit
Kirghisit
Kupfer-Smaragd
Italian:Dioptasio
Polish:Dioptaz
Russian:Диоптаз
Аширит
Simplified Chinese:绿铜矿
Slovak:Dioptas
Spanish:Dioptasa
Achirita
Achrita
Aschirita
Dioptasita
Kirghisita
Traditional Chinese:綠銅礦

Pronounciation of Dioptase

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byFrom
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Non-fluorescent.
Electrical:Pyroelectric
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Dioptase

Reference List:

- +
Traite de Minéralogie: III: 477.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 239: 842-845.

Soviet Physics – Doklady: 23: 215-217.

Mindat.org articles about Dioptase

Article entries:
Visit to Altyn Tyube, KazakhstanJolyon & Katya Ralph

Best Localities for Dioptase

Best of Species:Dioptase

Internet Links for Dioptase

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Dioptase on Webmineral
  • Look for Dioptase on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Dioptase on Wikipedia
  • Look for Dioptase on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Dioptase details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
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  • Dioptase specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Buy from Dave Bunk Minerals
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  • Wilensky Fine Minerals
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  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • Search for Dioptase on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Specimens:The following Dioptase specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Dioptase

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Angola
     
    • Uíge Province
    www.socgeol.org/documents/type_1/BSGPXII0305.pdf
    Argentina
     
    • Córdoba
      • Colón Department
        • Dumesnil
    Colombo, F., Lira, R., Ripley, E. M., & del Tanago, J. G. (2011). Geology, mineralogy and possible origin of the copper mineralization in marble near Saldan, Cordoba (Argentina). Journal of GEOsciences, 56(3), 299-316.
      • Punilla Department
        • Tanti
    Marcelo O. Olsina collection
    Australia
     
    • Queensland
      • Tablelands Region
        • Chillagoe-Herberton District
    Haupt, J., 2012. Minerals from the Muldiva mines, Chillagoe, Queensland. Australia and New Zealand Micromineral News, 5, 12-24
    • South Australia
      • Olary Province
        • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station; Boolcoomatta)
    No reference listed
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Estrie
        • Les Sources RCM
          • Asbestos
    HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. and SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Sierra Gorda District
          • Caracoles
    R. S. W. Braithwaite et al.: Min. Mag. 68(3):527-539 (2004)
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Chuquicamata District
    maurizio dini collection
    • Atacama Region
      • Chañaral Province
        • El Salado
          • Cerro Negro district
    Uwe Kolitsch collection (SXRD-analysed)
    Sernageomin database 2005;Stgo de Chile
    [MinRec 10:123]
    Mr. Terry Szenics.
    maurizio dini collection - analysed material
      • Copiapó Province
        • Cachiyuyo de Llampos District
    Sample from the collection of Copiapó School of Mine
        • Garín Nuevo district
    Hède frédéric
        • Ligas Negras-Cuestecilla district
    Sernageomin database 2005;Stgo de Chile
        • Tierra Amarilla
          • Las Pintadas district
            • Cerro Pintado
    Mr. Terry Szenics; Maurizio Dini collection
      • Huasco Province
        • Vallenar
          • San Antonio district
    Morales A.(1920); "Informe preliminar sobre las minas del mineral de San Antonio, Enami, Stgo de Chile.; Morales A.(1920); "Informe preliminar sobre las minas del mineral de San Antonio", Enami, Stgo de Chile.
    China
     
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
        • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
    Jiyuan Zhou, Bingfang Cui, and Yan Lu (1999): Mineral Deposits 18(3), 209-218
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
    No reference listed
          • Krásno (Schönfeld)
    Petr Pauliš (2000): Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Čech, Kuttna, Kutná Hora
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
        • Javorník (Jauernig)
    Sejkora, J., Pauliš, P., Škoda, R.: Uranové ložisko Zálesí v Rychlebských horách. Minerál, 2007, roč. 15, č. 4, s. 305-238.
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
        • Kambove District
        • Kolwezi District
    [MinRec 22:13-20,28]
          • Mutoshi (Ruwe)
    Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992); Deliens, M. L (1989) Agardite-(y) De Mutoshi, Shaba, Zaire. Annales de la Societe Geolique de Belgique 112:207-213
    Jordi Fabre specimen
        • Shinkolobwe
    Mineralogical Record: 20: 287-288.
    No reference listed
      • Kipushi
    Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.
    France
     
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Hérault
        • Lodève
    [Le Règne Minéral 1997, 13, p.5-18]
    Germany
     
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Altenberg
    Mineralien-Welt, (2), 17-39.
    • Schleswig-Holstein
      • Plön
        • Grebin am See
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    Iran
     
    • Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province)
      • Nain County (Nayin County)
        • Anarak District
    P. Bariand and P. Herpin, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minér. Crist. , 1963, LXXXVI, pp. 133-135.
    • Kerman Province
      • Pariz
    K. J. Henley (1970) Cupriferous Sericite from the Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Ore, Kerman Province, Iran. Mineralogical Magazine 37:945-947.
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
          • Borzoli
    Giuseppe Pipino - L'antica miniera di Monte Ramazzo e i suoi minerali - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, vol. 8, fasc. 3, 1977; Bracco et al. (2009): Prie, 5, 17-22.
    • Piedmont
      • Torino Province
        • Canavese District
          • Chiusella Valley
            • Traversella
    Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, (10), 1-54.
    • Sardinia
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Domusnovas
          • Oridda
    Stara P., Rizzo R. and Tanca G. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e minerali. E.M.Sa. Ed., pagg. 105-106.
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Elba Island
          • Capoliveri
            • Cape Calamita Mine (Calamita Mine)
    L. Dell'Anna, C.L. Garavelli (1967) - Plancheite di Capo Calamita (Isola d'Elba) - Per. Min., 36: 126-146.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
        • Altyn-Tyube area
    [MinRec 23:495]; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    Mexico
     
    • Baja California (Baja California Norte; BC Norte)
      • Mun. de Ensenada
        • El Arco
    Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
        • Las Palomas
    Panczner(1987):159,181 & 259.
    • Durango
      • Mun. de San Dimas
        • San Dimas District
          • Tayoltita
    Panczner(1987):181,212.
    • Guadalajara-Nogales Highway
    Rob Lavinsky.
    • Sonora
      • Mun. de Alamos
        • Alamos
    Panczner (1987): 181 & 262.
      • Mun. de Hermosillo
        • Hermosillo
    Panczner (1987): 181.
    Morocco
     
    No reference listed
    • Meknès-Tafilalet Region
      • Er Rachidia Province (Errachidia Province)
        • Tarhbalt
          • Alnif
    Tom Praskier has been to the locality and confirmed dioptase with (unknown) tests
    Namibia
     
    • Kunene Region
      • Kaokoveld Plateau
    Brandstetter, R. (2012): Dioptas aus Namibia: Sensationelle Neufunde aus der Christoph Mine im Kaokoland. Lapis. 37 (1):13-15
    Niedermayr, G., Schnaitmann, E. A., Brandstätter, F. (2008): Das Dioptas-Shattuckit-Vorkommen Kandesei im Kakokoland [sic]. Mineralien-Welt 19, 76-93 (in German).; Bowell, R J et al (2013) Minerals of the Kaokoveld District, Kunene Region, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 44:485-504
    Schnaitmann, E. A. & Jahn, S. (2010): Mineralien aus Schürfen im Kaokoveld, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 78-90.
    Jakob, G. (1987): Reise zur Dioptas-Mine "Omaue" im Kaoko-Veld. LAPIS 12 (4), 11-14; Palfi, A. (2005): Spessartin- und Dioptas-Mineralisationen im Kaokoland, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 16 (4), 49-61 (in German). ; Bowell, R J et al (2013) Minerals of the Kaokoveld District, Kunene Region, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 44:485-504
    Schnaitmann, E. A. & Jahn, S. (2010): Mineralien aus Schürfen im Kaokoveld, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 78-90.
    Schnaitmann, E. A. & Jahn, S. (2010): Mineralien aus Schürfen im Kaokoveld, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 78-90.
    Niedermayr, G. & Schnaitmann, E. A. (2010): Neuigkeiten aus Namiba. Mineralien-Welt 21 (6), 89-96.
    - Brandstätter, F.; Niedermayr, G.; Schnaitmann,E. A.; Walter F. (2011): Neue Fundstelle in Namibia: Die Van-der-Plas-Mine im Kaokoland. Mineralien Welt 22 (5), 66-75.
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
      • Tsumeb
    [MinRec 19:117, 19:337, 8:Tsumeb 23/49/71, 7:133]
    • Otjozondjupa Region
      • Grootfontein District
    [MinRecord 28:124]
        • Kombat
    Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
    Am Min (1959) 44:682-685
    No reference listed
    Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern. (in German)
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
      • Manawatu-Wanganui
        • Tararua
          • Maharahara
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
      • Waikato
        • Thames-Coromandel
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    • South Island
      • Nelson
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
    Peru
     
    • Arequipa Department
      • Caraveli Province
    (specimens on sale in Lima, May 2004)
    • Ica Department
    Guido del Castillo (2004) Jewels of the Earth - Minerals of Peru.
      • Pampa Nazca
    Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 652; Mineralogical Record: 10: 180; Mineralogical Record: 16: 303.
    • Bouenza Department
    (Demetrius Pohl, http://www.mindat.org/mesg-6-234115.html )
      • M'Fouati District
    Demetrius Pohl, Mindat messageboard post, 2011.
        • M'Fouati
    Redpath Museum collection, McGill University, Montreal
    • Pool Department
      • Kindanba District
        • Renéville
          • Renéville Mine (Djoué Mines)
    Demetrius Pohl, http://www.mindat.org/mesg-6-234115.html
      • Mindouli District
    Rob Lavinsky
          • Kimbanga prospects (Kimbanga mine)
    Demetrius Pohl, field observations, 2011.
    Demetrius Pohl, field observations, 2011.
    Demetrius Pohl, field observations, 2011.
    (Demetrius Pohl, http://www.mindat.org/mesg-6-234115.html )
    Demetrius Pohl, http://www.mindat.org/mesg-6-234115.html
          • Pimbi hill
    Dan Weinrich specimen
    [MinRec 24:394]
    (Demetrius Pohl, http://www.mindat.org/mesg-6-234115.html )
    Romania
     
    • Bihor Co.
      • Nucet
    South Africa
     
    • Gauteng Province
      • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
    Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
    • North West Province
      • Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, pg 202;
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
    Minerals of South Africa
    T. Q. Meyer, W. A. van der Westhuizen, G. J. Beukes, H. de Bruiyn and A. E. Schoch (1986) An Occurrence of the Hydrous Lead-Copper-Iron Silicate Creaseyite in South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine 50:346-348
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Dragoon Mts
          • Johnny Lyon Hills
            • Tres Alamos Wash
    Robert Jenkins Raman Spectroscopy
        • Little Dragoon Mts
          • Cochise District
    Rolf Luetcke
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
    [MinRec 24:421]
    [MinRec 12:305]
      • Gila Co.
        • Dripping Spring Mts
          • Banner District
            • Christmas area
              • Christmas
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.; Eastlick, J.T., 1968, Geology of the Christmas mine and vicinity, Banner mining district, Arizona, in Ridge, J.D., ed., Ore Deposits of the United States, 1933?1967: American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc., p. 1191-1210.
    Chester S. Lemanski, Jr.
            • Hayden area
              • Chilito
    Keith, S.B. (1972), Mineralogy and paragenesis of the 79 mine lead-zinc-copper deposit, Min.Rec.: 3: 247-264.
        • Globe-Miami District
          • Miami-Inspiration District
            • Inspiration
              • Miami-Inspiration deposit
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.
        • Payson District (Green Valley District)
          • Birch Mesa
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 165, 205; Lausen, C. & E.D.Wilson (1925), Gold and copper deposits near Payson, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 120; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
          • Oxbow Estates area
            • Moore Mountain area
              • Oxbow Gulch
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205; Lausen, C. & E.D. Wilson (1925), Gold and copper deposits near Payson, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 120; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
      • Graham Co.
        • Galiuro Mts
          • Rattlesnake District
            • Copper Creek area
    MRDS database Dep. ID #10095423, MRDS ID #M050062.
      • Greenlee Co.
        • Shannon Mts
          • Copper Mountain District (Clifton-Morenci District)
            • Clifton
              • Chase Creek headwaters
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205; Hills, R.C. (1882), Dioptase from AZ, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 23: 325; Kunz, G.F. (1885), On remarkable copper minerals from AZ, Annals NY Acad. Sci.: 3: 275-278; Lindgren, W. & W.F. Hillebrand (1904), Minerals from the Clifton-Morenci district, AZ, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 18: 448-460; Lindgren, W. (1905), The copper deposits of the Clifton-Morenci district, AZ, USGS PP 43; Guild, F.N. (1910), The Mineralogy of Arizona, The Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
            • Garfield Gulch
    Dana, System of Mineralogy, 6th ed.: A2: 35.
    MRDS database Dep. ID #10048279, MRDS ID #M800403.
            • Morenci
    Merritt Stephen Enders (2000) The Evolution of Supergene Enrichment in the Morenci Porphyry Copper Deposit, Greenlee County, Arizona. PhD Thesis, University of Arizona
    MRDS database Dep. ID #10048276, MRDS ID #M800399.
            • Santa Rosa Gulch
    MRDS database Dep. ID #10048293, MRDS ID #M800427.
      • La Paz Co.
        • Buckskin Mts
          • Cienega District
            • Osborne Well
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.
          • Midway District
            • Mammoth-Chicago-Copper Glance Mine group
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
        • Harquahala Mts
    Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd Edition, John W. Anthohy et al, page 205
        • Little Harquahala Mts
          • Little Harquahala District
            • Salome
              • Martin Peak
                • Bonanza and Golden Eagle Mine group
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 232.
        • New Water Mts
    Hunt, W. (1983) Calciovolborthite from the New Water Mountains Yuma County, Arizona. Mineralogical Record 14:119
            • Moore Mine group
    [MinRec 14:119]
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Vulture Mts
          • Vulture District
      • Mohave Co.
        • Artillery Mts
          • Rawhide Wash
    MRDS file #10037093.
        • Cerbat Mts
          • Wallapai District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 173; Thomas, B.E. (1949), Ore deposits of the Wallapai district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 44:663-705; Searls, F. Jr. (1950), The Emerald Isle copper deposit, Econ.Geol.: 45:175-176; Newberg, D.W. (1967), Geochemical implications of chrysocolla-bearing alluvial gravels, Econ.Geol.: 62:932-956.
        • Cerbat Mts (Cerbat Range)
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205; Thomas, B.E. (1949), Ore deposits of the Wallapai district, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 44:663-705.
      • Pima Co.
        • Santa Rita Mts
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 205.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.:
      • Pinal Co.
        • Dripping Spring Mts
          • Mineral Creek District (Ray District)
    Jones, R.W. and W. E. Wilson. 1983. The Ray Mine. Mineralogical Record Vol. 14(5): 311-322.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206, 277.
            • Scott Mountain area
    Jones, R.W. & W.E. Wilson (1983), The Ray mine, Min.Rec.: 14(5): 311-322.
        • Galiuro Mts
          • Table Mountain District
            • Table Mountain area
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56; Simons, F.S. (1964), Geology of the Klondyke quadrangle, Graham and Pinal Cos., AZ, USGS PP 461; Rocks & Min.: 60(1): 5.
        • Mammoth District
          • Mammoth
            • Tucson Wash
    Van King
          • Tiger
            • St. Anthony deposit
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181; Galbraith, F.W. & T.H. Kuhn (1940), A new occurrence of dioptase in AZ, Am.Min.: 25: 708-710; Palache, C. (1941b), Diaboleite from Mammoth mine, Tiger, AZ, Am.Min.: 26: 605-612.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 83.
        • Pinal Mts
          • Pioneer District
            • Superior
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Barnes, R. & M. Hay (1983), Famous mineral localities: The Magma Mine, Min.Rec.: 14: 72-82; Min.Rec.: 20:69, 387; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 72; Wilson, E.D., et al (1950), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part I, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 156: 94.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Short, M.N., et al (1943), Geology and ore deposits of the Superior mining area, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 151; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
        • Riverside District
          • Riverside area
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96; Smith, W.B. (1887b), Dioptase from Pinal Co., AZ, Proc. CO Sci. Soc.: 2: 159-160.
        • Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation
          • Silver Reef District
            • Tat Momoli Mts
              • Silver Reef Mountains
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206.
          • Slate Mts
            • Casa Grande District
              • North Komelik area
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206.
      • Yavapai Co.
        • Black Rock District
          • Constellation
            • Amazon Wash
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 206; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 96.
      • Yuma Co.
    Andrew Haighton Collection
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
          • Kearsarge District [2]
            • Kearsarge
    Paul M. Adams (2003) Unusual vanadium minerals from the Green Monster Mine, Inyo County, California. Mineral News, 19, #8.
      • Mono Co.
        • Benton Range
          • Blind Spring District (Blind Spring Hill District; Benton District)
            • Benton
              • Blind Spring Hill
                • Buscones Peak
    Ransome, Alfred Leslie (1940), General geology and ores of the Blind Spring Hill mining district, Mono County, California, California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division Mines (Report 36): 36: 141; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 169.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Avawatz Mts (Avawatz Range)
          • Silver Lake District
            • Silver Lake
              • Silver Lake Mountain
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 169.
        • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
          • Clark Mountain District
            • Pactolus
              • Mohawk Hill
    [Mineralien Welt 1/93:44]
        • Soda Lake Mts
          • Baker
    Crowley, Jack A. (1977), Minerals of the Blue Bell mine, San Bernardino County, California. Mineralogical Record: 8: 495; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 514; Rocks and Minerals: 60(1): 8; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1198–1204, 2009; Mills, S. J., Kampf, A. R., Kolitsch, U., Housley, R. M. & Raudsepp, M. (2010) The crystal chemistry and crystal structure of kuksite, Pb3Zn3Te6+P2O14, and a note on the crystal structure of yafsoanite, (Ca,Pb)3Zn(TeO6)2. American Mineralogist, 95(7), 933–938.
          • Baker area
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 244.
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 119
    • Michigan
      • Ontonagon Co.
        • Mass City
    Rocks & Min.:58:112.
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Goodsprings District
          • Goodsprings
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    [Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
        • Spring Mts
          • Goodsprings District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    [Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
    [Hewett, D (1931) Geology and Ore Depositsof the Goodsprings Quadrangle, Nevada; USGS PP 162]
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Lander Co.
        • Battle Mountain District
    K. Starnes, personal ID, 1988
      • Lincoln Co.
        • Bristol and Jackrabbit Districts
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Andover Township
    Cummings, W. L., 2007, Personal communication
    • New Mexico
      • Grant Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. ed., 1996
      • Luna Co.
        • Cooks Peak District (Cooke's Peak District)
          • Old Hadley (Graphic) Mining District
    Walstrom 2006 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
        • Victorio District
    Walstrom 2006 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
      • Otero Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Pennsylvania
      • Adams Co.
        • Gettysburg
    Rocks & Minerals 81:229-234
    • Utah
      • Juab Co.
    Dmitry Stepanenko collection
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Mashonaland West
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
      • Makonde District (Lomagundi District)
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 44.; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
    • Matabeleland North
      • Hwange District
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 44.
    • Midlands
      • Gokwe North District
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 93.
      • Kwekwe District (Que Que District)
    Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 44.
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